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Homework 4

Qn.1 what is a computer network?


A computer network is a group of computer systems and other computing hardware devices
that are linked together through communication channels to facilitate communication and
resource-sharing among a wide range of users

Qn.2 Discuss the different types of networks


There are several different types of computer networks. Computer networks can be
characterized by their size as well as their purpose;

I. Personal Area Network

A personal area network, or PAN, is a computer network organized around an individual


person within a single building. This could be inside a small office or residence. A typical PAN
would include one or more computers, telephones, peripheral devices, video game consoles and
other personal entertainment devices.

This type of network provides great flexibility. For example, it allows you to:

Send a document to the printer in the office upstairs while you are sitting on the couch
with your laptop.
Upload a photo from your cell phone to your desktop computer.
Watch movies from an online streaming service to your TV.

II. Local Area Network


A local area network, or LAN, consists of a computer network at a single site, typically an
individual office building. A LAN is very useful for sharing resources, such as data storage and
printers. LANs can be built with relatively inexpensive hardware, such as hubs, network adapters
and Ethernet cables

III. Metropolitan Area Network


A metropolitan area network, or MAN, consists of a computer network across an entire city,
college campus or small region. A MAN is larger than a LAN, which is typically limited to a
single building or site. Depending on the configuration, this type of network can cover an area
from several miles to tens of miles.

A MAN is often used to connect several LANs together to form a bigger network. When this
type of network is specifically designed for a college campus, it is sometimes referred to as a
campus area network, or CAN.

IV. Wide Area Network


A wide area network, or WAN, occupies a very large area, such as an entire country or the
entire world. A WAN can contain multiple smaller networks, such as LANs or MANs. The
Internet is the best-known example of a public WAN.

Qn. 3 Explain the different communication protocols


I. Controller Area Network

CAN or Controller Area Network or CAN-bus is an ISO standard computer network protocol
and bus standard, designed for microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other
without a host computer.

Designed earlier for industrial networking but recently more adopted to automotive applications,
CAN have gained widespread popularity for embedded control in the areas like industrial
automation, auto motives, mobile machines, medical, military and other harsh environment
network applications.

II. SCSI Small Computer System Interface


SCSI Small Computer System Interface is a parallel interface standard used
by Apple Macintosh computers, PCs, and many UNIX systems for attaching peripheral devices
to computers. Almost all Apple Macintosh computers, excluding some of the earliest Macs and
the recent iMac, came with a SCSI port for attaching devices such as disk drives and printers.
SCSI interfaces provide for faster data transmission rates (up to 80 megabytes per second) than
standard serial and parallel ports.
III. USB Universal Serial Bus
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a set of interface specifications for high speed wired
communication between electronics systems peripherals and devices with or without
PC/computer.

IV. SPI Serial Peripheral Interface


Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a 4-wire full-duplex synchronous serial data link:
SCLK: Serial Clock
MOSI: Master Out Slave in -Data from Master to Slave
MISO: Master in Slave out -Data from Slave to Master
SS: Slave Select

SPI is a synchronous protocol that allows a master device to initiate communication with a slave
device. Data is exchanged between these devices.