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# Building Technology 2:

BUILDING STRUCTURES
(ARCH3064)
External applied forces

Static Dynamic

settlement,
thermal
effects, etc.
Forces due to
settlement,
thermal
settlement,
thermal
effects, etc.
settlement,
thermal
effects, etc.
Forces due to
settlement,
thermal
Forces due to
settlement,
thermal
Forces due to
settlement,
thermal
Forces due to
settlement,
thermal
External applied forces

Static Dynamic

settlement,
thermal
Occupancy Self-weight of effects, etc. Earthquake
structure
Environmental Wind
Fixed bldg.
elements
External applied forces
P P w
P w

P
Units: kN (KiloNewton) Units: kN/m
1 kN = 1000 Newtons (KiloNewton / meter)

F
= r

M= F x r
M

## Units: kN/m2 Units: kN-m

(KiloNewton/sq.meter) (KiloNewton-m)
Tension elements fail
by pulling apart

Short compression
Tension
or
crushing Membrane forces (EXTERNAL FORCES)
Compression Long compression
elemens fail by
buckling
Membrane stresses

## Axial forces act along Tension/compression

stresses uniformly
length of element to distributed
either pull apart or
compress.

INTERNAL FORCES

STRESSES

DEFORMATION
(EXTERNAL FORCES)

Bending stresses
INTERNAL FORCES
perpendicular to
beam cross section.
Bending Highest stresses at
top and bottom,
varying from
Transverse forces compression to
tension.
cause internal bending
moments

STRESSES

DEFORMATION
(EXTERNAL FORCES)

INTERNAL FORCES

STRESSES

Vertical
shear Shear stresses act
parallel to cross
section, maximum at
Horizontal
center and zero at
shear
top and bottom.
Transverse forces
cause parts of
structure to shear
(slide) wrt each other.

DEFORMATION
(EXTERNAL FORCES)

INTERNAL FORCES

STRESSES

DEFORMATION
Torsion

## Other considerations Bearing

Deflections
Arches and Cables
are
Funicular Structures Structures shaped in a
way that only a state of
tension or compression
Funicular Shapes

## Catenary shape formed by a suspended cable

supporting just its own weight

## shape formed by a suspended cable

Parabola supporting a uniformly distributed load

## Straight-line shape formed by a suspended

cable supporting supporting point
Funicular Shapes in tension

## SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS
CABLE-NET SYSTEMS
CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS

## Gravity loads distributed to deck.

suspension cable structures Tension cables transfer vertically
from deck to main cables.

## Tension forces carried by main

cables to mast.
compression to ground
Cable counterbalances horizontal
forces to ground

Class discussion:
Tsing Ma Bridge How and why is minimum structure and
high structural efficiency achieved?
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS

## Stability issues: wind live load

Uplift
Vibration
Frequency / Period of vibration
London Millenium Bridge
Resonance Image source:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mill.
bridge.from.tate.modern.arp.jpg

Class discussion:
Definition of terms
Examination of causes of instability
and vibration
Discussion of different options for

## Tacoma Narrows Bridge

Image source:
http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=198844
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
VIDEO:
Opening day vibration
http://www.londonmillenniu
mbridge.com/

VIDEO:
Opening day vibration
tch?v=gQK21572oSUhttp://w
ww.londonmillenniumbridge.
com/ London Millenium Bridge
Image source:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mill.
Source: bridge.from.tate.modern.arp.jpg
http://www.londonmil
lenniumbridge.com/

VIDEO:
Tacoma Narrows
Bridge collapse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
File:Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge
_destruction.ogg

## Tacoma Narrows Bridge

Image source:
http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=198844
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Cable Sag
Sag is the overall depth of a cable
throughout its span
A larger sag results in
- smaller tension forces in cable
(smaller diameter cable)
- but longer cable
- and longer mast (which need to be
wider to prevent buckling)
Optimum sag-span ratio sag
Actual typical sag-span ratio
1:8 to 1:10

span
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Guy resists horizontal thrust

Mast resists
vertical thrust
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Railway Station, Ulm

Image source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ulm_station_
building.jpg
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring
Hall 26, Hanover

## Image source: http://www.archistructura.net/bldgs/614/index_en.html

SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring
Beijing South railway station
Beijing, China
Source: The Arup Journal 1/2011

Source: The Arup Journal 1/2011 Source: The Arup Journal 1/2011
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena

Photo credit: Yoshito Isono, Structurae
Source: http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=108233
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Mast resists vertical

force by compression
and horizontal thrust
by bending and shear
through enlarged
base.
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Dulles International Airport,

Washington DC
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Burgo Paper Mill, Italy

Photo credit: Yoshito Isono, Structurae
Source: http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=52725
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Portuguese Pavilion, Lisbon

Photo credit: Inge Kanakaris-Wirtl , Structurae
Source: http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=52725
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Federal Reserve Bank, Minneapolis

Photo credit: Yoshito Isono, Structurae
Source: http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=52725
SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS
Strategies for absorbing horizontal component of
thrust at the ends of main cables:
Guyed mast or A-frame support
Pier moment/shear support
Compression strut/truss/ring

## Compression ring for

Funicular Shapes in tension

## SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS
CABLE-NET SYSTEMS
CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS
DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS

## If the weight of roofing is

insufficient to resist uplift.

## Double-cable-systems can help to

prevent uplift and flutter
DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS
Pretensioned cables
Compression struts
Tie-back cables to counteract pull of
pretensioned cables

## In this scheme both tension ties and compression

struts are necessary
Class discussion:
What would you say
In radial schemes, compression rings are scheme over the
used to counteract the pretensioned cables others?
DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS

David L. Lawrence
Convention Center,
Pittsburgh

Source:
Architectural Record, 192(5), pp.154-159, (May), 2004
DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS

in continuous bays

DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS

## Hall 8/9, Hanover, Germany

DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS

## Stress-Ribbon Roof Structures of the New Stuttgart Trade Fair

Exhibition Halls
Source: Structural Engineering International 1/2007
DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS

## Stress-Ribbon Roof Structures of the New Stuttgart Trade Fair

Exhibition Halls
Source: Structural Engineering International 1/2007
Stress-Ribbon Roof Structures of the New Stuttgart Trade Fair
Exhibition Halls
Source: Structural Engineering International 1/2007
Funicular Shapes in tension

## SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS
CABLE-NET SYSTEMS
CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS
CABLE-NET SYSTEMS

## Cable net systems will be discussed in a

subsequent lecture on membrane structures as
their structural action/behaviour is similar
Funicular Shapes in tension

## SUSPENSION CABLE SYSTEMS

DOUBLE-CABLE SYSTEMS
CABLE-NET SYSTEMS
CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS
CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS

Mast
Cable
Beam/truss
Cables provide intermediate supports to the
horizontal beam/truss breaking it down to smaller
spans (therefore a shallower beam/truss is needed)

## Providing more cables results in even shorter spans

and therefore even shallower beams.
CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS

Class discussion:

## Do you notice the difference in

topology among these three cable-
stayed structures?

## What are the structural implications of

these differences?
Pasco-Kennewick bridge,
Washington State

Events Venue by
Apicella Architecture,
Bents Park, South
Shields

## Rhine River Bridge,

Germany
Commercial Lab,
Princeton, NJ
Source:
Progressive Architecture
August 1985
Renault Building,
Swindon, Wiltshire
Source:
http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/renault-distribution-centre/
Multi-story building,
Vancouver, BC
Alamillo Bridge,
Spain

http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Alamillo_Bridge#Structure
Trinity Footbridge,
England
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trinity_Bridge_and_The_Lowry_Hotel_-
_geograph.org.uk_-_332243.jpg

## Image credit: Steve Fareham

CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS
Achieving counterbalance through.

Symmetry: Tie-back
Cables:

Moment resisting
piers:

## Alamillo Bridge, Spain

CABLE-STAYED SYSTEMS
How tie-backs are anchored to ground

## Gravity Plate Mushroom

anchor anchor anchor

## Retaining Tension Ground

wall anchor piles anchor
ARCHES
Rialto Bridge,
Venice, Italy

above the arch result in
compression forces
along arch.

## Horizontal and vertical

thrust is resisted in the
BLOCK ARCH foundation

Coloseum
Arch Profile
Arches with lower profile tend to have larger
compression forces resulting in larger
horizontal thrust.

## Back Bay Station, Boston, Massachusetts Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland

RIGID FIXED TWO-HINGED THREE-HINGED
ARCH ARCH ARCH
Differential settlement

## RIGID FIXED TWO-HINGED THREE-HINGED

ARCH ARCH ARCH

Rigid fixed arches tend Hinges at the end allow Hinges in this arch allow
to develop large bending rotation and lessens rotation therefore very
moments if differential induced bending little bending moment is
settlement occurs. moments except at induced.
crown.
Temperature expansion/contraction

## RIGID FIXED TWO-HINGED THREE-HINGED

ARCH ARCH ARCH

Rigid fixed arches tend Hinges at the end allow Hinges in this arch allow
to develop large bending rotation and lessens rotation therefore very
moments if temperature induced bending little bending moment is
expansion/contraction moments except at induced.
occurs. crown.
Deflection control

## RIGID FIXED TWO-HINGED THREE-HINGED

ARCH ARCH ARCH

Rigid fixed arches are Less stiff than fixed Hinges in this arch
very stiff and have little arches and deflect a little reduces stiffness making
deflection more it most prone to
deflection.
Resisting horizontal thrust

With buttresses

## With tension ties

Salginatobel Bridge,
Pont d Austerlitz, Switzerland
Paris

## Waterloo international Terminal

Exhibition & Congress Bldg, London
Austria
Gymnasium, Indiana
Source:
http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/Image/GoddenB29
Switzerland
Source:
http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/Image/GoddenB51

## Back Bay Station,

Boston, Massachusetts
Research
Laboratory, Italy

Oudry-Mesly Bridge,
Paris Fremont Bridge,
Oregon
Elizabeth Quay
Pedestrian & Cylcist
Bridge, Australia

Rainbow Bridge,
China
Rainbow Bridge,
China
MEMBRANE STRUCTURES
MEMBRANE STRUCTURES

## PNEUMATIC TENT & NET

STRUCTURES STRUCTURES

## Membranes stabilized by Membranes stabilized by

internal air pressure prestressing or stretching

## Membranes are thin flexible

through tension stresses
PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES

AIR-INFLATED AIR-SUPPORTED
STRUCTURES STRUCTURES

## Space between Entire internal

dual membranes volume
pressurized pressurized

## HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM

(internal air pressure only slightly
higher than atmospheric pressure)
AIR-INFLATED AIR-SUPPORTED
STRUCTURES STRUCTURES
AIR-INFLATED AIR-SUPPORTED
STRUCTURES STRUCTURES

## Openings can be placed more randomly Can span greater distances

Greater acoustic and thermal control Easy to transport, quick erection
Deployment easier Requires continuous air input
No air seal required Needs air sealing (limits placement
Inflation rapid of openings)
Extensions easy with segments Extensions are not convenient
Higher pressure needed Low cost, short life span (7-10 yrs)
PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES

Airtecture Hall
Festo
http://www.tensinet.com/database/viewProject/3753

## Transportable Maintenance Enclosure

Happold
Source: http://brainport.bwk.tue.nl/wp-
shelters_CORRECTED.pdf
PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES

## Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2006

Rem Koolhaas & Cecil Balmond, w/ Arup
Photo credit: John Offenbach
Source:
http://www.serpentinegallery.org/2012/01/Rem_Koolhaas_serpe
ntine_pavilion_2006.html
The Eden Project
PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES

Source:http://www.eden-project.net/

## Eden Project photo Grimshaw

http://www.e-
architect.co.uk/images/jpgs/england/eden_project_g240209_g
rimshaw.jpg
Building form on irregular and continuously changing site ETFE
(Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene,
flourine based plastic)

http://www.wonders- http://www.outbacktravelaustralia.co
world.com/2011/05/amazing-pollen-grains- m.au/4wd-mods-tech-
under-microscope.html torque/nanotubes-explained
vs double glazing

ETFE ETFE is
(Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, 7 time size of glass
flourine based plastic) 1% weight of double glazing

Larger pillows

Less structure
(steel)

## More transparency Lighter structure

More sunlight
Less heating needed
Less foundation
PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES
Beijing National Aquatics Center

Source:http://www.arup.com/Projects/Chinese_National_Aquatics_Cen
ter/WaterCube_overview_1.aspx
Water Cube Multiple versions vs Self-organizing : Genetic algorithms

## Parametric software used that automated the

drawing and analysis process.

## Iterative check on the distribution of forces

through the entire structure based on
scenarios, specific member sizes, which
allowed testing of different design
configurations and feedback within 25 min.

Structure is optimized in
terms of material weight-to-
strength ratio.

## Estimated savings of \$10

million on design costs alone
design methods.

Image credits:

Source:

## Photo credit: Julien Silva

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BC_Place_Vancouver.jpg
Typical membrane joints
RF sealed or heat bonded seam
Mechanical joint with bolted clamps

supporting cable

Membrane sealed
with angle and
anchor bolt

Catenary cables
anchored to
concrete
foundation
Effects of Wind
Suction

by embankment

Suction

## Internal pressure must

be sufficient to
counteract pressure

## High profile structure

TENTS & NETS
(Stretched membranes)
SURFACE CURVATURE
ANTICLASTIC FORMS
- Reverse double
curvature
- Tension forces concave
upward are stabilized by
tension forces concave
downward.
- This helps support both
and prevent flutter.

## Increased curvature results in

If surface is flatter. stiffer membrane and less
The membrane is less stiff and larger tension forces
are required to resist the loads.
PRESTRESS

## Prestress is an initial prescribed tension stress in the membrane to make it

stiffer and more stable upon application of loads.

## Insufficient prestess leads to a less

stable membrane and prone to flutter.

## Larger prestress prevents flutter from

occurring.
Anticlastic shapes: Hyperbolic Paraboloids

Munich

## Stellar wave tent,

Saudi Arabia
Class Discussion points:
- High and low points
- Achieving anticlastic shape
- Catenary edge and edge cable
- Counterbalancing Chingcousy Park Brampton, Canada
Source: http://apps.formfinder.at/pf-mainplayer/?jumpid=1868
Celebration Park, Texas
http://apps.formfinder.at/pf-mainplayer/?jumpid=1867
Stellar wave tent
Saudi Arabia
Surface tension stresses develops in
membrane due to pretestress, and loads.

## Tension in membrane taken up by

catenary edge cable which also
develops tension and transfers force to
top of mast and foundation.

compression.

## Tie back cables in tension counterbalance

the horizontal pull on mast Stellar wave tent,
Saudi Arabia
Dancing Befooz Jevpatorija, Russian Federation
Source: http://apps.formfinder.at/pf-mainplayer/?jumpid=1894
Mitchell Center
Woodlands, Texas
Source:
http://www.denardis.com/horstberger/mitch
ellhb.html

## Class Discussion points:

- High and low points
- Achieving anticlastic shape
- Catenary edge and edge cable
- Counterbalancing
Franklin Park Zoo Tropical Pavilion,
Dorchester, MA
Anticlastic shapes: Conical

## Folkestone Chunnel Terminal, England

Hajj Terminal
Jeddah Intl Airport , Saudi Arabia
Hajj Terminal
Jeddah Intl Airport , Saudi Arabia
Source:
https://archrecord.construction.com/features/aiaAwards/10_25yearAward/thumb.jpg
Class Discussion points:
- High and low points
- Achieving anticlastic
shape
- Catenary edge and
edge cable
- Counterbalancing
Surface tension stresses
develops in membrane due to

## Tension in membrane taken

up by catenary edge cable
which also develops tension
and transfers force to mast.

## Tension in membrane taken

up by tension ring and
transfers force to mast.

## Mast transfers force to

ground in compression and
resists horizontal forces with
rigid frame.
Folkestone Chunnel Terminal, England
Karsiyaka Nikah Salonu, Turkey
Source: http://apps.formfinder.at/pf-mainplayer/?jumpid=1839
Zhongshan symbolic tower
Source:
http://www.fstructures.com/2006/12/13/tensile_architecture_shenzhen_xinwangjiao.html
Anticlastic shapes: Pointed

## La Verne College Campus Center and Drama Lab, California

Cutty Sark Clipper Ship
Greenwich, London
Source:
http://www.bakoko.jp/87513/796002/works/cutty-sark-pavilion
Anticlastic shapes: Round humped

## Lamella support for humped tent

Anticlastic shapes: Ridge-humped

## San Diego Convention Center

California
M & G Research Laboratory
Italy
Source:
http://www.livbit.com/article/2010/08/30/mg-research-laboratory-in-italy/
Stage Cover Burgas, Bulgaria
Source: http://apps.formfinder.at/pf-mainplayer/?jumpid=1846
Supersplash Hansapark Sierksdorf, Germany
Source: http://apps.formfinder.at/pf-mainplayer/?jumpid=1843
Beaufort Community School
Gloucester
Climbing Centre, Queens University
Belfast
Source:
http://www.basestructures.com/projects/exterior/qub.html
San Diego Convention Center
California
Source:
http://www.structuremag.org/article.aspx?articleID=553

Source:
http://www.denardis.com/horstberger/sandiegohb.html
Membrane Material
Coatings: PVC, Silicon or Teflon

## Sub-strait: woven elements of polyester or glass

1. PVC coated polyester (polyvinylchloride)
- least expensive, design life of 15 to 20 years, demountable, many colors
2. Silicon coated glass
- much higher tensile strength, brittle, 30+ year design life, good self cleaning
properties
3. Teflon coated glass P.T.F.E. (polytetrafluroethylene).
- expensive, excellent self cleaning properties, difficult to handle (bruises).
Surface Edges & Corners

Edge cables in
membrane pockets

## Aluminum clamps and bolt ropes to

connect membranes
Cables

## Typical cable sections

Typical cable terminations
How tie-backs are anchored to ground

## Gravity Plate Mushroom

anchor anchor anchor

## Retaining Tension Ground

wall anchor piles anchor
Building Technology 2:
BUILDING STRUCTURES
(ARCH3064)
Beams
Bending stresses
perpendicular to beam
cross section.
Bending Highest stresses at
top and bottom,
varying from
Transverse forces cause compression to
tension.
internal bending
moments
Bending & Shear

Vertical
shear Shear stresses act
parallel to cross
section, maximum at
Horizontal
center and zero at top
shear
and bottom.
Transverse forces cause
parts of structure to
shear (slide) wrt each
other.
Bending stresses
perpendicular to beam
cross section.
Bending Highest stresses at
top and bottom,
varying from
Transverse forces cause compression to
tension.
internal bending
moments

Beam deflection

Bending moment
diagram.

## Bending moment (and

Maximum sagging moment
therefore bending stresses)
vary along length of beam.
Bending stresses
perpendicular to beam
cross section.
Bending Highest stresses at
top and bottom,
varying from
Transverse forces cause compression to
tension.
internal bending
moments

## I = Area Moment of Inertia

of a beam section.

## (Measures the beams ability to resist bending.

The larger the Moment of Inertia the less the
beam will bend. )
Hong Kong Club
Image source:
http://www.somague.pt/site/shownews.asp
?idn=736&lg=en

## The New Most Holy Trinity Church

Sanctuary of Faitima
Portugal

Image source:
http://static.urbarama.com/photos/medium/
412.jpg
Source::
The New Most Holy Trinity Church
Sanctuary of Faitima
Portugal
Structural Engineering International
3/2010
Frames
Post & beam Rigid frame Two-hinge frame

## Three-hinge portal Three-hinge portal

Post & beam Rigid frame Two-hinge frame

Examples
of Rigid and
Pinned
connections

Examples
of Rigid and
Pinned
connections

## Structures, by Daniel Schodek

S.R. Crown Hall
Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT)
Chicago, Illinois

Munson-Willams-Proctor Institute,
Utica, New York
Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts
Norwic, UK

British Pavilion
Seville Expo

Kemper Arena
Kansas City
Stockley Park Offices
England
Norman Foster
Terminal 5
London Heathrow

Images source:
Steve McKechnie, Terminal 5, London Heathrow,
The Arup Journal 2/2006
Trusses
TRUSS Linear elements assembled together in a combination of
DEFINITION: triangles to form a rigid framework.
Elements are assumed to be pin connected at the nodes.
Loads & supports are assumed to act at the node points.
Elements are in either tension or compression only.

## Triangulation maintains rigidity and shape

TRUSS Linear elements assembled together in a combination of
DEFINITION: triangles to form a rigid framework.
Elements are assumed to be pin connected at the nodes.
Loads & supports are assumed to act at the node points.
Elements are in either tension or compression only.

TRUSS Linear elements assembled together in a combination of
DEFINITION: triangles to form a rigid framework.
Elements are assumed to be pin connected at the nodes.
Loads & supports are assumed to act at the node points.
Elements are in either tension or compression only.

A truss provides depth with less material than a beam
It can use small pieces
Light open appearance (if seen)
Many shapes possible

Much more labour in the joints
More fussy appearance, beams have cleaner lines
Needs more lateral support
TRUSS Linear elements assembled together in a combination of
DEFINITION: triangles to form a rigid framework.
Elements are assumed to be pin connected at the nodes.
Loads & supports are assumed to act at the node points.
Elements are in either tension or compression only.

## Incorporation of building services into truss interstitial space

ducts lighting
piping/wiring
TYPICAL TRUSS TYPES

2D or Planar trusses

3D One-way trusses

Space trusses
TYPICAL TRUSS TYPES

BOW
PARALLEL CHORD

ARCHED

LENTICULAR

FRAMED
CAMBERED

SCISSORS

## External Forces: LOADS & REACTIONS

Roller
Hinge support
support
Support Support
reactions reactions

## Internal Forces: ELEMENT FORCES

T T
Tension & Compression
Internal forces develop Roller
Hinge In each truss element support
support
Support Support
reactions reactions
Equilibrium of truss
Equilibrium of joints/sections
Digital-based analysis

T T
Tension & Compression
Internal forces develop Roller
Hinge In each truss element support
support
Support Support
reactions reactions
Qualitative Analysis Imagine potential
deformation
Shortened elements in
compression

Lengthened elements
in tension

Imagine potential
deformation

Lengthened elements in
tension

Shortened elements in
compression
Variation of moment along truss
Effect of depth (and variation of depth) on the distribution
and variation of tension and compression forces
TRUSS STABILITY ISSUES
Use of cables as elements

## Unstable as cables Use of cross cables

Buckle because unable is a typical solution
to take compression

## Lateral bracing for one-way planar trusses

TRUSS STABILITY ISSUES
Compression chord buckling

To prevent this:

## -Floor/roof plates can

brace the upper chords

-Secondary elements
can brace the upper
chords

## -Wider upper chord

sections can resist
buckling

- Use of 3D trusses
Aquatics Centre
London

Source:
Thomas Lane, The big lift: the 2012 Olympics aquatics centre
gets a roof, Building, 27 March 2009.
Kansai International Airport
Source:
The ArtScience Museum The Marina Bay Sands Special Issue, Arup Journal, 2012,
Issue 1
Source:
The Marina Bay Sands Special Issue, Arup Journal, 2012,
Issue 1
Source:
The Marina Bay Sands Special Issue, Arup Journal, 2012,
Issue 1
Arganzuela helicoidal bridge
Manzanares River
Truss vs Vierendeel
The Hamburg Boomerang

Commerzbank
Frankfurt
The Hamburg Boomerang
Image credits:
Structural Engineering International 1/2007
Plate & shell structures, spatial structures
Introduction
Plate & grid structures
Vertical load flow: Through one-way plate structures

## One-way solid slab

Vertical load flow: Through one-way plate structures

Ribbed plates provide greater depth than flat plates and are
ideal for larger spans.
Vertical load flow: Through two-way plate structures
Vertical load flow: Through two-way plate structures

## Waffle slabs provide greater depth than flat

plates and are ideal for larger spans.
Two-way plate structures

## Two-way load transfer from slab to beam.

Beam-like action (bending & shear) of slab in direction
indicated.
Positive (sagging) moment occurs at center of slab while
Two-way slab on beams negative (hogging) moment occurs over beams.

## Two-way load transfer from plate to columns.

Beam-like action (bending & shear) of plate in direction
indicated.
Two-way flat plate Positive (sagging) moment occurs at center of plate while
negative (hogging) moment occurs over columns.
Two-way plate structures

## With much larger spans, space frames provide the

needed increased depth for the larger bending moments
while utilizing minimal structural material.
Triangulation ensures primarily only tension and shear in
individual elements.

## Top and bottom chords take the main tension and

compression forces.
Two-way plate structures
Punching shear is a danger in
thin flat plates at the column
supports.
Drop panels may be used to
thicken the plate around the
column to help resist punching
shear.
be placed together with drop
panels also to help resist punching
shear. Casa Di Musica
Drop panels and column capitals
also help to reduce the clear span
of the slab between columns (for
thinner slabs)
Steel shear heads may also be
embedded in slab so as to
eliminate the need for drop panels.
Pierre Luigi Nervi Lloyds London
Two-way plate structures

## Similarly, in space frames, raking (sloping) elements to

columns or walls ensure a better transfer of forces from
the distributed space frame elements to the columns.
Image credit and source:
Building Structures Illustrated
by Francis D.K. Ching, Barry Onouye, Douglas
Zuberbuhler. Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons, c2009.
Han Gang
Arts Island
Learning from the collapse of
the Hartford Civic Center on
Jan. 18, 1978

Image credit: LZA investigation report Image credit: LZA investigation report
Image credits: Ryan Johnson with information from LZA investigation report

Source:
https://failures.wikispaces.com/Hartford+Civic+Center+%28Johnson%29
Typical Space Frame Zaha Hadid's Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre
Image credit: Buidipedia.com
Source:
cultural-centre-turning-a-vision-into-reality?print=1&tmpl=component
Folded Plates
Longer spans can be achieved
using folded plates which are
stiffer than flat plates.
folds through transverse beam
action

Longitudinal action
through longitudinal beam action.
- Compression occurring on the
top portion of folded plate and
tension occurring at the bottom.
Class discussion: Which of the folded plate forms below is
stiffest and can span the longest? Why?
Instabilities Transverse splaying
-Tendency of folded plate to flatten out when
- Stiffening diaphragms can be placed at the
ends to resist this tendency.

Lateral buckling
- Under longitudinal action free edges in
compression may buckle.
- Stiffeners can be placed along the edges to
resist this tendency.
Photo credit: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley

Tenerife Auditorium,
Canary Islands
Photo credit: Diego Delso, Wikimedia Commons, License
CC-BY-SA 3.0

Photo credit: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley
Yokohama Terminal
Cairns Convention Centre

## Casa di Musica Run Run Shaw Building, City University

Cylindrical Shells
Transverse action
through transverse arch action

Longitudinal action
- Loads transferred to supports through
longitudinal beam action.
- Compression occurring on the top
portion of long barrel and tension
Long barrel shell occurring at the bottom.

## - Vaults are continuously supported

transferred to edge supports through
transverse arch action

Vault
Class discussion: What are the similarities in design issues
for folded plates and long barrel shells?
Oakland International Airport
Photo credit: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley

## Kimbell Art Museum,

Texas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Train_station_Berlin-Spandau.jpg

## Glass Roof, DG Bank, Berlin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DG_Bank_Interior,_Berlin.jpg
Photo: Architekten von Gerkan, Marg and Partners
HK International Airport
Priory, Missouri
Photo credit: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley

Messenhalle, H3,
Frankfurt
Photo credits: Waltraud Krase
J M Tjibaou , Cultural Centre
Photo credits: Renzo Piano

## Park keepers flat & public lavatories, Japan

Shuhei Endo
CC-BY-SA-3.0
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Springtecture_H.jpg
Learning from the collapse of the Terminal
2E at Charles de Gaulle Airport in 2005

## Image source: Image credits and source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paris_Charles_De_Gaulle_Airpo https://failures.wikispaces.com/Terminal+2E+at+Charles+d
rt_Terminal_E_a.JPG e+Gaulle+Airport
Domes
Forces in dome under vertical loads

Meridianal forces
- Downward internal force develops
which is always in compression.
- Magnitude increases towards base.

Hoop forces
- Horizontal internal force develops.
- This is compressive in the upper
zone and in tension in the lower zone.
Forces in dome under vertical loads

## - If hole is placed above, a rigid

compression ring needs to be in
place

## Meridianal forces can supported

by:
- Buttresses to take the horizontal and
- Tension ring continuous around to
contain horizontal thrust. Downward
forces directed to ground.
Instabilities

## Domes with low profile (flat

curvatures)
- are susceptible to snap-through
buckling.
- are susceptible to local buckling.
- could have undesirable bending
moments caused by the
incompatibility of the shell edge and
ring.
The Pantheon
Photo credit: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley
Saint Pauls Cathedral, London
Photo credit: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley
New United Nations Building,
Geneva, Switzerland
Assembly Hall, Urbana, Illinois

## Photo credits: Godden, William G.

Courtesy of the National Information Service for
Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of
California, Berkeley
Tacoma Dome, Washington
Photo credits: Godden, William G.
Courtesy of the National Information Service
for Earthquake Engineering, EERC,
University of California, Berkeley

## Swimming Arena, Neckarsulm

Photo credit: Helmut Fischer GmbH
http://www.sbp.de/en/build/sheet/1641-Swimming_Bath_Aquatoll_Neckarsulm.pdf
BP gas station, Switzerland, Heinz Isler
Photo credit: Yoshito Isono
Structurae
http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=96731

## Garden Center, Switzerland

Heinz Isler
Photo credit: Nicolas Janberg
Structurae
http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=
148092
Eden Project
Cornwall, UK
http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_pawlyn_using_nature_s_genius_in_architecture.html
Vierendeel Roof Open air sports area
Spain
Credits, Source:
F. Escrig and J. Snchez
International Journal of Space Structures Vol. 19 No. 4 2004

## Photo credit: Julien Silva

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BC_Place_Vancouver.jpg
Reichstag Osaka Maritime Museum

## China Comic and Animation Museum

Anticlastic shells
- Shell forms with anticlastic
curvature, like other shell forms,
require increased curvature for
greater stability.

## - The absence of flat areas ensures

that bending does not dominate (which

## - Both tension and compression are

usually present in such forms with
arch-like (compression) forces in
convex regions and cable-like (tension)
forces in concave regions.
Japan Pavilion, Expo 2000
Courtesy Shigeru Ban architects

Downland Gridshell
Photo credit: Janine Forbes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gridshell.jpg

## Courtesy Shigeru Ban architects

Savill Building
Windsor Great Park
Photo credits: Glenn Howells Architects
http://www.glennhowells.co.uk/content/public/110
Expo Roof, Hanover
Photo credit: Nicolas Janberg
Structurae
http://en.structurae.de/photos/index.cfm?id=697
Brisbane Convention
and Exhibition Centre
Liujiazui Old Shipyard Lot 2E7-1

## Images courtesy of KPF

1
Choosing & Organizing
Appropriate
Structural Systems:
Spans
Functional Generate Grids
Strategies

## Constructional Alternative Structural Select based

Requirements Systems & Materials on criteria
Typical Grids

## Some form of repetition

along horizontal and vertical
Dependent on
programmatic requirements

## Image credit: Schueller, W. (!996).

The Design of Building Structures.
NJ: Prentice Hall
Support & Spanning
Options

Support options

Spanning options

One-way
spanning system

Two-way
spanning system

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Structural
Patterns

Functional
Organization
Structural
Patterns

Functional
Organization
Spatial Fit

Vertical supports

## Type of Patterns & scale

spanning system of human activity

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004/2008).

Structures, 5th/6th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Part III Chapter 13: Structural Grids & Patterns
Spatial Fit

Vertical supports

## Type of Patterns & scale

spanning system of human activity

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Spatial Fit

Vertical supports

## Type of Patterns & scale

spanning system of human activity

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Spatial Fit

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004/2008).

Structures, 5th/6th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Part III Chapter 13: Structural Grids & Patterns
Square grids Rectangular grids

Tartan grids

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Some Geometric/Transition Challenges

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004/2008).

Structures, 5th/6th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Part III Chapter 13: Structural Grids & Patterns
Some Geometric/Transition Challenges

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Some Geometric/Transition Challenges

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Some Geometric/Transition Challenges

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004/2008).

Structures, 5th/6th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Part III Chapter 13: Structural Grids & Patterns
Modifying Grids

Subtraction

Scale &
Proportions

Subtractive

Geometry

Subtractive

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Modifying Grid Proportions

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Large Scale Spaces

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Difficult Geometric Problems Meeting of Structural Grids

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004/2008).

Structures, 5th/6th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Part III Chapter 13: Structural Grids & Patterns
Difficult Geometric Problems Contrasting Geometries

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Difficult Geometric Problems Contrasting Orientation

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Rainbow City Development Lot 3

Image courtesy of
Heatherwick Studio

## Image courtesy of BWSS

23
Difficult Geometric Problems Irregular Spaces

## Image credit: Ching, Onouye, Douglas.

Building Structures Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 2 Structural Patterns
Non-flat Spanning Systems

## Image credit: Schueller, W. (!996).

The Design of Building Structures.
NJ: Prentice Hall
Span & Choice of
Structural System
Appropriate span
ranges for different
structural systems

## From: Allen, E., Iano, J. (2002).

Architects Studio Companion, 3rd Ed..
NY: John Wiley & Sons
Image credit: Schueller, W. (!996).
The Design of Building Structures.
NJ: Prentice Hall
Approximate span ranges
and depths of timber systems

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004).

Structures, 5th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Approximate span ranges
and depths of steel systems

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004).

Structures, 5th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Approximate span ranges and
depths of reinforced concrete systems

## Image credit: Schodek, D. (2004).

Structures, 5th Ed. NJ: Prentice Hall
Structural grid development and overlay on architectural masterplan/concept

## Image courtesy of Benoy Image courtesy of Arup

32
Example project - TianAn Plaza,

## Images courtesy of Heatherwick Studio

33
Example project - TianAn Plaza, Moganshan Road

Illustration of

- Regular grid

## - Irregular edge conditions

34
Image courtesy of Heatherwick Studio

35
Image courtesy of Arup
Example illustrating vertical grid transfers

Image courtesy of
Heatherwick Studio

## Images courtesy of Arup

36
Example project illustrating vertical
grid transfers Chongqing Centre

## For illustration of vertical grid

transfers refer to accompanying
PDF (courtesy of Arup)

## Image courtesy of Rogers Stirk

37 Harbour and Partners
Example illustrating regular girds, different scale grids, large scale spaces,
contrasting orientation, irregular shapes and irregular edge conditions

Image courtesy of
Heatherwick Studio

38
Example illustrating basement and carparking grids

39
Image source:
http://www.somague.pt/site/showne
ws.asp?idn=736&lg=en

## The New Most Holy Trinity Church

Sanctuary of Faitima
Portugal

Image source:
http://static.urbarama.com/photos/
medium/412.jpg
Image source:
http://chi-athenaeum.org/intarch/2006/ia702.html
Art Museum
Azuma

Image source:
http://detail-online.com/inspiration/tomihiro-art-museum-in-
azuma-103631.html
Capital City Tower, Moscow

Images/drawings NBBJ
Source:
http://www.ctbuh.org/Default.aspx?tabid=
2178&error=RoleName&content=0
TORRE CUAJIMALPA
Mexico
Image credits:
http://www.archdaily.com/24924/residential-tower-meir-lobaton-kristjan-donaldson/
Sky Village
Coppenhagen
Image credit:
http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article_print.php?L=5&C=489
Image credit:
http://www.contemporist.com/2008/11/03/%E2%80%98sky-village%E2%80%99-wins-
competition-for-new-building-in-copenhagen/
Basic Structural Systems

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Highly irregular form
or grid

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Highly irregular form
or grid

heavy
Timber
light

## Masonry reinforced flat plate

cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Exposed structure
with high fire
resistance
heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Exposed structure
with high fire
resistance
heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled requires
protection
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Minimized floor
thickness

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Minimized floor
thickness

heavy
Timber
light

## Masonry reinforced flat plate/slab

cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Column-free space

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Column-free space

Long spanning
heavy systems
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Flexibility for future
changes

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Flexibility for future
changes

heavy
Timber
light

## Masonry reinforced one-way systems

cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Construction during

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Construction during

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Off-site fabrication
time minimized

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Off-site fabrication
time minimized

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems On-site erection
minimized

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems On-site erection
minimized

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Minimize diagonal
bracing & shear
walls
heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Minimize diagonal
bracing & shear
walls
heavy
Timber Rigid frames
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled Rigid joints
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Minimize foundation

## heavy Light & short span

Timber systems
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Unstable foundation
conditions

heavy
Timber
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Basic Structural Systems Unstable foundation
conditions

## heavy Avoid rigid frames

Timber & rigid joints
light

Masonry reinforced
cast-in-situ
post-tensioned
reinforced
precast
Concrete pre-tensioned

Composite
cold formed
Steel rolled Bolted
connections
built-up
hard
Surface
soft
Some Issues on Structural Vertical Load
Transfer for Multi-story Structures

Central Plaza

New York

## ARCH FRAMEWORK SUSPENSION FRAMEWORK ARCH FRAMEWORK SUSPENSION FRAMEWORK

1
Malietoren Building, Amsterdam

Tokyo, Japan

## ARCH FRAMEWORK SUSPENSION FRAMEWORK

Hong Kong Bank

2
TRUSS FRAMEWORK CABLE-STAYED FRAMEWORK

## Federal Reserve Bank,

Minneapolis

3
CANTILEVER TRANSFERS

Citicorp Center,
New York

## switch from welds to bolts

quartering wind: stresses increased
by 40%
160% increase of stress on
the building's joints

Citicorp Center,
New York

4
Multi-story building,
Vancouver, BC

## Morton International Building, Morton International Building,

Chicago Chicago

SHEAR PANEL

Chicago Mercantile
Exchange Center

5
Aspire Tower, Qatar

TORRE CUAJIMALPA
Mexico

Image credits:
http://www.archdaily.com/24924/residential-tower-meir-lobaton-

Sky Village
Coppenhagen
Image credit:
Image credit: http://www.contemporist.com/2008/11/03/%E2%80%98sky-village%E2%80%99-wins-
http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article_print.php?L=5&C=489 competition-for-new-building-in-copenhagen/

6
23 East 22nd Street
Manhattan

## Image credit: Image credit:

http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article_print.php?L=5&C=489 http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article_print.php?L=5&C=489

## Torres Puerta de Europa, Madrid

CCTV, Beijing

7
Belvedere sloping tower, Rotterdam

8
Tall Buildings

## Image courtesy of Arup

- Wind
- Seismic forces

Shear

Bending

Overturning
How do they stand up?
They are all Vertical Cantilevers

## Images courtesy of Arup

Image credit: Ching,
Onouye, Douglas.
Building Structures
Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 7 Highrise
structures
P-delta Effect
Moment Resisting Frame & Braced Frame
Shear Wall
Core & Outrigger
Tubular
- Framed Tubes
- Trussed Tubes
- Bundled Tubes
Hybrid

## For Taller buildings aim to mobilize full width to reduce slenderness

Moment Resisting Frame & Braced Frame
Shear Wall
Core & Outrigger
Tubular
- Framed Tubes
- Trussed Tubes
- Bundled Tubes
Hybrid

## Image credit: Ching,

Onouye, Douglas.
Building Structures
Illustrated, (2009)
Chapter 7 Highrise
structures
Moment Resisting Frame
Rigid Frame
Moment Resisting Frame
Rigid Frame

## Moment resisting frame

Image courtesy of Arup

## Images courtesy of Heatherwick

Studio (except as noted)

10
Shear Wall
Shear Wall

## Shear wall structure Wall-frame structure

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull

## Coupled shear wall

The Graduate House, Hong Kong Jockey Club Building,
No.3, University Drive,
The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
Sources:
1. Safdie, M., Case Study: Marina Bay Sands, Singapore,
Hotel Towers CTBUH Journal 2011, Issue 1
2. The Marina Bay Sands Special Issue, Arup Journal, 2012,
Marina Bay Sands, Singapore Issue 1
Example of shear wall
systems residential
buildings, Hong Kong

Images courtesy
of Arup
Bosco Verticale Source:
Bosco Verticale a forest in the sky
Arup Journal, 1- 2015
Bosco Verticale Source:
A New Urban Forest Rises in Milan
CTBUH Journal, 2015 Issue III
Evolution Tower, Moscow Source:
Upward Spriral: The story of the Evolution Tower
CTBUH Journal, 2016 Issue III
Source:
Bozzo, L.M., The CUBE Tower. A work of structural art in
Zapopan, Mexico, Concrete International, 27(6), pp.5560,
(June), 2005
Absolute World Towers
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_World#/medi
a/File:AbsoluteWorld070915a.jpg
Absolute World Towers Source:
Absolute World Towers, Mississauga
Mississauga, Canada CTBUH Journal, 2012 Issue IV
Twisting & warping Open-section core &
core partially closed cores

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Braced Rigid Frame
Braced Frame
Braced Frame

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Braced Frames: some configurations
Braced Frame

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull

Types of bracing
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ActCityHamamatsu.jpg

## ACT Tower, Hamamatsu, Japan

Source:
http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-
drawing.cgi/88_Wood_Street.html/88_Wood_Street-s.gbd

88 Wood Street,
London
Source:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Century_Tower_at_Japan.jpg

## Century Tower, Tokyo Central Plaza, Kuala Lumpur

Space Truss
Example of space truss system Bank of China, Hong Kong

Space Truss

## Bank of China Hong Kong

369m (11)
70 Stories - Office
Composite Space Truss

## Images courtesy of Arup

Burj Al Arab,
Dubai, UAE

Source:
http://architectism.com/the-stunning-burj-al-arab-
hotel-in-dubai/burj-al-arab-dubai-13/
Turning Torso,
Sweden

## Photo credit: Mirko Junge

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Turningtorso2011.jpg
Vasco da Gama
Tower

## Photo credit: Paolo Costa Baldi

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lisbon_-
_Vasco_da_Gama_tower.jpg
Core & Outrigger
Core & Outrigger

Outrigger-braced structures
Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Source:
Tall Building Structures
[Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull

## Outrigger structures with belt girders

Core + Outriggers System

## Images courtesy of Arup

Example of core +
outrigger system
2IFC Hong Kong

Images courtesy
of Arup
China Zun Tower, Beijing Source:
China Zun Tower, Beijing
CTBUH Journal, 2016 Issue III
Shanghai Tower
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Tower#/media/File:Shan
ghai_Tower_2015.jpg
Source:
Shanghai Tower
CTBUH Journal, 2010 Issue II

Shanghai Tower
Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_River_T
ower#/media/File:PearlRiverTower_Jan.jp
g
Source:
Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou
CTBUH Journal, 2014 Issue II
Photo credit: Steve Trigg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HK_Ci http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JinMao_Towe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brisb tibank_Tower.jpg Taipei101.portrait.altonthompso r_von_oben.jpg
ane_city_crossing.jpg n.jpg

## Waterfront Place Citibank, Taipei101, Jin Mao Building,

Brisbane, Australia HK Taiwan Shanghai
Tubular
Tubular

## Axial stress distribution in tube structures

Framed-tube
Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Central Plaza, HK

Source:
http://www.mech.hku.hk/sbe/case_study/case/hk/centplaz/centplaz.htm
Source:
O-14, Dubai Folded Exoskeleton, Mississauga
CTBUH Journal, 2010 Issue III
Trussed/Diagrid Tube
Trussed or Braced tube
John Hancock Center, Chicago

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hancock_tower_2006.jpg
First International Plaza, Dallas

## Image credit: Andreas Praefcke

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dallas_Renaissance_Tower_1.jpg
Example of braced tube system CCTV, Beijing

64
Swiss Re, London

## Image credit: Jey Han

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gherkin_%2830_St_Mary_Axe%29.jpg
Source:
The Bow, Calgary Rising Above and Bending Aside
To Make Space and Place
CTBUH Journal, 2013 Issue III
The Pinnacle
Image source:
Steve McKechnie, The Pinnacle,
The Arup Journal 2/2012
Building volume studies

## Helical scheme evolution

Image credits:
Lars Hesselgren, Renos Charitou and Stylianos Dritsas,
The Bishopsgate Tower Case Study,
International Journal of Architectural Computing issue 01, volume 05
Planning application schemes for the bracing
system of the Bishopsgate Tower

## Parametric design study of bracing

patterns for the Bishopsgate Tower

Image credits:
Chris Luebkeman Kristina Shea
CDO: Computational design +
optimization in building practice,
The Arup Journal 3/2005
Image source:
Steve McKechnie, The Pinnacle,
The Arup Journal 2/2012
Image source:
Steve McKechnie, The Pinnacle,
The Arup Journal 2/2012
Capital Gate Hotel
United Arab Emirates
Image credits:
http://www.e-architect.co.uk/dubai/capital_gate_abu_dhabi.htm
Image credits:
http://www.gifford.uk.com/services/specialist-consulting/project/project/capital-gate-2/
Image credits:
http://www.trendir.com/ultra-modern/ultramodern-interpretation-of.html
Bundled Tube
Bundled tube

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Willis Tower, Chicago
Bundled Tube

## Willis Tower - Chicago

442m (3)
110 Stories - Office
Bundled Steel Tube (columns @ 4.6m centres)
Tube in tube

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Example of tube in tube system China World Trade Centre, Beijing

## Image courtesy of Zhou Ruogu

83
Images courtesy of Frank P Palmer Architecture Photography
Megaframe
Example of mega-frame system HSBC Building, Hong Kong

Mega-frame

## Hongkong & Shanghai Bank

179m (310)
43 Stories - Office
Steel Mega-frame

## Images courtesy of Arup

Hotel de les Arts, Barcelona

https://www.som.com/project/vila-olimpica
Example of mega-braced frame system Tianjin 117

## Image courtesy of P&T

Source:
http://billkirkwood.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/sir-norman-
foster/commerzbank-plans/

Commerzbank, Frankfurt
MODE GAKUEN COCOON TOWER
Tange Associates
Arup Japan
Hybrid structure

Source:
Tall Building Structures [Analysis and Design].
B.S Smith, Alex Coull
Image credit: Paul C. Martens
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Comparisonfinal001fx7.png Burj Dubai
Shanghai World Financial Center
Source:
Paul Katz, Leslie Earl Robertson
Case Study: Shanghai World Financial Center
Mega Column +
Example of systems adopted based on Frame on
Mega Column Cross Brace
long side
architectural form and building height & + Outriggers +
cross +
brace on 117
Mega Diagrid short side 597m
Column +

Brace

+
Core + Outriggers 484m
+ +

Continuous 439m
430m

Braced Tube
330m 380m

265m
CCTV
232m

## 200m 300m 400m 500m 600m

Images courtesy of Arup
Wind Profiles

## Images courtesy of Arup

Shedding frequency
depends on
Shape
Size
Wind speed

## If shedding frequency equals

building natural frequency
Critical wind speed
High dynamic cross-wind
responses expected

## Images courtesy of Arup

Damping
Sources of damping in structures

## External viscous damping

Internal viscous damping
Friction damping
Hysteresis damping
50
Response curve without damping

Qualitative response: 40

deflection, acceleration
30
Response curve with damping

20

10

## 1.0 2.0 3.0

Period, s
Suppression of Building Vibration

## Seismic Passive Energy (Semi-)Active

Isolation Dissipation Control
Elastomeric Metallic Dampers Active Bracing
Bearings Friction Dampers Systems
Bearings Dampers Dampers
Sliding Friction Viscous Fluid Variable Stiffness or
Pendulum Dampers Damping Systems
Tuned Mass Smart Materials
Dampers
Tuned Liquid
Dampers
Base Isolation
Metallic Dampers

Friction Dampers

closeupfrictionmove[1].swf
pushfrictiondamp.swf

## Viscous Fluid Dampers

Viscoelastic Dampers
Tuned Mass Damper

tmd[1].wmv
taipei[1].wmv

video

Taipei 101,
Taiwan
Citicorp Center, NY
John Hancock Tower, Boston
Yokohama
Landmark Tower
Tuned Liquid
Column Damper

Highcliff
Apartment
Bldgs., HK

tlcd[1].wmv
SITE INVESTIGATION
Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of
ground conditions

## Site reconnaissance; preliminary field

Site Investigation
investigations

## Design of main ground investigation

Ground Investigation

investigation

## SLOPE-RELATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS

AND DATABASES
SITE INVESTIGATION SITE INVESTIGATION
TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS, PLANS AND
Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
ground conditions ground conditions
GEOLOGICAL AND RELATED MAPS AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Recognition of major problems MEMOIRS Recognition of major problems

Site reconnaissance; preliminary field Site reconnaissance; preliminary field SURVEY OF STRUCTURES
NAUTICAL CHARTS AND NOTICES ON
investigations SHIPPING investigations
SURVEY OF ANY DISUSED TUNNEL,
Design of main ground investigation Design of main ground investigation CULVERT, NULLAH OR STREAM
METEOROLOGICAL, SEISMOLOGICAL AND
COURSE
TIDE INFORMATION
Ground Investigation Ground Investigation SURVEY OF UNDERGROUND SERVICES
HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION
Information recovered during Information recovered during
investigation SERVICES AND UTILITIES investigation

Report on main ground investigation PAST RECORDS Report on main ground investigation

OTHERS

1
Trials pits
Relatively cheap method of obtaining soil data
SITE INVESTIGATION SITE INVESTIGATION Easy visual inspection of soil data in natural condition
Plan size of 1.2 x 1.2 m
Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of Series of pits on 20 m grid
ground conditions ground conditions Uneconomical in very loose soils or soils having high water table

## Site reconnaissance; preliminary field Site reconnaissance; preliminary field

investigations investigations
EXPLORATORY DRILLING, EXPLORATORY DRILLING,
Design of main ground investigation EXCAVATION AND PROBING OF Design of main ground investigation EXCAVATION AND PROBING OF
LAND LAND

## Ground Investigation Ground Investigation

SAMPLING & FIELD TESTING SAMPLING & FIELD TESTING
Information recovered during Information recovered during
investigation LABORATORY WORKS FOR investigation LABORATORY WORKS FOR
TESTING OF SAMPLES TESTING OF SAMPLES
Report on main ground investigation Report on main ground investigation

## Soil or rock of high bearing capacity

Boreholes
Enable samples to be removed for analysis and testing
Difficult to obtain from soils other than rock or cohesive soils
SITE INVESTIGATION Diameter of samples vary from 100 to 200 mm
Disturbed samples obtained by methods similar to bored piles
Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of Undisturbed samples: from cohesive soils using 450mm long x
ground conditions 100mm tubes; from rock by drilling

## Site reconnaissance; preliminary field

investigations
EXPLORATORY DRILLING,
Design of main ground investigation EXCAVATION AND PROBING OF
LAND

Ground Investigation
SAMPLING & FIELD TESTING
Information recovered during
investigation LABORATORY WORKS FOR
TESTING OF SAMPLES
Report on main ground investigation Site investigation Hong Kong Airport (link)
http://civcal.media.hku.hk/airport/investigation/default.htm

## Soil or rock of high bearing capacity

2
SITE INVESTIGATION DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION Common Foundation Types in Hong Kong
Desk study : obtain basic knowledge of Driven Barrette / Large
Basic project concept designs Pre-bored concrete/steel diaphragm diameter
ground conditions
DESK STUDY Mini-pile Pile Pre-bored H-pile wall bored pile Footing
Recognition of major problems

## Site reconnaissance; preliminary field

Confirmation of design concept
investigations
PRELIMINARY
Design of main ground investigation Preliminary/detailed design

Ground Investigation

## Information recovered during

MAIN Modifications to detailed design
investigation

## Recording actual ground conditions Modifications to design

CONSTRUCTION
Further investigation Modifications to design

POST
Monitoring behaviour Maintenance works
CONSTRUCTION

FOUNDATIONS
Transfers load from a superstructure on to the
most suitable bearing stratum with due
considerations given to settlement.

Main classifications
Shallow footings Deep foundations Shallow footings Deep foundations

3
Shallow Footings Shallow Footings
Founded at a depth of less than 3m below the
Low construction cost
Appropriate when: Simple construction procedure
Required soil resistance within reasonable proximity from
Low material cost
surface.
Soil strength underlying footing increases with depth. Low labour cost
No resistance to uplift required.
Low machine cost

Shallow Footings

4
Shallow Footings Shallow Footings
Settlement Settlement
Components of Settlement
1 week to 2 years log time
Differential Settlement
elastic - immediate - fully recoverable
Causes: Structure Tolerances:
secondary compression
creep of particles Variation in soil Timber 1 in 150
inelastic strength/depth Steel 1 in 250
time-dependent
Differences in
primary
unrecoverable
footing sizes or Concrete 1 in 400
settlement

consolidation
due to removal of
applied stresses
water
inelastic
time-dependent 0.5yr 5yr 50yr
partly recoverable

Shallow Footings
Bearing Capacity
F
Bearing Pressure

## Bearing Pressure qb = F/A

Bearing Capacity qcap = Ffail/A

5
Generalized Local Shear
Shear Failure Failure

## Soil Failure Lines

minor
surface
heave

Medium dense
or firm soils

Punching
Shear Failure

No surface heave

Loose or
Soft Soils

6
Footing Structural Design Considerations

Bearing pressure
Bending
Beam shear
Punching shear

Bearing Pressure

## Deep Foundations Superstructure

Classification of Piles
Pile cap
End-bearing piles
Transmit loads from pile end to firm layers such as
compact gravel, hard clay or rock Piles

Friction piles
Transmit loads by means of skin friction or cohesion of pile-soil
interface to soil such as clay and silts

## Combination of Friction & End Bearing Piles

Transmit loads by means of skin friction or cohesion of pile-soil interface
to soil such as clay and silts as well as end bearing into firm stratum Soil or rock of high bearing capacity

7
Common Foundation Types in Hong Kong Summary of The Most Five Common Types of Building Foundation in HKSAR

Driven Large
a) Footing b) Mini Pile c) Driven H-Pile d) Prebored Rock Socketted H-Pile e) Large Dia. Bored Pile
Barrette / (1) Prevalent Size Varies 219mm Grade :S450 J0 (BS EN 10025) Grade : S450 J0 (BS EN 10025) 3.0m/4.75m
Pre-bored concrete/steel diaphragm diameter 4Y50 Size : 305x305x223kg/m
305x305x180kg/m
Size : 305x305x223kg/m
305x305x180kg/m
2.5m/3.75m

Mini-pile Pile Pre-bored H-pile wall bored pile Footing (2) Allowable Bearing 1) Medium dense soil (N: 10~30) 1300 KN per pile 223kg/m : 3500 KN per pile 223kg/m : 5900 KN per pile 3.0m/4.75m : 79500 KN per pile
Capacity 100 KN/m2 180kg/m : 2900 KN per pile 180kg/m : 4900 KN per pile 2.5m/3.75m : 55200 KN per pile
2) Compacted dense soil (N:30~50)
300 KN/m2
3) Very dense soil (N>50) 500 KN/m2
4) CDG/MDG (N>200) 1000KN/m2
5) IV/III rock 3000 KN/m2
6) III/II rock 5000 KN/m2
7) II/I rock 7500 KN/m2
8) I rock 10,000 KN/m2

## (3) Type of -Shallow -Deep -Deep -Deep -Deep

Foundation -Non-Percussion -Non-Percussion -Percussion -Non-Percussion -Non-Percussion
-Non-Displacement -Non-Displacement -Displacement -Non-Displacement -Non-Displacement
-End Bearing -Friction -Friction -Friction -End Bearing

(4) General -Excavation with or without - Drilling with Down-the-Hole - Drive the 1st piece of H Pile by - Drilling with Down-the-Hole - Excavation with Oscillator or
Construction shoring Hammer (DTHH) and hydraulic hammer into ground Hammer (DTHH) and rotator and Temporary casing
Method -Formwork Permanent casing until reach until the pile head is only about Temporary casing until reach the until reach the specified bedrock
-Steel fixing the specified bedrock 1 meter above ground specified bedrock - Drilling with Reverse Circulation
-Concreting - Drilling into bedrock without - Connect the 2nd piece of H Pile - Drilling into bedrock without Drilling (RCD) Machine through
casing to form the specified to the head of the 1st piece by casing to form the rock socket boulder obstructions and into
rock socket full penetration bud weld - Cleaning of drill hole bedrock to form the rock socket
- Cleaning of drill hole - Continue to drive the lengthened - Installation of H-pile into the - Drilling inside the rock socket
- Installation of steel bundle H Pile into ground drilled hole with bellout tool to form the
formed by 4 Nos. of Y50 rebar - Repeat the above steps until the - Fill up the drilled hole by bellout
into the drilled hole pile becomes difficult to be pressure grouting method and - Cleaning of drill hole by air
- Fill up the drilled hole by driven further Extracting Temporary casing lifting method
pressure grouting method - Change the hydraulic hammer to concurrently - Installation of steel cage into the
a drop hammer with specified excavated and drilled hole
weight and drive the pile to final - Concreting by tremie method &
set in complying with the pre- extracting temporary casing
determined set table concurrently

(5) General Low-rise building with spread Medium height building with High-rise building with large High-rise building with large High-rise building with large
commercial tower) & commercial tower) tower)

(6) General Dense soil or bedrock at 2~6m Grade III or better bedrock at Dense soil with SPT N-value Grade III or better bedrock at Grade III or better bedrock at
Application of depth below existing ground level 6~40m depth below existing 180~200 of 10~60m depth 6~80m depth below existing 6~100m depth below existing
Ground Condition ground level below existing ground level ground level Depth ground level

Axial Capacity
Fu Tension Capacity
Fu = Rbase + Rshaft Tu

## End bearing at base Rbase

8
Lateral Resistance
Pile Classifications

## Installation Degree of Pile Manufacture Support during

Displacement Material installation

Driven
preformed

Driven
cast-in-situ

Bored
cast-in-situ

## DRIVEN PREFORMED PILES

Material of pile can be inspected before it goes into the ground.
Driven preformed pile Stable in "squeezing" ground
Not damaged by ground heave when driving adjacent piles
Example link Construction procedure unaffected by ground water
Driven cast-in-situ piles
Can be readily carried above ground level, especially in marine
structures
Can be driven in very long lengths
Bored cast-in-situ piles

9
DRIVEN PREFORMED PILES DRIVEN CAST-IN-SITU PILES
May break during hard driving Length can be readily adjusted to suit varying level of bearing
Uneconomical if amount of material in pile is governed by stratum
handling and driving stresses
Tube is driven with a closed end. thus excluding ground water
Noise and vibration during driving may cause nuisance or
Possible to form an enlarged base in most types
damage
Material in pile is not determined from handling or driving
Displacement of soil during driving piles in groups may damage
adjacent structures or cause lifting by ground heave of stresses.
adjacent piles Noise and vibration can be reduced in some types
Cannot be driven in very large diameters
Cannot be driven in conditions of low headroom

## DRIVEN CAST-IN-SITU PILES BORED CAST-IN-SITU PILES

"Necking" or "waisting" may occur in squeezing ground Length readily varied depending on ground conditions
Concrete shaft may be weakened if strong artesian water flow Soil removed in boring can be inspected, sampled or tested
pipes up outside of shaft Can be installed in very large diameters
Concrete cannot be inspected after completion End enlargements up to two or three diameters are possible in
Limitations on length of driving in most types clays
Displacement of ground may damage "green" concrete of Material of pile is not dependent on handling or driving
piles Can be installed in very long lengths
Noise, vibration, and ground displacement may cause a Can be installed without appreciable noise or vibration
nuisance or damage adjacent structures Can be installed in conditions of very low head-room
Cannot be driven in very large diameters No risk of ground heave
Very large end bulbs cannot be made
Cannot be driven in conditions of very low head room

10
BORED CAST-IN-SITU PILES

Susceptible to "waisting" or "necking" in "squeezing" ground. Installation Degree of Pile Manufacture Support during
Concrete cannot be subsequently inspected. Displacement Material installation

Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing Driven Non- Concrete In-situ No support
out cement. preformed displacement

Enlarged ends cannot be formed in cohesionless materials. Driven Small Steel Preformed Temporary
Cannot be readily extended above ground level especially in cast-in-situ displacement casing

## river and marine structures. Bored Large Timber Combined Permanent

cast-in-situ displacement casing
Boring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils.
Composite Drilling mud

Soil/concrete/
grout

Piles/Piers/Caissons
appropriate when:

## Soil is very loose or soft

Soil strength underlying footing does not increase with depth
Footings would lie on expansive clay
Seasonal change in water content below normal bearing strata
Thick layer of miscellaneous fill
Poor soil bearing capacity above bedrock
Soil needs to be densified

11
Common Foundation Types in Hong Kong
Driven Barrette / Large
Pre-bored
Mini-pile
concrete/steel
Pre-bored H-pile
diaphragm diameter
Footing
Typical Pile Capacity
Pile wall bored pile

## Summary of The Most Five Common Types of Building Foundation in HKSAR

a) Footing b) Mini Pile c) Driven H-Pile d) Prebored Rock Socketted H-Pile e) Large Dia. Bored Pile

(1) Prevalent Size Varies 219mm Grade :S450 J0 (BS EN 10025) Grade : S450 J0 (BS EN 10025) 3.0m/4.75m

4Y50

## 1300 KN per pile

Size : 305x305x223kg/m
305x305x180kg/m

## 223kg/m : 3500 KN per pile

Size : 305x305x223kg/m
305x305x180kg/m

2.5m/3.75m

## 3.0m/4.75m : 79500 KN per pile

Considerations in selection of
Foundation System
Capacity 100 KN/m2 180kg/m : 2900 KN per pile 180kg/m : 4900 KN per pile 2.5m/3.75m : 55200 KN per pile
2) Compacted dense soil (N:30~50)
300 KN/m2
3) Very dense soil (N>50) 500 KN/m2
4) CDG/MDG (N>200) 1000KN/m2
5) IV/III rock 3000 KN/m2
6) III/II rock 5000 KN/m2
7) II/I rock 7500 KN/m2
(3) Type of -Shallow -Deep -Deep -Deep -Deep
Foundation -Non-Percussion
-Non-Displacement
-Non-Percussion
-Non-Displacement
-Percussion
-Displacement
-Non-Percussion
-Non-Displacement
-Non-Percussion
-Non-Displacement
the building
-End Bearing -Friction -Friction -Friction -End Bearing

(4) General
Construction
-Excavation with or without
shoring
- Drilling with Down-the-Hole
Hammer (DTHH) and
- Drive the 1st piece of H Pile by
hydraulic hammer into ground
- Drilling with Down-the-Hole
Hammer (DTHH) and
- Excavation with Oscillator or
rotator and Temporary casing
Location of site
Method -Formwork Permanent casing until reach until the pile head is only about Temporary casing until reach the until reach the specified bedrock
-Steel fixing
-Concreting
the specified bedrock
- Drilling into bedrock without
casing to form the specified
1 meter above ground
- Connect the 2nd piece of H Pile
to the head of the 1st piece by
specified bedrock
- Drilling into bedrock without
casing to form the rock socket
- Drilling with Reverse Circulation
Drilling (RCD) Machine through
boulder obstructions and into
Site topography
rock socket full penetration bud weld - Cleaning of drill hole bedrock to form the rock socket
- Cleaning of drill hole - Continue to drive the lengthened - Installation of H-pile into the - Drilling inside the rock socket
- Installation of steel bundle
formed by 4 Nos. of Y50 rebar
H Pile into ground
- Repeat the above steps until the
drilled hole
- Fill up the drilled hole by
with bellout tool to form the
bellout Cost and time
into the drilled hole pile becomes difficult to be pressure grouting method and - Cleaning of drill hole by air
- Fill up the drilled hole by driven further Extracting Temporary casing lifting method
pressure grouting method - Change the hydraulic hammer to
a drop hammer with specified
weight and drive the pile to final
concurrently - Installation of steel cage into the
excavated and drilled hole
- Concreting by tremie method &
Soil condition
set in complying with the pre-
determined set table
extracting temporary casing
concurrently Surrounding
(5) General
Application of
Medium height building with
High-rise building with large
concentrated building core
High-rise building with large
concentrated building core
High-rise building with large
Building Type & club house) (such as school , market
building)
commercial tower)
& commercial tower)
(such as apartment & commercial
tower)
Characteristic of
(6) General
Application of
Dense soil or bedrock at 2~6m
depth below existing ground level
Grade III or better bedrock at
6~40m depth below existing
Dense soil with SPT N-value
180~200 of 10~60m depth
Grade III or better bedrock at
6~80m depth below existing
Grade III or better bedrock at
6~100m depth below existing
piling system
Ground Condition ground level below existing ground level ground level Depth ground level

12
Types of
Slope
Failures

## Toe failure Deep-seated failure

RETAINING WALLS
Common terms : retaining walls
Types

## Gravity wall RC cantilevered wall Crib wall backfill

front face
backface
batter

key
Reinforced earth Cantilevered wall / Sheet Piling stem counterfort
toe heel

base

13
Stability

sliding
overturning

bearing deep
capacity seated
failure failure

Preliminary dimensions :
Structural Integrity Cantilever retaining wall
200mm minimum

1/48 min
batter
H

H/12

H/12

0.4H

14
Soil Nailing
SOLDIER PILE WALLS
Grouted nails Soldier Pile and Lagging Walls Secant Pile Wall

Shotcrete face

## Most inexpensive systems compared Increased construction alignment flexibility.

to other retaining walls. Increased wall stiffness compared to sheet
They are also very easy and fast to piles.
construct. Can be installed in difficult ground.
link They are primarily limited to Increased cost compared to sheet piles.
temporary construction

## SHEET PILE WALLS Anchor block

Anchor rod
Struts

Wales

Sheet piles

Anchor
piles
Used in deep excavations.
Light weight.
Installation of sheet piles is difficult in soils with boulders or
cobbles. In such cases, the desired wall depths may not be
reached.

## Braced sheet pile structure

Cantilevered
Anchored sheet
sheetpile pilestructure
structure

15
SLURRY / DIAPHRAGM / TRENCH WALL

## Tie- Backs vs Braced Excavations

Tieback
Grout

Top/down construction

## Ropemaker Place, London EC2

16
17
Common Foundations