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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES ADDIS ABABA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF CIVIL AND

ADDIS ABABA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOILS USING RICE HUSK ASH

By: Nitsihit Tedla

Advisor: Dr. - Ing. Samuel Tadesse

A Thesis Submitted to School of Graduate Studies in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering (Geotechnical Engineering)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CERTIFICATION The thesis titled “Stabilization

CERTIFICATION

The thesis titled “Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash” by Nitsihit Tedla meets the regulations governing the award of the degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Civil Engineering Addis Ababa University and is approved for its contribution to knowledge and literary presentation.

Approved By the Board of Examiners

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ADVISOR

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INTERNAL EXAMINER

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EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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CHAIRMAN

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Date

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Date

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Date

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Date

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CERTIFICATION The thesis titled “Stabilization

AAit School of Graduate Studies

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) DECLARATION I hereby declare that

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the thesis entitled Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash has been carried out by me under the supervision of Dr. -Ing. Samuel Tadesse, during the year 2015 as part of Master of Science Program in Geotechnical Engineering. I further declare that this work has not been submitted to any other University or institution for the award of any degree. All quotations and their sources are specifically acknowledged by means of references.

Place: Addis Ababa Nitsihit Tedla

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) DECLARATION I hereby declare that

AAit School of Graduate Studies

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF

iv

LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................v

LIST OF

vii

ix

ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................x

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Background................................................................................................................................1

  • 1.2 Objectives of the Research ........................................................................................................3

  • 1.3 Research Methodology ..............................................................................................................3

  • 1.4 Scope of the Study .....................................................................................................................4

  • 1.5 Organization of the Thesis.........................................................................................................4

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 REVIEW ON EXPANSIVE SOILS.......................................................................................5

  • 2.1.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................5

  • 2.1.2 Origin of Expansive Soils.......................................................................................................5

  • 2.1.3 Mineralogy of Expansive Soils...............................................................................................7

  • 2.1.4 Distribution of Expansive Soils ............................................................................................11

  • 2.1.5 Identification of Expansive Soils..........................................................................................12

    • 2.1.5.1 Field Identification ............................................................................................................12

    • 2.1.5.2 Laboratory Identification ..................................................................................................12

      • 2.1.5.2.1 Mineralogical Identification ...........................................................................................12

      • 2.1.5.2.2 Indirect Methods ............................................................................................................14

      • 2.1.5.2.3 Direct Methods ...............................................................................................................18

        • 2.1.6 Classification of Expansive Soils .........................................................................................18

          • 2.1.6.1 Classification using General Method ................................................................................18

          • 2.1.6.2 Classification Specific to Expansive Soils ........................................................................20

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.2 REVIEW ON STABILIZATION.........................................................................................22 2.2.1
  • 2.2 REVIEW ON STABILIZATION.........................................................................................22

    • 2.2.1 General .................................................................................................................................22

    • 2.2.2 Types of Soil Stabilization ...................................................................................................23

      • 2.2.2.1 Mechanical Stabilization ...................................................................................................23

      • 2.2.2.2 Chemical Stabilization ......................................................................................................23

        • 2.2.3 Stabilization of Expansive soils using Agricultural Solid Wastes .......................................32

          • 2.2.3.1 Rice Husk Ash ..................................................................................................................32

          • 2.2.3.2 Rice Husk Ash as Soil Stabilizer .......................................................................................32

          • 2.2.3.3 Availability of Rice Husk Ash in Ethiopia ........................................................................33

            • 2.2.4 Previous Studies ...................................................................................................................35

              • 2.2.4.1 Cementious Stabilization ..................................................................................................35

              • 2.2.4.2 Rice Husk Ash ..................................................................................................................41

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

  • 3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................45

  • 3.2 Sample Collection ...................................................................................................................45

    • 3.2.1 Expansive Soil .....................................................................................................................45

    • 3.2.2 RHA .....................................................................................................................................45

      • 3.3 Material Characterization ........................................................................................................47

        • 3.3.1 RHA......................................................................................................................................47

          • 3.3.1.1 RHA Preparation ...............................................................................................................47

          • 3.3.1.2 Physical Properties of RHA ..............................................................................................47

          • 3.3.1.3 Pozzolanic Properties of RHA ..........................................................................................48

            • 3.3.2 Specification of Soil .............................................................................................................49

              • 3.4 Preparation of Testing Sample ................................................................................................49

              • 3.5 Laboratory Studies ..................................................................................................................50

                • 3.5.1 Atterberg Limits Tests .........................................................................................................50

                  • 3.5.1.1 Liquid Limit Tests .............................................................................................................50

                  • 3.5.1.2 Plastic Limit Tests .............................................................................................................50

                    • 3.5.2 Particle Size Distribution .....................................................................................................50

                    • 3.5.3 Specific Gravity Test ...........................................................................................................51

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.2 REVIEW ON STABILIZATION.........................................................................................22 2.2.1

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5.4 Free Swell Test ....................................................................................................................51
  • 3.5.4 Free Swell Test ....................................................................................................................51

  • 3.5.5 Compaction ..........................................................................................................................51

  • 3.5.6 Unconfined Compression Tests ...........................................................................................52

  • 3.5.7 CBR and CBR Swell Tests ...............................................................................................52

  • 3.5.8 Swell Consolidation Tests ....................................................................................................52

CHAPTER FOUR TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

  • 4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................53

  • 4.2 Properties of Material Used in the Study ................................................................................53

    • 4.2.1 Natural Soil ..........................................................................................................................53

    • 4.2.2 RHA .....................................................................................................................................55

      • 4.3 Test Results of Treated Soil Samples .....................................................................................56

        • 4.3.1 Effect of RHA on Atterberg Limits .....................................................................................56

        • 4.3.2 Effect of RHA on Free Swell ...............................................................................................58

        • 4.3.3 Effect of RHA on Compaction Characteristics ....................................................................59

          • 4.3.3.1 Maximum Dry Density .....................................................................................................59

          • 4.3.3.2 Optimum Moisture Content ..............................................................................................60

            • 4.3.4 Effect of RHA on UCS ........................................................................................................63

            • 4.3.5 Effect of RHA on CBR and CBR - Swell ............................................................................66

CBR Values .................................................................................................................................66 CBR -Swell ..................................................................................................................................68

  • 4.3.6 Effect of RHA on Swelling Pressure ...................................................................................69

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • 5.1 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................71

  • 5.2 Recommendations ...................................................................................................................72

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................73 APPENDIX 1................................................................................................................................75 APPENDIX 2................................................................................................................................82

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5.4 Free Swell Test ....................................................................................................................51

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) APPENDIX 3................................................................................................................................84 APPENDIX 4................................................................................................................................86 APPENDIX

APPENDIX 3................................................................................................................................84 APPENDIX 4................................................................................................................................86 APPENDIX 5................................................................................................................................88 APPENDIX 6................................................................................................................................90

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Relation between the swelling potential of clays and the plasticity index ..................15 Table 2.2: Typical Values of activities for various clay minerals ................................................16 Table 2.3: Relation between the swelling potential of clays and the plasticity index ..................17 Table 2.4: Typical CEC values of basic clay minerals .................................................................17 Table 2.5: AASHTO Soil Classification Chart.............................................................................19 Table 2.6: Classification based on bureau of reclamation method ...............................................20 Table 2.7: Degree of colloidal activity..........................................................................................22 Table 2.8: Area covered, yield and productivity of rice in Ethiopia.............................................34 Table 3.1: Chemical Analysis of RHA .........................................................................................48 Table 3.2: Soil Classification........................................................................................................49 Table 4.1: Test results of natural soil............................................................................................54 Table 4.2: Swelling Pressure for different RHA application........................................................69

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) APPENDIX 3................................................................................................................................84 APPENDIX 4................................................................................................................................86 APPENDIX

AAit School of Graduate Studies

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M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1:

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: The structural unit of silicates ......................................................................................8 Figure 2.2: Single aluminum octahedrons and aluminum sheet ....................................................9

Figure 2.3: Symbolic structure of clay minerals ..........................................................................11 Figure 3.1: Rice Husk ..................................................................................................................46 Figure 3.2: Rice Husk Ash ...........................................................................................................46 Figure 3.3: Rice Husk Ash Preparation Process ..........................................................................47 Figure 4.1: Particle size Distribution of Expansive soil Sample .................................................55 Figure 4.2: Variation of LL with the addition of different RHA contents for uncured

  • 7 and 14 days cured sample ...........................................................................................................57

Figure 4.3: Variation of PL with the addition of different RHA contents for uncured,

  • 7 and 14 days cured samples..........................................................................................................57

Figure 4.4: Variation of PI with the addition of different RHA contents for uncured,

  • 7 and 14 days cured samples..........................................................................................................58

Figure 4.5: Variation of Free swell with the addition of different RHA contents .......................59

Figure 4.6: Variation of MDD with the addition of different RHA contents for uncured,

  • 7 and 14 days cured samples .........................................................................................................60

Figure 4.7: Variation of OMC with the addition of different RHA contents for 0, 7 and 14 days of curing ...........................................................................................................................61

Figure 4.8: Summary of compaction curves with application of different RHA contents for uncured sample.........................................................................................................................61 Figure 4.9: Summary of compaction curves with application of different RHA contents for 7 days cured sample .................................................................................................................62 Figure 4.10: Summary of compaction curves with application of different RHA contents for 14 days cured sample ...............................................................................................................62 Figure 4.11: Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for uncured sample.........................................................................................................................64 Figure 4.12: Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for 7 days cured sample .................................................................................................................64

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1:

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Figure 4.13: Summary of UCS

Figure 4.13: Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for 14 days cured sample ...............................................................................................................65 Figure 4.14: Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for 28 days cured sample ...............................................................................................................65

Figure 4.15: Variation of UCS with different RHA application for 0, 7, 14 and 28 days of cured samples ....................................................................................................................66 Figure 4.16: Variation of soaked CBR with different RHA application for 7 and 14 days of cured samples ...............................................................................................................67 Figure 4.17: Variation of Un-soaked CBR with different RHA application for uncured, 7 and 14 days of cured samples ......................................................................................68 Figure 4.18: Variation of CBR Swell with different RHA application for uncured,

  • 7 and 14 days of cured samples .....................................................................................................69

Figure 4.19: Variation of Swelling Pressure with different RHA application for

  • 7 days cured samples .....................................................................................................................70

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Figure 4.13: Summary of UCS

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AASHTO American

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AASHTO

American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

BS

British Standard

CAH

Calcium Aluminate Hydrate

CEC

Cation Exchange Capacity

CBR

California Bearing Ratio

CSH

Calcium Silicate Hydrate

ERA

Ethiopian Roads Authority

FSI

Free swell index

FSR

Free swell ratio

GSA

Groundnut shell ash

IS

Indian Standard

LL

Liquid Limit

PL

Plastic Limit

MDD

Maximum Dry Density

NRRDS

National Rice Research and Development Strategy

OMC

Optimum Moisture Content

PI

Plastic Index

PL

Plastic Limit

RHA

Rise husk ash

SP

Swelling pressure

UCS

Unconfined compressive strength

USA

United States of America

Units

gm

Gram

kg

Kilogram

km

Kilometer

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AASHTO American

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) kN Kilo Newton mm millimeter

kN

Kilo Newton

mm

millimeter

g/cm 3

Gram per centimeter cube

μm

micrometer

kN/m 2

Kilo Newton per meter square

kPa

Kilo Pascal

mm

millimeter

meq

Milliequivalent

o C

Degree Centigrade

cc

Centimeter cube

cm 3

Centimeter cube

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) kN Kilo Newton mm millimeter

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) AKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my genuine

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my genuine gratitude to my advisor Dr. Ing Samuel Tadesse for his constant advice, guidance, constructive and critical comments from the very beginning of this work until the final date of submission. I express my heartfelt gratitude to Ethiopian Roads Authority for sponsoring all the expenses for this post graduate study.

And I would also like to thank all those people who have made this thesis possible, especially Ato Sisay Debele for his advice and necessary technical support.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) AKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my genuine

AAit School of Graduate Studies

ix

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ABSTRACT In the present days,

ABSTRACT

In the present days, in the process of soil stabilization and modification or soil strengthening emphasis is given for maximum utilization of local & waste materials. The main reason behind this trend is the excessive production of industrial and agricultural wastes (agricultural bi- products) like fly ash, plastics, rice husk ash (RHA) which is not only hazardous but also create deposition problems. Using some of these agricultural bi-products in construction practice will reduce the problem in a great extent & the cost of construction may be minimized to the minimum extent.

In this regard an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of RHA as a stabilizer on the geotechnical properties of black clay soil in stabilized form specifically strength, workability, compaction and swelling characteristics. Therefore, series of laboratory tests such as Atterberg limits, free swell index, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, soaked and un-soaked CBR and swelling pressure tests for different percentages of RHA were performed on uncured, 7and 14 days cured treated specimens.

The soil was stabilized with RHA in stepped concentration of 5%, 10% & 15% by dry weight of the soil. Also the effect of curing period was evaluated over a period of 7to 14 days for Atterberg limits, free swell, compaction, UCS and CBR tests. Analysis of the results shows slight improvement on the geotechnical properties of RHA stabilized soil. RHA slightly reduces plasticity index, swelling and MDD with an increase in OMC, UCS and CBR values. The UCS and un soaked CBR values increased appreciably with increase in RHA content and also curing has a significant effect on these values of RHA stabilized soil.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ABSTRACT In the present days,

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Construction on expansive soil always creates a problem for civil engineers because of its peculiar cyclic swell shrink behavior. This type of soil swells when it comes in contact with water and shrinks when the water evaporates out. Because of this movement lightly loaded structures such as foundations, pavements, canal beds and linings and residential buildings founded on them are severely damaged (Chen, 1988). Expansive soil is a problem in Ethiopia as in other countries. To deal with it, there are different methods of altering the nature of this soil to make it fit for construction; stabilization using certain agricultural and domestic wastes is one of them.

Soil stabilization is the alteration of one or more soil properties, by mechanical or chemical means, to create an improved soil material possessing the desired engineering properties. The process may include blending of soils to achieve a desired gradation or mixing of commercially available additives that may alter the gradation, texture or plasticity, or act as a binder for cementation of the soil (Guyer, 2011; US Army, 1994).

Over the times, cement and lime are the two main materials used for stabilizing soils. The over dependence on the utilization of industrially manufactured soil improving additives (cement, lime etc), have kept the cost of soil stabilization financially high. And also due to the massive growth of infrastructure projects, conventional construction materials are diminishing day by day or found short in supply at various locations in the country. On the other hand, large quantity of agricultural and domestic wastes produced from the different industries like fly ash, bagassh ash, rice husk ash, etc. creates a potential negative impact on the environment causing air pollution, water pollution affecting the local ecosystem, and hence safe disposal of theses waste materials is required. Utilizing some of these materials as alternative materials for the construction is no doubt a best solution.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Several methods of soil improvement

Several methods of soil improvement using agricultural bi - products, usually coming from the combustion process, such as fly ash, bgagasse ash and RHA have been developed and used successfully in practice and emphasis has to be given for maximum utilization of local material so that cost of construction may be minimized to a minimum extent. So the use of certain agricultural and domestic wastes as an expansive soil stabilizer is a best solution.

An attempt has been made by researchers to use agricultural bi products as soil stabilizers. This paper will also try to assess the effectiveness of using rice husk ash (RHA) as an expansive soil stabilizer. Rice husk ash is a major agricultural waste obtained from the burning of rice husk which is an agricultural bi product obtained from milling of rice. The normal method of conversion of husk to ash is by incineration.

Rice is among the important cereal crops grown in different parts of Ethiopia as food crop. The country has immense potentials for growing the crop. It is reported that the potential rice production area in Ethiopia is estimated to be about 5.4 million hectares. According to National Rice Research and Document Strategy (2009), the trend in the number of rice producing farmers, area allocated and production shows high increase rate especially since 2006. The number of farmers engaged in rice production has increased from about 53 thousand in 2006 to about 260 thousand in 2008. Similarly, the area allocated has increased from about 18 thousand in 2006 to about 90 thousand ha in 2008 along with production increase from about 150 thousand tons in 2006 to about 286 thousand tons in 2008. There is an increased trend in area allocation and production of rice in Ethiopia (NRRDS, 2009). (Astewel, 2010)

Additionally this paper has aimed to improve our knowledge of the agricultural bi-product RHA in the construction field. At the same time it contributes to the safe disposal of agricultural and domestic wastes.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Several methods of soil improvement

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 1.2 Objectives of the Research
  • 1.2 Objectives of the Research

General Objective

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using RHA as expansive soil stabilization Material. This is achieved through the following specific objectives.

Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of this study are:

  • 1. To evaluate the effect of RHA on the properties of the expansive soil with respect to Atterberg limits, free swell, UCS, compaction and CBR.

  • 2. To evaluate the engineering properties of untreated and treated specimens.

  • 3. To determine optimum amount of Stabilizing Agent (RHA) needed to attain the required properties of black cotton soils that can be used as sub grade material.

  • 1.3 Research Methodology

In order to achieve the objective of this thesis, the following methodologies have been followed;

Literature review was undertaken on previous studies related to stabilization of expansive soils particularly to chemical stabilization techniques. Literature sources include books, journals and trusted on-line materials available on internet.

Expansive soil representative samples were collected from Akaki area, Addis Ababa. The Rice Husk used for this research work was obtained from Fogera town, Gondar. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the index properties of the natural soil and soil- rice husk ash mixture in accordance with ASTM standard.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 1.2 Objectives of the Research

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Sample preparation of the

Sample preparation of the experimental work involved air drying, pulverization (for expansive clay) and sieving of soil to the required particle size. The RHA has been sieved through #200 (0.75mm) sieve for this investigation. The laboratory tests carried out on the natural & stabilized soil includes particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, compaction, CBR, UCS and swell consolidation. The changes in the engineering properties of the stabilized soil have been evaluated after curing the treated sample for 7 and 14 days.

The obtained Laboratory test results have been analyzed and appropriate conclusions and recommendations have been made.

Finally, the findings and results of the research have reported.

  • 1.4 Scope of the Study

The findings of the research are limited to single soil type considered in this research which is expansive black clay. The results are also specific to the type of additives used and test procedures that have been adopted in the experimental work. Therefore, findings should be considered indicative rather than definitive for practical applications.

  • 1.5 Organization of the Thesis

After having introductory description in this chapter, the remaining part of the thesis is organized as follows. Chapter two presents review of literature on expansive soils and soil stabilization. Characterization of materials used for the study and methodologies followed are presented in chapter 3. The fourth Chapter briefly presents the test results obtained; analysis of results and discussions of results with respect to the theoretical background and findings of previous studies. Finally, conclusions and recommendations drawn from the research are presented in Chapter five.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Sample preparation of the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 REVIEWS ON EXPANSIVE SOILS

2.1.1 Introduction

Expansive soils are clay soils with high plasticity. As the name of the soil suggests, these soils are known for their peculiar nature of expanding or shrinking when exposed to moisture changes. Commonly, they ate known as black clays or in some regions as “black cotton” soils. The name black cotton came from the fact that soils are found favorable in some regions for growing cotton. (Teferra, and Leikun, 1999)

In dry state, the soils exhibit a high bearing capacity which is gradually lost with increase in moisture content. If prevented from swelling following exposure to moisture, the soils exert high swelling following exposure to moisture; the soils exert high swelling pressure. The pressure build up is usually responsible for cracking of buildings, distortion of pavement surfaces and damage to other structures. (Teferra, and Leikun, 1999)

2.1.2 Origin of Expansive Soils

G.W. Ronaldson classified the parent materials that can be associated with expansive soils into two groups.

The first group comprises of the basic igneous rocks. This group consists of minerals named Feldspar and Pyroxene. The decomposition of these minerals forms an important mineral called smectite (montmorillonite) and other secondary minerals (Chen, 1998).

The second group comprises of sedimentary rocks. This

rock

consists of smectite

(montmorillonite) as a constituent and breaks down physically to form expansive soils. Smectite

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) (montmorillonite) is one of the

(montmorillonite) is one of the main sources of clay materials that form expansive soils (Chen,

1998).

The montmorillonite was probably formed from two separate origins. The product of weathering and erosion of rocks in the high lands were carried by streams to the coastal plains. The fine grained soils eventually become shale accumulating in the ocean basin. Meanwhile volcanic eruptions, sending up clouds of ash fill on the plains and the sea. These ashes were altered to montmorillonite (Chen, 1998). The condition or process, which determines the clay mineralogy, includes composition of the parent material and degree of physical and chemical weathering to which the materials are subjected.

The Presence of montmorillonite clay in these soils imparts them high swellshrink potentials. Low rainfall has hindered the weathering of the active Montmorillonite mineral into low active clay types such as Illite and kaolinite. Further, the rainfall has not been sufficient to leach the clay particles far enough so that the overburden pressure can control the swell (Rawas and Matteus,

2006).

i. Parent Material

The constituents of the parent material during the early and intermediate stages of the weathering process determine the type of clay formed. The nature of the parent material is much more important during these stages than after intense weathering for long periods of time (Chen, 1988).

The parent materials that can be associated with expansive soils are classified into two groups. The first group comprises the basic igneous rocks and the second group comprises the sedimentary rocks that contain montmorillonite as a constituent (Chen, 1988).

The basic igneous rocks are comparatively low in silica, generally about 45 to 52 percent. Rocks that are rich in metallic base such as the pyroxenes, amphiboles, biotite and olivine fall within this category. Such rocks include the gabbros, basalts and volcanic glasses (Chen, 1988).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) (montmorillonite) is one of the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The sedimentary rocks that contain

The sedimentary rocks that contain montmorillonite as constituent include shale and clay stones. Limestone and marls rich in magnesium can also weather to clay. These paren materials contain varying amounts of volcanic ash and glass, which can subsequently be weathered to montmorillonite. The volcanic eruptions sent up clouds of ash, which fell on the continents and sea. Some of fine grained sediments which accumulated to form these rocks also contain montmorillonite derived from weathering of continental igneous rocks and from ash, which fell on the continental areas (Chen, 1988).

ii. Weathering and Climate

The weathering process by which clay is formed includes physical, biological and chemical process. The most important weathering process responsible for the formation of montmorillonite is the chemical weathering of parent rock mineral. The parent material generally consists of ferromagnesium mineral, calcic feldspars, volcanic glass, volcanic rocks and volcanic ash. The formation is aided in alkaline environment, presence of magnesium ion and lack of leaching. Such condition is favorable in semi-arid regions with relatively low rain fall or seasonal moderate rainfall particularly where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Under these conditions enough water is available for the alteration process but the accumulated cations will not be removed by rain water (Chen, 1988).

2.1.3 Mineralogy of Expansive Soils

The property of soils strongly depends on the grain sizes of soils. Broadly soils are classified as cohesive and non-cohesive soils (Granular). While the property of granular soils strongly depends on the gravity forces (the amount of mass contained in the soils) the behavior of clay soils strongly depends on surface tension forces, since clays have big specific surface as compared with their mass. The behavior of fine grained soils depends to a large extent on the nature and characteristics of the minerals present. The most significant properties of clay depend upon the type of mineral. The crystalline mineral whose surface activity is high are clay minerals. The clay minerals impart cohesion and plasticity. The study of clay minerals is essential for understanding the behavior of clayey soils. Clay mineralogy is the science dealing with the structure of clay

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The sedimentary rocks that contain

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) minerals on microscopic, molecular and

minerals on microscopic, molecular and atomic scale. It also includes the study of the mineralogical composition and electrical properties of the clay particles. The study of clay minerals is important for particles smaller than about 2 micron sizes. (Arora, 2004)

Clay minerals are crystalline hydrous alumino silicates derived from parent rock by weathering. The basic building blocks of clay minerals are the silicate tetrahedron and the alumina octa hedron and combine in to tetrahedral and octahedral sheets to form the various types of clays (Chen1988; Murray, 2007; Nelson, 2010). Kaolinite, illite and montimorillonite (smectite) are the common groups of clay minerals most important in engineering studies (Chen, 1988, Nelson,

2010).

Clay soils consist of clay minerals. These minerals are crystalline material comprising of oxygen and silica. The structural unit of the silicates is a tetrahedron with a silica cation; positively charged, surrounded by four oxygen atoms, negatively charge (Fig 2.1). The silicates assemble themselves in to sheets

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) minerals on microscopic, molecular and
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) minerals on microscopic, molecular and

a. Single Tetrahedron Fig. 2.1 The structural units of silicates

b. Silica Tetrahedral Sheet

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) minerals on microscopic, molecular and

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The silicate can contain other

The silicate can contain other structural units like aluminium. By combining aluminium minerals, aluminium sheets can also be formed. They take the form of an aluminium ion surrounded by oxygen of hydroxyl in the formation of the octahedron: Figure 2.2

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The silicate can contain other
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The silicate can contain other

a. Single Octahedron

b. Alumina Octahedral Sheet

Figure 2.2 Single aluminium octahedrons and aluminium sheets

The behaviour of

the soil mass depends on micro scale factors. These are:

The amount and type of clay minerals in the soil

The chemical structure The specific area of the clay particles

The soil water chemistry contained within the voids.

The macro scale factors; plasticity and density are dictated by these micro scale factors. The three important structural groups of clay minerals for engineering purposes are:

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The silicate can contain other

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Kaolinite Kaolinite has a structural

Kaolinite

Kaolinite has a structural unit made up of alumina sheet jointed to silica sheet. Kaolinite consists of many such layers stacked one on top of the other as shown in Fig 2.3. The bond that exsits between layers in tight and hence it is difficult to separate the layers. As a result kaolinite is relatively stable and water is unable to penetrate between the layers. Consequently kaolinite shows little swelling on wetting.

Illite

Illite has a basic structure similar to that of montmorillonite Fig. However, the basic illite units

are bonded together by potassium ions which are non exchangeable fig.2.3 because of this, the illite units are reasonably stable and so that mineral swells much less than montmorrillonite. From the above it follows that montmorillonite is the most active clay mineral that imparts swelling characteristics to clays.

Montomorillonite

Montomorillonite is the most common of all the clay minerals and is well known for its swelling properties. Its basic structure consists of an alumina sheet sandwiched between two silica sheets and symbolically represented as shown in fig 2.3 The basic montomorillonite units are stacked one on top of the other, but the bond between the individual units is relatively weak so that water is easily able to penetrate between the sheets and cause their separation and hence swelling. Montmorillonite is extremely active and its activity decreases as the adsorbed cation exchanges in the following order:

Sodium (most active), lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and hydroxyl (most stabe). As the result of exchange of adsorbed cation of montmorillonite by those listed above, its activity reduced. Making use of this fact, lime, cement and gypsum are used to stabilize montmorillite soils (expansive soils) in the process of which the active sodium ions are replaced by less active calcium ions.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Kaolinite Kaolinite has a structural

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 2.3 Symbolic structure of
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 2.3 Symbolic structure of

Fig. 2.3 Symbolic structure of clay minerals (Teferra, and Leikun, 1999).

2.1.4 Distribution of Expansive Soil

Expansive soils are widespread in African continent, occurring in South Africa, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Morocco, Ghana, Nigeria etc. In other parts of the world case of expansive soils have been widely reported in countries like USA, Australia, Canada, India, Spain, Israel, Turkey, Argentina, Venezuela etc. (Teferra, and Leikun, 1999).

The areal coverage of expansive soils in Ethiopia is estimated to be 24.7 million acres (Lyon associates, 1971; as cited by Nebro, 2002). They are widely spread in central part of Ethiopia following the major truck roads like Addis-Ambo, Addis-Wolliso, AddisDebrebirhan, Addis Gohatsion, Addis-Modjo are covered by expansive soils. Also areas like Mekele and Gambella are covered by expansive soil (Tilahun, 2004; Teklu, 2003).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 2.3 Symbolic structure of

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.1.5 Identification of Expansive Soils

2.1.5 Identification of Expansive Soils

The techniques of identification and classification of expansive soils generally consists of two important phases. The first is the visual identification and recognition of the soil as expansive and the second is sampling and measurement of material properties to be used as the basis for design. The theme of this topic is to discuss different ways that are commonly used to identify expansive soils.

2.1.5.1

Field Identification

Soils that can exhibit high swelling potential can be identified by field observations, mainly during reconnaissance and preliminary investigation stages. Important observations include (Chen, 1988; Nelson, and Miller, 1992):

Usually have a color of black or grey.

Wide or deep shrinkage cracks.

High dry strength and low wet strength.

Stickiness and low trafficability when wet.

Cut surfaces have a shiny appearance.

Appearance of cracks in nearby structures.

2.1.5.2

Laboratory Identification

Laboratory identification and classification of expansive soils can be categorized into mineralogical, indirect and direct methods.

2.1.5.2.1 Mineralogical Identification

The mineralogical composition of expansive soils has an important bearing in the swelling potentials. There are five techniques which can help in identifying the mineralogy of the expansive soils (Chen, 1998). X-ray diffraction

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.1.5 Identification of Expansive Soils

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Differential thermal analysis 

Differential thermal analysis

Dye adsorption

Chemical analysis

Electron microscope resolution

But these methods are not suitable for routine tests because of the following reason;

They are time consuming;

They require expensive test equipment; and

The results can only interpreted by specially trained technicians.

  • i. XRay diffraction

The most popular method, works on the principle that the beams of X- ray diffracted from crystals are similar to light reflections from the crystal larrice planes. XRay analysis is well known suited for identification of clay minerals because of wavelength of Xrays is of the same order of magnitude ( about 1 A or 10-9 mm) as the atomic plane spacing of these minute crystals. The basal plane spacing is characteristic for each clay mineral group and gives the most intense reflection (Nelson and Miller, 1992).

ii.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

Differential thermal analysis is the other popular mineralogical method. DTA consists of simultaneously heating a sample of clay and an inert substance. The resulting thermographs, which are plots of the temperature difference (WT) verses applied heat, are compared to those for pure minerals. Each mineral shows characteristics endothermic and exothermic reactions on the thermo grams (Nelson and Miller, 1992).

iii.

Dye Absorption

Mineral can be identified by characteristic colors formed by dyes that are absorbed by the minerals of the soil sample. When a clay sample is pretreated with acid, the color assumed by the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Differential thermal analysis 

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) absorbed dye depends on the

absorbed dye depends on the Base Exchange capacity of the various clay minerals present. The presence of the montmorillonite can be identified if the selected sample contains the mineral which is greater than about 5-10% (Chen, 1998).

iv.

Chemical analysis

This method is a valuable addition to other methods such as X-ray Diffraction. In the montmorillonite group of clay minerals, the chemical analysis can be used to determine the nature of isomorphism and to show the origin and location of the charge on the lattice (Chen, 1998).

  • v. Electron microscope Revolution

Electron microscopes have provided a means of direct observing the clay particles. Only qualitative identification is possible based in size and shape of the particles using microscopy (Nelson and Miller, 1992).

2.1.5.2.2 Indirect Methods

The second method is called indirect methods which comprises of the index properties, PVC Method and activity methods. This method is a valuable tool in evaluating the swelling potential of the soils. It is advisable not to use the indirect tests directly, instead direct tests are also important to avoid an error in conclusions. These methods are related to laboratory soil identification and are vital for the intended purposes (Chen, 1998).

  • i. Atterberg Limits

Atterberg limits define the moisture content boundaries between state of consistency of fine grained soils. Clay soil can exist in four distinct state of consistency depending on its water content. The water content at the boundaries between the different states are defined as the shrinkage, plastic and liquid limits. Two useful indices may be computed from the atterberg limits and the natural moisture content. These are the Plasticity Index (PI) and Liquidity Index (LI). The

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) absorbed dye depends on the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) PI used extensively for classifying

PI used extensively for classifying expansive soils and should always be determined during preliminary investigation. (Nelson and Miller, 1992)

Table 2.1: Relation between the swelling potential of clays and the plasticity index (Chen, 1988)

Swelling potential

Plasticity index

Low

0-15

Medium

10-35

High

20-55

Very high

35 and above

While it may be true that high swelling soil will manifest high index property, the converse is not true (Chen, 1988).

The plasticity characteristics and volume change behavior of soils are directly related to the amount of colloidal sized particles in the soil. For engineering purposes the term colloid is used to describe a particle whose particle is controlled by surface force (i.e. electrostatic and adsorptive forces) rathet than by gravitational forces. Colloid size is generally defined as being smaller than 0.001mm (Nelson and Miller, 1992).

Atterberg limits and clay content can be combined into a single parameter called Activity. This term was defined by Skempton (1953). The activity defined as follows

Activity (A c ) =

Plasticity Index (PI) % by weight finer than 2m

(2.1)

Skempton suggested three classes of clays according to activity as inactive, for activities less than 0.75; normal, for activities between 0.75 and 1.25 and active for activities greater than 1.25. Active clays provide the most potential for expansion (Nelson and Miller, 1992).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) PI used extensively for classifying

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Table 2.2: Typical values of

Table 2.2: Typical values of activities for various clay minerals (Nelson and Miller, 1992)

 

Mineral

Activity

Kaolinite

0.33 to 0.46

Illite

0.9

Montmorillite (Ca)

1.5

Montmorillite (Na)

7.2

ii.

Free Swell Test

This test is carried out by first pouring 10 cc of air dried soil passing sieve No. 40 (0.425mm) in to 100 cc graduated cylinder. Then distilled water is added into the graduated cylinder up to 100cc calibration mark. The cylinder with its contents is set aside until the solids particle settle. A periodic reading of the change in soil volume is taken until the specimen attains maximum swelling. This usually takes 2 to 3 days. The swelled volume is computed using the following relationship (Teferra and Leikun, 1999).

Free swell (%) =V f -V i

Where:

  • V i

V i = final volume V f = intial volume

iii.

Swell Potential

(2.2)

Swell potential is expressed as the percentage of swell of laterally confined sample which has been soaked under a surcharge of 1 psi. Seed, Woodward and Lundgreen, established the following relationship for sample compacted following AASHTO compaction test to maximum density and optimum moisture content and allowed to swell in consolidometer under a surcharge of 1 psi. (Teferra, and Leikun,1999).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Table 2.2: Typical values of

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) S=60 K (I ) Where;

S=60 K (I p ) 2.44 Where; S= Swell potential K=3.6x10-5 (and is a constant)

(2.3)

Table 2.3 Relationship between swelling potential of clays and plasticity index Teferra, and Leikun, 1999)

Swelling Potential

Plasticity Index

Low

0-15

Medium

10-35

High

20-55

Very High

55 and above

iv.

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

The CEC is the quantity of exchangeable cations required to balance the negative charge onthe surface of the clay particles. CEC is expressed in milliequivalents per 100 grams of dry clay. CEC is related to clay mineralogy. High CEC values indicate a high surface activity. In general, swell potential increases as the CEC increases. Typical values of CEC for the three basic clay minerals are given in Table 2.4.

Table 2.4: Typical CEC values of basic clay minerals after Mitchell, 1976(Nelson and Miller,

1992)

Clay Mineral

CEC(meq/100gm)

Kaolinite

315

Illite

  • 10 40

Montmorillonite

  • 80 150

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) S=60 K (I ) Where;

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.1.5.2.3 Direct Methods The third

2.1.5.2.3 Direct Methods

The third and the last methods are called the direct measurements. These methods are the most useful data for practicing Engineers. These methods offer the most useful data by direct measurement; and tests are simple to perform and do not require complicated equipment. Testing

should be performed on a number of samples to avoid erroneous

conclusions. .

The direct

measurements are the most satisfactory and convenient methods to determine the swelling potential and swelling pressure of expansive clay (Chen, 1998).

Direct measurements of expansive soils can be achieved by the use of the conventional one dimensional consolidometer. The consolidometer can be platform type, Scale type or other arrangement. The soil sample is enclosed between two porous plates and confined in a metal lying. The soil sample can be flooded both from the bottom and from the top (Chen, 1998).

2.1.6 Classification of Expansive Soils

Parameters determined from expansive soil identification tests have been combined in a number of different classification schemes. The classification system used for expansive soils are based on indirect and direct prediction of swell potential as well as combinations to arrive at a rating. There are a number of classification systems. The following are some of the common methods.

2.1.6.1 Classification Using General Methods

Soils are classified in general schemes; Unified soil classification system (USCS) (Howard, 1977) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Method (AASHTO, 1978) according to index properties.

i. Unified Soil Classification Systems

This classification is based on plasticity chart and a correlation is made between swell potential and unified soil classification as follows.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.1.5.2.3 Direct Methods The third

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Category Little or no expansion

Category

Little or no expansion

Moderate expansion High volume change Peat

Soil classification in Unified system

GW, GP, GM, SW, SP, SM

GW, SC, ML, MH CL OL, CH, OH PT

The above classification system can be summarized as follow:

  • a. All clay soil and organic soils exhibit high volume change.

  • b. All clayey gravels and sands and all silts exhibit moderate volume changes.

  • c. All sands and gravels exhibit little or no expansion.

In the above classification soils rated as CL or OH may be considered as potentially expansive.

ii. AASHTO Classification

As shown on Table 2.5 soils rated A-6 or A-7 by AASHTO can be considered potentially

expansive (Nelson and Miller, 1992).

Table 2.5: AASHTO soil classification chart

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Category Little or no expansion
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Category Little or no expansion

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.1.6.2 Classification Specific to Expansive

2.1.6.2 Classification Specific to Expansive Soil

A parameter determined from the expansive soil identification tests have been combined in a number of different classification schemes to give qualitative rating on the expansiveness of the soil. But the direct use of such classification systems as a basis for design may lead to an overly conservative construction in some places and inadequate construction in some areas (Nelson and Miller, 1992). Hence, it is very important to emphasize that design decision has to be based on predicting testing and analysis, which provide reliable information. An indirect prediction of swell potential includes correlations based on index properties, swell and a combination of them. Some of such classification systems are:

i. U.S.B.R Method

This method was developed by Holtz and Gibbs; to establish degree of expansion based on simultaneous consideration of shrinkage limit, plastic index, percent smaller than 0.001mm (1), free swell and percent swell under a pressure of 1 psi. (Teferra and Leikun, 1999).

Table 2.6: Classification based on bureau of reclamation method (Chen, 1988; Ranjan, and Rao,

2002)

Colloid

Plasticity

Shrinkage

Probable

Degree of

content,

index,

limit,

expansion,

expansion

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

<15

<18

>15

<10

Low

13-23

15-28

10-16

10-20

Medium

20-31

25-41

7-12

20-30

High

>28

>35

<11

>30

Very high

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.1.6.2 Classification Specific to Expansive

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ii. Activity Method ( Seed

ii. Activity Method ( Seed ,Classification Method)

Seed et al (Teferra and Leikun, 1999) classify clayey soil according to its swelling potential defined as the percent vertical swell under a pressure of 1 Psi of a laterally confined sample compacted following AASHTO compaction method to maximum density and optimum moisture content. Seed et al established the following expression. (Teferra and Leikun, 1999).

S=KC x

(2.4)

Where S = Swelling potential in percent C= Percentage of colloids smaller than 2u X= a constant depending on the clay type and equal to 3.44 for clays tested K=A factor depending on the type of clay minerals, calculated from the intercept of straight line relating log S to log C

iii. Skempton’s Method

Skempton classified clays according to activities. This method is developed, by combining Atterberg limits and clay content into a single parameter called Activity. Activity is defined as:

Activity (A c ) =

Plasticity Index (PI) % by weight finer than 2m

Where Ac= activity PI= plasticity index

(2.5)

Skempton suggested three classes of clays according to their activity shown in Table 2.7.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ii. Activity Method ( Seed

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Table 2.7: Degree of colloidal

Table 2.7: Degree of colloidal activity (Teferra and Leikun, 1999).

Degree of Activity

Activity

Inactive clay

Ac < 0.75

Normal clay

0.75 < Ac < 1.25

Active clay

Ac > 1.25

Following this classification, montmorillinitic clay (expansive clay) is defined as active, illitic clay as normal and kaolinitic clay as inactive.

2.2 SOIL STABILIZATION

2.2.1 General

Soil stabilization is the process of improving the engineering properties of the soil thus making it more suitable. It is required when the soil available for construction is not suitable for the intended purpose. (Arrora, 2004)

Thagesen (1989) defined stabilization as any process by which a soil material is improved and made more stable. Garber and Hoel (1998) described soil stabilization as the treatment of natural soil to improve its engineering properties. In general, soil stabilization is the process of creating or improving certain desired properties in a soil material so as to make it useful for a specific purpose. Soil stabilization may be broadly defined as the alteration or preservation of one or more soil properties to improve the engineering characteristics and performance of the soil. When the mechanical stability of a soil cannot be obtained by combining materials, it may be advisable to stabilize the soil by adding lime, cement, bituminous materials or special additives. The methods

of stabilization include physical processes such as soil densification, blends with granular material, use of reinforcements (Geogrids), undercutting and replacement, and chemical processes such as mixing with cement, fly ash, lime, lime by-products, and blends of any one of these materials. Soil properties such as strength, workability, swelling potential, and volume change tendencies may be

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Table 2.7: Degree of colloidal

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) altered by various soil modification

altered by various soil modification or stabilization methods. Different types of materials are used to stabilize the soils depending upon the cost, type of structure to be constructed and also the climatic conditions. Materials such as lime, cement, fly ash, copper slag, rice husk ash, disposal of solid wastes, geosynthetics etc., are used to stabilize the soil. (Amu and Salami, 2011.)

2.2.2 Types of Soil Stabilization

(Teferra and Leikun, 1999) broadly classified soil stabilization into two: Mechanical stabilization and Chemical Stabilization.

  • 2.2.2.1 Mechanical Stabilization

Mechanical stabilization can be defined as a process of improving the stability and shear strength characteristics of the soil without altering the chemical properties of the soil. The main methods of mechanical stabilization can be categorized in to compaction, mixing or blending of two or more gradations, applying geo-reinforcement and mechanical remediation (Guyer, 2011; Makusa,

2012).

  • 2.2.2.2 Chemical Stabilization

Chemical stabilization involves mixing or injecting the soil with chemically active compounds such as Portland cement, lime, fly ash, calcium or sodium chloride or with viscoelastic materials such as bitumen. Chemical stabilizers can be broadly divided in to three groups:

Traditional stabilizers such as hydrated lime, Portland cement and Fly ash; Non-traditional stabilizers comprised of sulfonated oils, ammonium chloride, enzymes, polymers, and potassium compounds; and By-product stabilizers which include cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust etc.

Among these, the most widely used chemical additives are lime, Portland cement and fly ash.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) altered by various soil modification

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Although stabilization with fly ash

Although stabilization with fly ash may be more economical when compared to the other two, the composition of fly ash can be highly variable. The mechanisms of stabilization of the traditional stabilizers are detailed below. (Amu and Salami, 2011.) Soil improvement by means of chemical stabilization can be grouped into three chemical reactions; cation exchange, flocculation-agglomeration pozzolanic reactions.

a) Cation Exchange

Clay minerals have the property of absorbing certain anions and cations and retaining them in an exchangeable state. The exchangeable ions are held around the outside of the silica alumina clay – mineral structural unit and the exchange reaction doesn’t affect the structure of the silica – alumina pocket. In clay minerals, the most common exchangeable cations are Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ,H + , NH 4 + , Na + , frequently in about that order of general relative abundance. (Das, 1987).

The existence of such charges is indicated by the ability of clay to absorb ions from the solution. Cations (positive ions) are more readily absorbed than anions (negative ions); hence, negative charges must be predominant on the clay surface. A cation, such as Na + , is readily attracted from a salt solution and attached to a clay surface. However, the absorbed Na + ion is not permanently attached; it can be replaced by K + ions if the clay is placed in a solution of potassium chloride KCl. The process of replacement by excess cation is called cation exchange. Some are more strongly attracted than others, and the cations can be arranged in a series in terms of their affinity for attraction as follows:

Al 3+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+ > NH 4 + > K + > H + > Na + > Li +

This series indicates that, for example, Al3+ ions can replace Ca2+ ions, and Ca2+ ions can replace Na+ ions. The exchangeable cations may be present in the surrounding water or be gained from the stabilizers. The process is called cation exchange. (Das, 1987). For example Na clay +CaCl 2 Ca Clay + NaCl

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Although stabilization with fly ash

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) b) Flocculation and Agglomeration Flocculated

b) Flocculation and Agglomeration

Flocculated structure occurs in clays. The clay particles have large surface area and, therefore, the electrical forces are important in such soils. The clay particles have a negative charge on the surface and a positive charge on the edges. Inter particle contact develops between the positively charged edges and the negatively charged faces. This results in a flocculated structure.

Flocculent structure is formed when there is a net attractive force between particles. When clay particles settle in water, deposits formed have a flocculated structure. The degree if flocculation of a clay deposit depends upon the type and concentration of clay particles , and the presence of salts in water. Clays settling out in a salt water solution have a more flocculent structure than clays settling out in a fresh water solution. Salt water acts as an electrolyte and reduces the repulsive forces between the particles.

Cation exchange reactions result in the flocculation and agglomeration of the soil particles with consequent reduction in the amount of clay-size materials and hence the soil surface area, which inevitably accounts for the reduction in plasticity. Due to change in texture, a significant reduction in the swelling of the soil occurs.

In general, the soils in a flocculated structure have a low compressibility, a high permeability and high shear strength.

c) Pozzolanic Reactions

The pozzolanic reaction process, which can either be modest or quite substantial depending on the mineralogy of the soil, is a long term process. This is because the process can continue as long as a sufficiently high pH is maintained to solubilize silicates and aluminates from the clay matrix, and in some cases from the fine silt soil. These solubilized silicates and aluminates then react with calcium from the free lime and water to form calcium-silicate-hydrates and calciumaluminate- hydrates, which are the same type of compounds that produce strength development in the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) b) Flocculation and Agglomeration Flocculated

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) hydration of Portland cement. However,

hydration of Portland cement. However, the pozzolanic reaction process is not limited to long term effects. The pozzolanic reaction progresses relatively quickly in some soils depending on the rate of dissolution from the soil matrix. (Little, 2009)

Pozzolanic constituents produces calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium aluminate hydrate (CAH). Rate of the pozzolanic reactions depends on time and temperature.

Ca2+ + 2(OH) -+ SiO2 (Clay Silica) CSH

(2.6)

Ca2+ + 2(OH) -+ Al2O3 (Clay Alumina) CAH

(2.7)

The calcium silicate gel formed initially coats and binds lumps of clay together. The gel then crystallizes to form an interlocking structure which increases the soil strength.

A. Traditional Stabilizers

Traditional stabilizers generally rely on pozzolanic reactions and cation exchange to modify and/or stabilize. Among all traditional stabilizers, lime probably is the most routinely used.

Lime Stabilization

Lime is prepared by decomposing limestone at elevated temperatures. Lime stabilization may refer to pozzolanic reaction in which pozzolana materials reacts with lime in presence of water to produce cementitious compounds (Sherwood, 1993, EuroSoilStab, 2002). The two primary types of lime used in construction today are quick lime (calcium oxide) and hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) Slurry lime also can be used in dry soils conditions where water may be required to achieve effective compaction (Hicks, 2002). Heating lime stone at elevated temperatures produces quicklime and the addition of water to quicklime produces hydrated lime. Equation 2.6 and 2.7 show the reaction from which quick lime and hydrated lime are produced (Justin and Robert

2004).

CaCO3 + Heat → CaO + CO2 Equation CaO + H2O → Ca(OH) 2 + Heat
CaCO3 + Heat → CaO + CO2 Equation
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH) 2 + Heat Equation
(2.8)
(2.9)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Quicklime is the most commonly

Quicklime is the most commonly used lime; the followings are the advantages of quicklime over hydrated lime (Rogers, 1996).

higher available free lime content per unit mass

denser than hydrated lime (less storage space is required) and less dust

generates heat which accelerate strength gain and large reduction in moisture content according to the reaction equation below

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH) 2 + Heat (65 KJ/mole) Hydrated lime in the form of lime is used in the majority of lime stabilization work. Quick lime represents approximately 10 percent of the lime used in the lime stabilization process. (Tensar,

1998).

Lime-soil reactions are complex and primarily involve a two step process. When lime is added to clayey soils, two pozzolanic chemical reactions occur. Cation exchange and flocculation agglomeration. In the cation exchange and flocculation agglomeration reactions, the monovalent cations generally assoiated with clays are replaced by the divalent calcium ions. The cations can be arranged in a series based on their affinity for exchange:

Al 3+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+ > NH 4 + > K + > H + > Na + > Li +

Any cation can replace the ions to its right. For example, calcium ions can replace potassium and sodium ions from clay. Flocculation agglomeration produces a change in the texture of clay soils. The altered clay structure, as a result of flocculation of clay particles due to cation exchange and short-term pozzolanic reactions, results in larger particle agglomerates and more friable and workable soils. (Little, 2009)

The clay particles tend to clump together to form large particles, thereby (a) decreasing the liquid limit, (b) increasing the plastic limit, (c) decreasing the plasticity index, (d) increasing the shrinkage limit, (e) increasing the workability, and (f) improving the strength and deformation properties of a soil. (Das, 1987)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Quicklime is the most commonly

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Pozzolanic reaction between soil and

Pozzolanic reaction between soil and lime involves a reaction between lime and the silica and alumina of the soil to form cementing material. One such reaction is Ca (OH) 2 + SiO 2 CSH

Clay silica

Where C= CaO S= SiO 2 H=H 2 O Although pozzolanic reaction processes are slow, some amount of pozzolanic strength gain may occur during the primary reactions, cation exchange and flocculation/agglomeration. Extent of this strength gain may vary with soils depending on differences in their mineralogical composition. Therefore, mellowing periods, normally about one-day in length but ranging up to about 4-days, can be prescribed to maximize the effect of short term reactions in reducing plasticity, increasing workability, and providing some initial strength improvement prior to compaction. The second step, a longer-term pozzolanic based cementing process among flocculates and agglomerates of particles, results in strength increase which can be considerable depending on the amount of pozzolanic product that develops, and this, in turn depends on the reactivity of the soil minerals with the lime or other additives used in stabilization.

Cement Stabilization

Cement is the oldest binding agent since the invention of soil stabilization technology in 1960’s.

It may be considered as primary stabilizing agent or hydraulic binder because it can be used alone to bring about the stabilizing action required (Sherwood, 1993; EuroSoilStab, 2002). Cement reaction is not dependent on soil minerals, and the key role is its reaction with water that may be available in any soil (EuroSoilStab, 2002). This can be the reason why cement is used to stabilize a wide range of soils. Numerous types of cement are available in the market; these are ordinary Portland cement, blast furnace cement, sulfate resistant cement and high alumina cement. Usually the choice of cement depends on type of soil to be treated and desired final strength.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Pozzolanic reaction between soil and

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Hydration reaction is the primary

Hydration reaction is the primary mode of strength gain in soil cement. Free lime, Ca(OH)2, produced during the hydration process can comprise up to about 25 percent of the cement and water mix on a weight basis. This free lime can produce pozzolanic reaction between the lime and soil, which can continue as long as the pH is high enough to solubilize the soil minerals (AASHTO, 2008). The process starts when cement is mixed with water and other components for a desired application resulting into hardening phenomena. The hardening (setting) of cement will enclose soil as glue, but it will not change the structure of soil (EuroSoilStab, 2002). The hydration reaction is slow proceeding from the surface of the cement grains and the centre of the grains may remain unhydrated (Sherwood, 1993). Cement hydration is a complex process with a complex series of unknown chemical reactions (Maclaren and White, 2003). However, this process can be affected by

presence of foreign matters or impurities

water-cement ratio

curing temperature

presence of additives

specific surface of the mixture.

Depending on factor(s) involved, the ultimate effect on setting and gain in strength of cement

stabilized soil may vary. Therefore, this should be taken into account during mix design in order to achieve the desired strength. Calcium silicates, C3S and C2S are the two main cementitious properties of ordinary Portland cement responsible for strength development (Tabbaa and Perera, 2005; EuroSoilStab, 2002). Calcium hydroxide is another hydration product of Portland cement that further reacts with pozzolanic materials available in stabilized soil to produce further cementitious material (Sherwood, 1993). Normally the amount of cement used is small but sufficient to improve the engineering properties of the soil and further improved cation exchange of clay. Cement stabilized soils have the following improved properties:

• decreased cohesiveness (Plasticity) • decreased volume expansion or compressibility • increased strength (PCA-IS 411, 2003).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Hydration reaction is the primary

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) B. By-product Stabilizers Like traditional

B. By-product Stabilizers

Like traditional stabilizers, pozzolanic reactions and cation exchange are the primary stabilization mechanisms for many of the by-product stabilizers. Lime kiln dust (LKD) and cement kiln dust (CKD) are by-products of the production of lime and Portland cement, respectively.

Lime kiln dust (LKD) normally contains between about 30 to 40 percent lime. The lime may be free lime or combined with pozzolans in the kiln. The source of these pozzolans is most likely the fuel used to provide the energy source. LKDs may be somewhat pozzolanically reactive because of the presence of pozzolans or they may be altogether non reactive due to the absence of pozzolans or the low quality of the pozzolans contained in the LKD. Cement kiln dust (CKD) is the byproduct of the production of Portland cement. The fines captured in the exhaust gases of the production of Portland cement are more likely (than LKD) to contain reactive pozzolans and therefore, to support some level of pozzolanic reactivity. CKD generally contains between about 30 and 40 percent CaO and about 20 to 25 percent pozzolanic material. (Little, 2009)

The purpose of this document is not to establish specific guidelines regarding composition of by- product LKD or by-product CKD as the oxide composition of each can vary widely depending on the composition of the feed stock, the nature of the fuel, the burning efficiency, and the mechanism and efficiency of flue dust capture. For example if coal is used, then ash produced as a by-product of burning coal could be captured in the bag house or other mechanism used to capture exhaust fines with the by-product lime. If the source of the LKD is from the production of dolomitic lime, then magnesium oxide may form a significant part of the LKD. Magnesium oxide, MgO, takes longer and is more difficult to fully hydrate than CaO, and upon hydration it expands. If the LKD contains more than about 5 percent MgO then care should be taken to insure full hydration of the MgO if this LKD is used for modification or stabilization. (Little, 2009)

Again, it is incumbent upon the agency involved to determine acceptable levels of oxides and trace elements that comprise the by-product.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) B. By-product Stabilizers Like traditional

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) As a general guide on

As a general guide on the level of risk associated with the presence of oxides and trace elements in these by product stabilizers, the development of expansive mineral products may become intolerable when the S0 3 content exceeds about 3 percent or when the MgO content exceeds about 3 to 5 percent. The impact of organics can also be a problem as their presence can interfere with the availability of calcium to the soil or aggregate being treated. Several tests can be used to screen for the presence of organics. One quick test if loss on ignition (LOI). Although it does not identify the type of organic, which is definitely important, an LOI of greater than about 8 to 10 percent flags a potentially problematic quantity of organics.

C. Non Traditional Stabilizers

This standard practice is limited to traditional, chemical stabilizers like: Portland cement, lime and fly ash. However, it is important when considering treatment with these traditional products to broach the subject of non-traditional or alternative stabilizers.

The mechanism of stabilization for non-traditional stabilizers varies greatly among the stabilizers. Asphalt may or may not be grouped as a traditional stabilizer depending on perspective. Asphalt is not a “chemical” stabilizer in the sense that it does not react chemically with the soil to produce a product that alters surface chemistry of the soil particles or that binds particles together. Instead asphalt waterproofs aggregate and soil particles by coating them and developing an adhesive bond among the particles and the asphalt binder. The process is dependent on the surface energies of the aggregate or soil and the asphalt binder. Consequently, since this mechanism is more physical than chemical, soils with very high surface areas are not amenable to asphalt stabilization and such stabilization is normally limited to granular materials such as gravels or sands, and perhaps some silty sands. As a visco-elastic, visco-plastic material, temperature and/or dilution methods are required to make asphalt stabilization effective in soils. Either lower viscosity liquid asphalts (normally developed by mixing bitumen with diluents) or emulsified asphalts are used in soil stabilization. Because the nature of asphalt stabilization is so mechanistically different from chemical stabilization, asphalt stabilization is not considered as a candidate in this standard practice. (Little, 2009)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) As a general guide on

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The mechanisms of stabilization of

The mechanisms of stabilization of other non-traditional stabilizers including sulfonated oils, enzymes, ionic stabilizers, etc. are discussed in detail by Petry and Little .Such stabilizers may have a role in modification and/or stabilization, especially when high soluble sulfate contents in the soil limits the applicability of calcium-based, traditional stabilizers. (Little, 2009)

2.2.3 Stabilization of Expansive Soil Using Agricultural Byproduct

Agricultural by-products are the outputs generated from the processing of various agricultural products. An attempt has been made by researchers to use agricultural bi products as soil stabilizers. Some research works conducted on stabilization of expansive soil using agricultural byproducts, approve agricultural byproducts usually coming from the combustion process, such as fly ash and RHA, have pozzolanic properties. Pozzolanas are siliceous and aluminous materials, which in itself possess little or no cementitious value, but will, in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties (ASTM 595).

This paper will also try to assess the feasibility of using rice husk ash (RHA) as an expansive soil stabilizer.

2.2.3.1 Rice Husk Ash

Rice husk is a major agriculture byproduct obtained from the food crop of rice. Rice husk ash (RHA) is the ash produced by burning of rice husk. During milling of rice about 78% of weight is received as rice, broken rice and fiber. Rest 22% of the weight of paddy is received as husk. Burning of rice husk generates about 15-25% of its weight as ash. RHA is difficult to coagulate and thus contributes to air and water pollution. Additionally cumulative generation of ash requires large space for its disposal. (Koteswara, 2011)

2.2.3.2 Rice Husk Ash as soil stabilizer

On reviewing of past studies and researches a considerable amount of research concerning stabilization of soil with additives such as cement, lime, lime- fly ash and salt are available in the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The mechanisms of stabilization of

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) literature. But soil stabilization with

literature. But soil stabilization with rice husk ash (RHA) is relatively new method. Some research works which are conducted on expansive soil stabilization using rice husk ash confirm the suitability of this material for soil stabilization as an admixture with lime and cement. But still its suitability as a standalone material is still questionable.

The normal method of conversion of husk to ash is incineration. Properties of RHA depend upon, whether the husk have undergone complete destructive combustion or have been partially burnt. RHA has been classified into high carbon char, low carbon ash and carbon free ash. Different factors influencing ash properties are incineration condition (temperature and duration), rate of heating, geographic location, fineness, color and crop variety and year of crop production. Research studies have shown that physical and chemical properties of ash are dependent on the soil chemistry, paddy variety and climatic conditions. Studies have also shown that difference may be due to fertilizers applied during the cultivation. The chemical composition of RHA from the various location as reported by A Muthadi, (2007) shows that the variation in chemical composition. All other constituents are available in small range. Color changes are associated with the completeness of combustion process as well as structural transformations of silica in the ash. Ash of white color is an indication of complete oxidation of the carbon, which is also an indication of availability of large portion of amorphous silica in the ash. (Basha, 2004)

2.2.3.3 Availability of Rice Husk Ash in Ethiopia

In order to assess the potential of RHA production in Ethiopia, it is imperative to evaluate the rice production in the country.

Rice is among the important cereal crops grown in different parts of Ethiopia as food crop. The country has immense potentials for growing the crop. It is reported that the potential rice production area in Ethiopia is estimated to be about 5.4 million hectares. According to National Rice research and document strategy (2009), the trend in the number of rice producing farmers, area allocated and production shows high increase rate especially since 2006. The number of farmers engaged in rice production has increased from about 53 thousand in 2006 to about 260 thousand in 2008. Similarly, the area allocated has increased from about 18 thousand in 2006 to

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) literature. But soil stabilization with

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) about 90 thousand ha in

about 90 thousand ha in 2008 along with production increase from about 150 thousand tones in 2006 to about 286 thousand tones in 2008. As presented in Table 3.1, there is an increased trend in area allocation and production of rice in Ethiopia (NRRDS, 2009).( Astewel, 2010)

Table 2.8 Area covered, yield and productivity of rice in Ethiopia

Season

No farmers

Area(ha)

Production(ton)

2006/07

53,902

18,527

na

2007/08

  • 149868 48,966

 

122,302

2008/09

  • 260328 90,547

 

285,924

2010/11

  • 260328 90,547

 

500,000

Note: na=data not available Source: NRRDS, 2009

Shahi (1985) on his study explains that Ethiopia does not grow rice at present, but around 250,000 ha in the near future and around 1 million ha in the distant future could come under rice cultivation. According to Tareke (2003), four rice ecosystems were identified in Ethiopia. These are: upland rice, rain fed lowland rice (Hydromorphic), irrigated lowland ecosystem, and paddy rice (with or without irrigation). Out of the total national production of rice in 2008, 40% is produced in the Amhara regional state, 1.14% in Tigray region, 0.41% in Benshangul-Gumz, 7.23 % in Oromia, and 1.55 % in Gambella ,13.33% in Somalia, 27.18% Southern region (NRRDS,

2009).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) about 90 thousand ha in

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.2.4 Previous Studies 2.2.4.1 Cementitious

2.2.4 Previous Studies

2.2.4.1 Cementitious Stabilization

Musema, R., (2014) studied stabilization of expansive soil using lime in a case of Adura- Burbey DS6 Road Segment. The experimental study involved Atterberg limit, moisture- density relation and CBR tests. The conclusions and findings drawn from the study are;

The addition of lime to the tested samples led to the reduction in liquid limit, plasticity index and an increase in plastic limit of the soil sample at a specific location.

The plastic limit of the blended samples has not shown a clear trend as it increases from 0 to 2% and starts decreasing from 2% to 12%.

Both samples have shown a reduction in plasticity index with the addition of lime. And the plasticity index of both samples has improved from its high swelling potentials to low swelling potentials with the addition of 12% lime.

The reduction in plasticity limit is an indication of a marked increase in workability which in turn expedites manipulation and placement of the treated soil. Workability is improved because flocculation makes the clay more friable; this assists combination for effective mixing and compaction.

The addition of lime has resulted in an increase of the shrinkage limit of the soil.

The addition of lime has resulted in a reduction of the free swell of the soil. As the percentage of stabilizer increased, free swell ratio decreased.

The addition of lime has a positive effect in increasing the specific gravity of the soil samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 2.2.4 Previous Studies 2.2.4.1 Cementitious

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The addition of lime for

The addition of lime for the studied soil has resulted in an increase in optimum moisture content and reduction of maximum dry density for the same compaction effort.

The optimum lime content in improving the CBR of the soil from its poor subgrade quality to poor to fair class is found out as 12 percent.

The addition of lime has resulted in an increase of the unconfined compressive strength of the tested samples.

The addition of optimum lime content has resulted in an improvement of the overall performance of the subgrade by increasing its strength and other

workability criteria‘s for the project.

By addition of lime, the swelling percentage decreased considerably. The reduction was higher for lime added samples having more lime content.

The addition of lime up to 12% does not bring a significant improvement in California bearing ratio which falls in the range of 7-20 percent. But the achievement in Improving the subgrade quality is cost effective because this will reduce the use of borrow materials on the project

Wubeshet, M., (2013) studied the stabilizing effect of Bagasse ash on the engineering properties of potentially expansive subgrade soils on samples collected from Addis Ababa. The experimental study involved Atterberg limit, moisture-density relation and CBR tests. The conclusions and findings drawn from the study are;

The plasticity index slightly reduced with increased in bagasse ash content and curing has also an insignificant effect on the plasticity of the expansive soil.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The addition of lime for

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The optimum moisture content increased

The optimum moisture content increased while the maximum dry density values decreased with increment of bagasse ash content.

Free swell, free swell

index and free swell ratio of the stabilized samples

decreased with increasing bagasse ash content.

CBR values slightly increased with the addition of bagasse ash. The change in CBR value is not significant for both cured and uncured samples. Addition of bagasse ash alone does not improve the strength of soils due to presence of only reactive silica with low amount of calcium content in bagasse ash.

The plasticity index significantly decreased with addition of bagasse ash combined with lime and increased curing period. However, the addition of bagasse ash alone has a minor effect on the plasticity index of expansive soil.

The addition of lime and bagasse ash together led to a more decrease of the maximum dry density and increase in optimum moisture content compared to the addition of lime and bagasse ash separately.

The addition of bagasse ash in combination with lime improved the CBR value. The improvement is more significant when the sample is cured. Hence, combination of bagasse ash and lime can strongly improve the strength of the expansive soil.

Unlike lime in combination with bagasse ash the improvement achieved by bagasse ash alone on the poor geotechnical properties of expansive soil was limited because lower amount of calcium in the bagasse ash. Hence, improvements achieved with up 70 to 30% bagasse ash content were not satisfactory. However, the rate of swelling and heave decreased with increasing bagasse ash content of stabilized expansive soil.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The optimum moisture content increased

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) In this investigation bagasse ash

In this investigation bagasse ash stabilized expansive soil does not bring significant change for use it as a sub-grade material. Therefore, bagasse ash is not an effective standalone stabilizer for highly plastic expansive soils. However, bagasse ash plus/in combination with lime can effectively stabilize this soils. The expansive soil stabilized with bagasse ash plus/in combination with lime can be used as a good subgrade material. So, combining two local materials (bagasse ash and lime) can effectively improve the poor geotechnical properties of this soils and help in increasing land resources availability for construction projects and reduce the amountof lime needed for the stabilization purpose.

Nigussie, E., (2011) studied stabilization of highly plastic clay collected from Addis Ababa using sodium silicate and its combination with lime. The experimental study involved Atterberg limit, moisture-density relation and CBR tests. The conclusions and findings drawn from the study are;

6% lime yielded significant improvement on plasticity and strength properties of expansive soils.

No significant improvement in the engineering properties of the soil was attained by addition of sodium silicate.

The addition of sodium silicate changes clayey sand sample of PI 16 % in to non- plastic and resulted in a minimum of 11.96 % reduction in PI of expansive soil PI 92 % which led to the belief that sodium silicate decreases plasticity of soils.

Carbonation has detrimental reversing effects on plasticity index of soils attained by stabilization.

Sodium silicate is not a suitable additive for montmorillonitic clay (expansive soil) stabilization.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) In this investigation bagasse ash

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Mixing sodium silicate with lime

Mixing sodium silicate with lime is not a viable option for montmorillonitic clay (expansive soil) stabilization.

Applying 1% sodium silicate by dry weight of the soil in concert with ordinary Portland cement has positive implications on strength development of soil- cement.

Sodium silicate has inhibiting effect on strength development of soil-cement when its quantity is increased to and beyond 2.5% by dry weight of the soil.

Proper curing is mandatory for strength development of cementitious stabilizers. Curing also enhances strength of soils treated with sodium silicate.

Varying the mode of mixing does not bring a change in dry density of expansive clay treated with sodium silicate; however, sodium silicate should not be directly applied to cementitious stabilizers as it forms hydration products before the soil can be engaged in the reaction.

Argu, Y., (2008) studied stabilization of light grey and red clay subgrade soil collected from Addis Ababa using SA-44/LS-40 chemical and lime. The experimental study involved Atterberg limit, moisture-density relation, swelling pressure and CBR tests. The conclusions and findings drawn from the study are;

8% lime yielded significant improvement on plasticity, swelling and strengthproperties of expansive soils.

The applications of SA-44/LS-40 chemical alone are ineffective in improving the soaked CBR value of the red clay and light grey soils.

The application of 0.30lit/m3 of SA-44/LS-40 chemical and 2% lime is an optimum proportion in increasing the soaked CBR value and reducing the swelling pressure of the light grey clay soil.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Mixing sodium silicate with lime

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The application of 0.08lit/m3 of

The application of 0.08lit/m3 of SA-44/LS-40 chemical and 4% lime is an optimum proportion in increasing the soaked CBR value of the red clay soil.

Nebro, D., (2002) evaluated lime and liquid stabilizer called Con-Aid for stabilization of potentially expansive subgrade soil on samples collected form Addis-Jimma road which had indicated different pavement damages exacerbated by the presence of expansive soils. The experimental study involved Atterberg limit test, moisture-density relation, UCS, CBR and CBR swell. The findings and conclusions of the study can be summarized as follows:

Addition of lime reduced maximum dry density and increased the optimum moisture content.

4% of lime by dry weight of the soil was optimum lime content to stabilize the soil even though increased quantity of lime led to increased strength.

Addition of lime reduces the swelling potential but no significant improvement in the engineering properties of the soil was attained by addition of Con-Aid.

Tesfaye, A., (2001) studied improvement of expansive soil by addition of lime and cement on black cotton soil from different parts of Addis Ababa. Index properties, compaction characteristics and swelling pressure of soil-cement and soil-lime were determined using Atterberg limit test, moisture-density relations, free swell and swelling pressure tests. The conclusions and findings drawn from the study are;

Expansive soil becomes moderately active to inactive based on the amount of lime and cement added.

Swelling pressure of expansive soil decreases with increasing lime, cement and molding water content.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The application of 0.08lit/m3 of

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 4-6% of lime and 9-12%

4-6% of lime and 9-12% of cement yielded significant improvement on plasticity and swelling properties of expansive soils.

2.2.4.2 RHA Stabilization

On reviewing past studies and researches stabilization of expansive soils with RHA is relatively a

new method and couldn’t find literatures efficiently.

A.S. Muntohar(2009) made a laboratory study on stabilization of Three types of soils namely residual soil, kaolinite soil and bentonite using RHA and cement. Experimental studies include evaluation of index properties of soil and compaction, along with characterization of materials by X-ray diffraction. The test results showed that both cement and RHA reduced the plasticity of soils. A decrease in MDD and an increase in OMC was also observed

Musa Alhassan (2008) reported the use of rice husk ash for stabilization of lateritic soil of Maikunkela area of Minna, Nigeria. Performance of soil-RHA was investigated w.r.t. compaction characteristics, CBR and UCS. Test result indicated a general decrease in MDD and increase in OMC with increase in RHA content. In addition to this, improvement in CBR and UCS were observed under the application of RHA & max. UCS recorded at 6-8% RHA.

Bhasin et al. (1988) made a laboratory study on the stabilization of black cotton soil as a pavement material using RHA, along with other industrial wastes like fly ash, bagasse ash, lime sludge, black sulphite liquor independently with and without lime. The RHA caused greater improvement than that caused by other wastes due to presence of higher percentage of reactive silica in it. In combination with lime, RHA improved the properties of black cotton soil significantly.

Fidelis Okafor et al (2009) studied Effect of RHA on geotechnical properties of soil classified as A-2-6 or SW for sub grade purpose. The investigation included evaluation of

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 4-6% of lime and 9-12%

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) properties such as compaction, consistency

properties such as compaction, consistency limits and strength of soil with RHA content of 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5% by weight of dry soil. The results obtained showed that the increase in RHA increased the OMC but decreased the MDD. Increase in RHA content reduces plasticity and increased volume stability as well as strength of soil. 10% RHA content was observed to be the optimum content.

Hossain Anwar, K. (2011) evaluated the effectiveness of Cement kiln dust, rice husk ash, and their combinations in different percentages (maximum up to 20%) as expansive clay soil stabilizer. Correlations between strength, modulus of elasticity and CBR were established. It is reported that, developed stabilized soil mixtures have shown satisfactory strength and durability characteristics and can be used for low-cost construction to build houses and road infrastructures.

Edeh J. E. et al (2012) made Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of rice hush ash (RHA) stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) subjected to British Standard light; BSL (standard Proctor) compactive effort to determine the compaction characteristics and CBR values was carried out. Test results showed that the properties of RAP improved when treated with RHA, using up to 2% cement additive. The particle size grading improved from 100% coarse aggregates for 100% RAP to 10 - 90% coarse aggregate with 10 - 90% fines for the various RAP + RHA mixtures containing up to 2% cement. The CBR values also increased from 8 and 14% for the unsoaked and soaked conditions, respectively, for 100% RAP content to 73 and 79% (soaked condition) for 89.25% RAP in the RAP/RHA mix proportions with 1.5% cement/89% RAP content in the RAP/RHA mix proportions with 2% cement content, with corresponding unsoaked CBR values of 28 and 26%, respectively. Generally, soaked samples recorded higher CBR values than unsoaked samples. The RHA stabilized RAP mix proportions with 89.25% RAP/1.5% cement content, and 89% RAP/2% cement content with CBR values of 73 and 79% (soaked for 24 hours) can be used as subbase or subgrade materials in road construction.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) properties such as compaction, consistency

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Muntohar and Hantoro (2000)

Muntohar and Hantoro (2000) had studied the stabilizing effects of RHA and lime on engineering properties of expansive soil and had found improvement in engineering properties like IP, CBR, shear strength parameters, Sp etc.

Basha et al. (2003) had studied the effects of RHA and cement on plasticity and compaction properties of expansive soil (bentonite) and had recommended that 10-15% of RHA and 6-8% of cement as optimum percentages for stabilization.

Ramakrishna and Pradeep Kumar (2006) had studied combined effects of RHA and cement on engineering properties of black cotton soil. From strength characteristics point of view they had recommended 8% cement and 10% RHA as optimum dose for stabilization.

Sharma et al. (2008) had investigated the behavior of expansive clay stabilized with lime, calcium chloride and RHA. The optimum percentage of lime and calcium chloride was found to be 4% and 1% respectively in stabilization of expansive soil without addition of RHA. From UCS and CBR point of view, when the soil was mixed with lime or calcium chloride, RHA content of 12% was found to be the optimum. In expansive soil RHA mixes, 4% lime and 1% calcium chloride were also found to be optimum.

Rao et al. (2011) had studied the effects of RHA, lime and gypsum on engineering properties of expansive soil and found that UCS increased by 548% at 28 days of curing and CBR increased by 1350% at 14 days curing at RHA- 20%, lime -5% and gypsum -

3%.

Sabat (2012) had studied the effects of polypropylene fiber on engineering properties of RHA-lime stabilized expansive soil. Polypropylene fiber added were 0.5 to 2% at an increment of 0.5%.The properties determined were compaction, UCS, soaked CBR, hydraulic conductivity and Ps. The effect of 0,7 and 28 days of curing ware also studied on UCS, soaked CBR, hydraulic conductivity and Ps .The optimum proportion of soil:

RHA: lime: fiber was found to be 84.5:10:4:1.5.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Muntohar and Hantoro (2000)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Sabat (2013) had studied

Sabat (2013) had studied the effect of lime sludge (from paper manufacturing industry) on compaction, CBR, shear strength parameters, coefficient of compression, Ps and durability of an expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of RHA after 7days of curing. The optimum proportion soil: RHA: lime sludge was found to be 75:10:15.

Ashango and Patra (2014) had studied the static and cyclic properties of clay subgrade stabilized with RHA and Portland slag cement. The optimum percentage of RHA was found to be 10% and Portland slag cement as 7.5% for stabilization of expansive soil. They concluded that the stabilized expansive soil was found suitable for subgrade of flexible pavement as, there was significant increase in strength and the stabilized soil was durable.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)  Sabat (2013) had studied

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS

CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS

  • 3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, description and classification of materials used and the methods adopted for the research are presented.

  • 3.2 Sample Collection

    • 3.2.1 Expansive Soil

The soil used in this study is a black clay soil obtained from a single test pit in Akaki area, Addis Ababa. A disturbed soil sample was collected from the test pit at a depth below 1.0 m in order to avoid the inclusion of organic matter.

  • 3.2.2 Rice Husk Ash

The rice husk ash (RHA) used in this study was collected from Woreta town on the way from Bahir Dar to Gondar. The sample was obtained from a local rice milling factory in the area.

.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 3.1 Rice husk Fig.
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 3.1 Rice husk Fig.

Fig. 3.1 Rice husk

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 3.1 Rice husk Fig.

Fig. 3.2 Rice Husk Ash

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Fig. 3.1 Rice husk Fig.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.3 Material Characterization 3.3.1 Rice

3.3 Material Characterization

3.3.1 Rice Husk Ash

3.3.1.1 RHA Preparation

The collected Rice husk was burnt under uncontrolled condition (open burning) to obtain the ash. After complete burning, the ash is allowed to cool for another 24 hours ,the burnt ash was taken out for grinding then after the rice husk ash was sieved through ASTM sieve size # 200 (0.075mm) and the fractions passing through the sieve were used throughout the tests. The sieved ash was immediately stored in air tight containers to avoid pre-hydration during storage or when left in open air. Figure 3.3 shows the products obtained after the process, i.e. rice husk ash (RHA).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.3 Material Characterization 3.3.1 Rice
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.3 Material Characterization 3.3.1 Rice

Rice Husk

After burning the husk (RHA)

After grinding & Sieving (RHA)

Figure 3.3: The RHA preparation process

3.3.1.2 Physical Properties

The weight of rice husk is about 20% of the rice weight and Burning of rice husk generates about 15-25% of its weight as ash. The ash color depends on burning process, when it’s completely burned it will result in whitish gray ash, if it’s partially burned it result in black ash. The Specific gravity of the ash is about 2.11.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.3 Material Characterization 3.3.1 Rice

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.3.1.3 Pozzolanic Properties According to

3.3.1.3 Pozzolanic Properties

According to ASTM C618 Pozzolanic material is 'a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which, in itself, possesses little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form in the presence of moisture, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties'.

From the chemical analysis test, the chemical composition of the RHA used in this study was

obtained as shown in table 3.1. (As analyzed by Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Central Laboratory)

Table 3.1 Chemical Composition of RHA

No

Parameters

Test Values

I

Chemical Properties

1

Silica (SiO2)

64%

2

Alumina (Al2O3)

5.25%

3

Iron II Oxide (Fe2O3)

1.17%

4

Calcium Oxide (CaO)

1.48%

5

Magnesia (MgO)

4.64%

6

Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

<0.01%

7

Potassium Oxide (k2O)

9.41%

8

Manganese Oxide (MnO)

0.25%

9

Phosphorus Penta Oxide(P2O5)

2.89%

10

Tin Oxide (Ti O2)

0.16%

11

Water (H2O)

1.99%

12

Loss On Ignition (LOI)

7.41%

 

Physical properties

 
  • 1 Specific gravity

2.11

 
  • 2 Colour

Whitish Grey

Based on ASTM C618 the result showed that the RHA fulfilled the requirements to N & F class of pozzolan where the SiO2 + Al 2 O 3 +Fe 2 O 3 = 70.42 %(> 70% and 50%), SO3 =0 (<4% and 5%) Moisture content =1.99% (<3%) and LOI 7.41% (<10%).

Depending on the burning temperature, latest research showed that amorphous silica will be produced at burning temperature up to 700°C and above that temperature regime will resulted in crystalline silica (Sensale, 2006). The best temperature for producing highly amorphous silica is between 500-700°C as suggested by Nair (Ramezanianpour, Khani, and Ahmadibeni, 2009).

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.3.1.3 Pozzolanic Properties According to

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) RHA reactivity depends on the

RHA reactivity depends on the amorphous/crystalline ratio (Payá, 2001) and when rice husk was burnt at uncontrolled temperature, it tends to produce crystalline silica and consequently poor pozzolanic properties (Riza, 2011). The RHA used in this study was burnt in uncontrolled condition (open burning) therefore, it can be said the RHA used in this study produces crystalline silica with poor pozolanic properties.

3.3.2 Specification of Soil

The collected soil samples were prepared for test by drying, pulverizing (for expansive clay) and screened through the sieve of 4.75 mm aperture before preparing the specimens for testing. Grain size analysis of samples was determined according to ASTM D 422. Index properties of soils were determined using Atterberg limit test according to ASTM D 4318. Soil classification was made according to ASTM D 2487 and AASHTO soil classification standards. According to the AASHTO classification systems, the soil is classified as A-7-5 and according to the Unified soil classification systems soil is CH (Clay with high plasticity). Results are presented in table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Soil Classification

 

Index properties

 

Soil Classification

 
       

Free

ASTM

D

AASHTO

Swell

2487 (Unified

standards

Description

LL (%)

PL (%)

PI (%)

(%)

Soil

Classification

       

System)

         

CH ( Clays with high

 

Soil

Sample

106

50

56

155

plasticity)

A-7-5

3.4 Preparation of Testing Samples

The collected soils and ash contents were oven-dried at 105 0 C overnight to remove moisture. Then the oven dried samples were mixed thoroughly by hand in a large tray in a dry state to get uniform mix ration for each test.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) RHA reactivity depends on the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5 Laboratory Studies The testing

3.5 Laboratory Studies

The testing program conducted on the clayey soil samples included determination of the workability, strength and compaction characteristics of soils at their natural state. On the other hand, the testing program conducted on the clayey soil samples mixed with different percentages of rice husk ash, included Atterberg Limits, compaction, unconfined compression test, swell consolidation and CBR test.

  • 3.5.1 Atterberg Limits

The test includes the determination of the liquid limits, plastic limits and the plasticity index for the natural soil and the soil-RHA mixtures. The tests are conducted for uncured, 7 and 14 days cured stabilized soil samples in accordance with ASTM D 4318 testing procedures.

  • 3.5.1.1 Liquid limit:

The liquid limit test was conducted on clay soil and soil mixed with (0, 5, 10 and 15 %) rice husk

using Casagrande’s liquid limit apparatus as per the procedures laid down in ASTM D 4318-00.

  • 3.5.1.2 Plastic limit:

The plastic limit test was conducted on clay soil sample and soil mixed with (0, 5, 10 and 15 %)

rice husk, as per the specifications laid down in ASTM D 4318-00.

  • 3.5.2 Particle Size Distribution

The test includes the determination of the particle size distribution for the natural soil. The tests are conducted in accordance with AASHTO T88-93 testing procedures.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5 Laboratory Studies The testing

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5.3 Specific Gravity Specific gravity
  • 3.5.3 Specific Gravity

Specific gravity measures of heaviness of

the

soil

particles.

The

test

includes

the

determination of the specific gravity for the natural soil.

The specific gravity test was

conducted on the soil in accordance with ASTM D 854- 02 testing procedure.

  • 3.5.4 Free Swell Tests

The test includes the determination of the free swell for the natural soil and soil-RHA mixture. This test has not yet been standardized by AASHTO and ASTM. The method was suggested by Holtz and Gibbs, (1956) to measure the expansive potential of cohesive soils.

  • 3.5.5 Compaction

Soil compaction consists of closing, packing the soil particles together the soil particles, so that increases the dry unit weight. Soil compaction only reduces the air void in the soil. These tests were performed in accordance with ASTM D 1557 to determine the maximum dry density (MDD) and the optimum moisture content (OMC) of the soils. The degree of compaction of soil influences several of its engineering properties such as CBR value, compressibility, stiffness, compressive strength, permeability, shrink, and swell potential. It is, therefore, important to achieve the desired degree of relative compaction necessary to meet the required soil characteristics.

The soil mixtures, with and without additives, were thoroughly mixed with various moisture contents. The first series of compaction tests were aimed at determining the compaction properties of the unstabilized soils. Secondly, tests were carried out to determine the proctor compaction properties of the clay upon stabilization with varying percentage of RHA.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5.3 Specific Gravity Specific gravity

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5.6 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)

3.5.6 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)

The unconfined compressive strength test is applicable only in cohesive soils. The UCS values are determined in accordance with AASHTO T- 20.

3.5.7 California bearing ratio (CBR) and CBR Swell

The CBR test indirectly measures the shearing resistance of a soil under controlled moisture and density conditions. A soil mass is prepared in accordance with standards and tests were conducted in accordance with AASHTO T193-99.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 3.5.6 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER FOUR TEST RESULTS AND

CHAPTER FOUR

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 General

In this chapter laboratory test results are presented and their analysis is briefly discussed. The relevant engineering property of the soil is evaluated both for natural and stabilized soil samples separately. The tests include Atterberg limits, free swell, compaction, UCS, swell consolidation and CBR. All the tests were conducted on black clay soil mixed with different percentage off RHA for both uncured and 7 and 14 days cured soil samples.

4.2 Properties of Materials Used in the Study 4.2.1 Natural Soil

A Black clay soil was used in this study. The following laboratory tests were conducted on the natural soil sample.

Atterberg limits

Grain size analysis

Specific Gravity

Natural moisture content

Compaction

Swelling pressure test

UCS

Soaked and Un-soaked CBR and CBR swell tests

From the summary of the test result shown in Table 5.1, the natural soil can be characterized as highly expansive and of high plasticity. On the particle size distribution curve almost 93.69 % of the soil is passing through No. 200 sieve; it exhibits a liquid limit of 106%, a plastic limit of 50% and plasticity index of 56%. Hence, these values indicate that the soil is highly plastic clay. Accordingly the soil falls under the A-7-5 soil class based on AASHTO soil classification system

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER FOUR TEST RESULTS AND

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and CH based on USCS

and CH based on USCS soil classification system. The free swell result of the soil also indicates that the soil is highly expansive clay with a free swell of about 155%. The soil has a maximum dry density of 1.18g/cm 3 , optimum moisture content of 42.5%, UCS value of 166 kPa, soaked CBR value of 0.90% and unsoaked CBR value of 11.74%. These results have been summarized in table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Test results of natural soil

Properties

Values

% of passing sieve # 200

93.69%

Specific gravity

2.77

Liquid limit

106%

Plastic limit

50%

Plasticity Index

56%

Free swell

155%

Moisture content

38.78%

Compaction

MDD=1.18 g/cm 3 , OMC=42.5 %

Soaked CBR (1 Pt)

0.9%

Un-Soaked CBR (1 Pt)

11.74%

CBR Swell

10%

UCS

  • 166 kPa

Swelling Pressure

  • 300 kPa

USCS Classification

CH (Highly plastic clay)

AASHTO Classification

A-7-5

Colour

Black

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and CH based on USCS

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE 100.00
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE 100.00 95.00 90.00 85.00 80.00 75.00 70.00 65.00 60.00 10 1 0.1
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE
100.00
95.00
90.00
85.00
80.00
75.00
70.00
65.00
60.00
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
PARTICLE SIZE IN , mm
% PASS

Fig 4.1 Particle size distribution of expansive soil sample

4.2.2 Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

The properties of the RHA presented in table 3.1, while the laboratory test result is attached in

Appendix 6.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE 100.00

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 4.3 Test Results of treated

4.3 Test Results of treated soil samples

4.3.1 Effect of RHA on Atterberg Limits

The variation of plasticity index for soil and rice husk ash combinations with the different percentages are shown in Figure 4.2 for both uncured and 7 and 14 days cured soil samples. It is observed that the plasticity index decreases with increasing in rice husk ash content for soil-RHA stabilized samples. However the rate of decrement is not significant. The liquid limit of soil decreases gradually with the increase of RHA content. Curing results an increase in PI. The plastic limit value increases with the increases of RHA. This increase of plastic limit implies that RHA treated soil required more water to change it plastic state to semisolid state.

Samples of soil RHA mixture showed the highest reduction in PI when they are treated with 10% RHA under uncured condition which is 33.9% reduction compared to untreated soil. The PI values showed slight increment with longer curing days. The maximum increment in plasticity is obtained for 14 days cured sample i.e. 2% increment in plasticity index compared to untreated soil.

In this study uncured 10 % RHA shows the optimum amount to reduce the plasticity of the soil. The data is not consistent in showing how the quantity of RHA relates to the reduction in PI. However, as shown in figure 5.4 there is a general tendency of decrease in plasticity associated with increased RHA content and the plasticity increased with curing time. In this context, it is

illustrated that reduction in PI of RHA stabilized soils is as a result of decrease in LLs and increase in plastics limits. It can be observed that RHA reduce the plasticity of soils insignificantly. However, curing has almost no effect. Detailed test results are given in Appendix

1.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 4.3 Test Results of treated

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of Liquid Limit 110

Summary of Liquid Limit

110 105 100 95 90 85 Uncured Cured, 7 days Cured, 14 days 80 0 2.5
110
105
100
95
90
85
Uncured
Cured, 7 days
Cured, 14 days
80
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
RHA Content , %
Summary of Plastic Limit
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Uncured
Cured, 7 days
Cured, 14 days
0
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
RHA Content , %
Plastic Limit (%)
Liquid Limit (%)

Figure 4.2: Variation of Liquid Limit with addition of different RHA contents for uncured and 7 &14 days cured samples

Figure 4.3: Variation of plastic limit with addition of different RHA contents for uncured and 7 &14 days cured samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of Liquid Limit 110

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of Plasticity Index 80

Summary of Plasticity Index

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Uncured Cured, 7 days Cured, 14 days 0
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Uncured
Cured, 7 days
Cured, 14 days
0
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
RHA Content , %
Plasticity Index (%)

Figure 4.4: Variation of plasticity index with addition of different RHA contents for uncured and 7 &14 days cured samples

4.3.2 Effect of RHA on Free swell

The effect of RHA on the free swell of the soil is shown in the figure 4.5, the application of RHA results in modest reduction in the free swell of soil. The reduction in free swell is directly proportional to the quantity of RHA. The highest reduction in free swell is attained when the expansive soil is treated with 5% RHA i.e. RHA reduces the heave by 35.4% from its natural state (155%). The free swell index gradually decreased from 155% to 100% for up to 5% RHA content, after the addition of 5% more RHA content with the soil, it increased from 100% to 110%. Further increase in RHA increases the free swell as compared to 5%, indicating that 5% is the optimum value for RHA. This is due to the low specific gravity of the RHA that it contributes to a reduction in density and leads to volume increment.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of Plasticity Index 80

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of Free Swell Tests

Summary of Free Swell Tests

180.0 160.0 140.0 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25
180.0
160.0
140.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
RHA Content (%)
Free Swell (%)

Figure 4.5: Variation of Free swell with addition of different RHA contents

4.3.3 Effect of RHA on Compaction 4.3.3.1 Maximum Dry Density

Figure 4.6 shows the variation of MDD of expansive soil with addition of different percentage of Rice husk ash. MDD goes on decreasing irrespective of the increase in percentage of addition of RHA. The maximum reduction of MDD for RHA treated soil is 10.17% which was obtained for 15% of RHA cured for 14 days. Also the MDD decreases with increase in number of curing days for each 5, 10 and15% RHA contents.

Generally the maximum dry density of soil decreases gradually with an increase of RHA content for all uncured, 7 and 14 days cured soil samples. This is due to comparatively low specific gravity value (2.11) of RHA than that of replaced soil (2.77) i.e. RHA (with lower specific gravity) fills the soil voids and it contributes to a decrease in density. With an increase in curing days there may be a slight moisture loss from the optimum this may lead to a decrease in MDD with an increase in curing days.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of Free Swell Tests

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of MDD 1.2 1.15

Summary of MDD

1.2 1.15 1.1 1.05 1 0.95 uncured cured, 7 days cured, 14 days 0.9 0 2.5
1.2
1.15
1.1
1.05
1
0.95
uncured
cured, 7 days
cured, 14 days
0.9
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
RHA Content (%)
Maximum Dry density (g/cm3)

Figure 4.6: Variation of MDD with addition of different RHA contents for uncured and 7 &14 days cured sample

4.3.3.2 Optimum Moisture Content

Figure 4.7 shows the variation of OMC of expansive soil with addition of different percentage of Rice husk ash. The OMC of treated soil increases from 42.5% to 45 % for uncured, to 45% for 7 days cured and to 47% for 14 days cured soil samples with increased RHA content form 0 to15%. Generally the OMC of soil increases with an increase of RHA content for all uncured, 7 & 14 days cured soil samples. (Eberemu, 2013) observed a similar trend in RHA treated expansive soil from Nigeria; he suggested that the OMC increased due to reduction of free silt and free clay fraction in the soil forming a coarser material, a process requiring water to take place, thus more water is absorbed as RHA content increases, the increase of water content was also attributed by the pozzalanic reaction of RHA with the soil. And he also suggested that the more fines the more surface area, so more water is required to provide well lubrication.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of MDD 1.2 1.15

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of OMC 50 48

Summary of OMC

50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 uncured cured, 7 days cured, 14
50
48
46
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
uncured
cured, 7 days
cured, 14 days
30
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
RHA Content (%)
Optimum Moisture Content (%)

Figure 4.7: Variation of OMC with application of different RHA contents for 0, 7 & 14 days curing

Figure 4.8, 4.9 &4.10 summarizers the OMC- MDD relationships for uncured, 7 & 14 days cured samples respectively; the entire compaction curve is bell shaped. These curves slightly shifted to the right as compared to untreated soil sample, which also means addition of RHA decreased the maximum dry density and increased the optimum moisture content.

Uncured 1.20 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 0 % RHA 5% RHA 10 % RHA 15% RHA
Uncured
1.20
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.12
0 % RHA
5% RHA
10 % RHA
15% RHA
1.10
1.08
1.06
1.04
1.02
1.00
20
30
40
50
60
70
Moisture content(%)
Dry density (g/cm3)

Fig. 4.8: Summary of compaction curves with application of different RHA contents for uncured samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Summary of OMC 50 48

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 7 Days Cured 1.20 0
7 Days Cured 1.20 0 % RHA 1.15 5% RHA 1.10 10 % RHA 15% RHA
7 Days Cured
1.20
0 % RHA
1.15
5% RHA
1.10
10 % RHA
15% RHA
1.05
1.00
0.95
0.90
20
30
40
50
60
70
Moisture content(%)
14 Days Cured
1.20
0 % RHA
5% RHA
1.15
10 % RHA
1.10
15% RHA
1.05
1.00
0.95
0.90
20
30
40
50
60
70
Moisture content(%)
Dry density (g/cm3)
Dry density (g/cm3)

Fig.4.9: Summary of compaction curves with application of different RHA contents for 7 days cured samples

Fig. 4.10: Summary of compaction curves with application of different RHA contents for 14days cured samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 7 Days Cured 1.20 0

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The details of compaction curves

The details of compaction curves are shown in Appendix 2 for 5%, 10% and 15% RHA contents. All those bell shaped curves slightly shifted to the right as compared to untreated soil sample, which also means the optimum moisture content increases and the maximum dry density decreases as the curing period goes from 0 to 14 days.

4.3.4 Effect of RHA on UCS

Unconfined compressive strength test result is shown in Figures 4.11 to 4.14. These figures illustrate the stress-strain behavior of original and RHA treated soil. Initially the stress is gradually increases with the increase of strain. After attaining the peak stress, it decreases with the increase of strain for all the combination of RHA and soil. All the specimen shows shear failure.

The variation of unconfined compressive strength for soil at different percentages of RHA is also shown in Figure 4.15. There is a rapid increase of unconfined compressive strength from 166 kPa to 320 kPa with the addition of only 5% RHA. The maximum value of unconfined compressive strength 657 kPa was obtained for 10% of RHA content and 14 days of curing. After that, the value of unconfined compressive strength decreased from 657 kPa to 347 kPa for 15% of RHA content and 14 days of curing. So it can be accomplished that the maximum unconfined compressive strength were obtained at 10% of RHA and further addition of RHA, decreases the UCS of the expansive soil. It is observed that the unconfined compressive strength increase as the curing period increases; after that the value goes on decreasing with an increase of curing period. The maximum increment of UCS for RHA treated soil is 295 % which was obtained for 10% RHA and 14 days of curing.

Generally RHA has positive impact on the UCS values for all uncured, 7 and 14 days cured treated soil samples. Also the UCS of the treated soil increases with curing period. Detailed test results are given in Appendix 3. These results are compatible with the findings of Grytan & Rafiquel (2012) who studied stabilization of black cotton soil with rice husk ash. And they suggested that pozzolanic reactions of RHA with soil results in agglomeration in large size particles and causes the increase in compressive strength.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) The details of compaction curves

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Uncured 500 0%, o day
Uncured 500 0%, o day 450 5 % 400 10% 350 15% 300 250 200 150
Uncured
500
0%, o day
450
5
%
400
10%
350
15%
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Axial Strain, %
Axial Stress, kPa

Fig. 4.11: Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for uncured samples

7 Days Cured 600 0%, o day 500 5 % 10% 400 15% 300 200 100
7 Days Cured
600
0%, o day
500
5
%
10%
400
15%
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Axial Strain, %
Axial Stress, kPa

Fig. 4.12 Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for 7 days cured samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Uncured 500 0%, o day

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 14 Days Cured 700 600
14 Days Cured 700 600 0%, o day 5 % 500 10% 15% 400 300 200
14 Days Cured
700
600
0%, o day
5 %
500
10%
15%
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Axial Strain, %
Axial Stress, kPa

Fig. 4.13 Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for 14 days cured samples

28 Days Cured 700 0%, o day 600 5 % 10% 500 15% 400 300 200
28 Days Cured
700
0%, o day
600
5
%
10%
500
15%
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Axial strain, %
Axial Stress, kPa

Fig. 4.14 Summary of UCS curves with application of different RHA contents for 28 days cured samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 14 Days Cured 700 600

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) uncured 7 days cured 700
uncured 7 days cured 700 14 days cured 600 28 days cured 500 400 300 200
uncured
7 days cured
700
14 days cured
600
28 days cured
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
RHA Content, %
Axial Stress, kPa

Fig. 4.15 Variation of UCS with RHA for 0, 7, 14 and 28 days cured samples

4.3.5 Effect of RHA on CBR and CBR-Swell Values

CBR Values

The variations of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) with different percentage of soil and rice husk ash combinations are shown in Figures 4.16 and 4.17 for soaked and un-soaked conditions respectively. The maximum California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of 2.19% is found to occur with the combination of 10% Rice Husk Ash (RHA) contents under soaked condition and the maximum value of 44.28 % obtained for 15% of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) combination under un- soaked condition.

Un-soaked values of CBR showed an increasing trend with increasing percentages of RHA content. The maximum un-soaked CBR value has reached 44.28% for 15% RHA content and 14 days of curing. A very high rate of increment observed up to 10% RHA content and 7 days curing time. Further, even though CBR value increases, the rate of increment is not as high as in the beginning of curing period. The increment in the CBR value may be due to the gradual formation of cementitious compounds between the RHA and CaOH contained in the soil. When treating the expansive soil at 10% RHA content, the 14 days cured soil sample gives a peak soaked CBR value of 2.19 while that of 7 and 14 days cured soaked CBR value is 1.81, 2.1 respectively from a

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) uncured 7 days cured 700

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) value of 0.9 for the

value of 0.9 for the natural soil. The load bearing capacity of the sample shows insignificant increment with RHA treatment and also curing has almost no effect on the soaked CBR values.

CBR of the soil RHA mixture in soaked condition are significantly small as compared to the values corresponds in un-soaked condition. This may be due to presence of water under soaked condition, as water enters to the pores the capillary force reduced to zero. Water lubricates the soil-RHA particles and makes the mechanical interlock unstable, ultimately resulting in low CBR value. Addition of cement or lime to the soil RHA mix may improve the soaked CBR value due to the generation of cementitious gel between the RHA and Calcium contained in the cement/lime.

This shows that the load bearing capacity of the sample increased insignificantly with RHA treatment. Results also show that curing enhances the un-soaked CBR value of expansive soil treated with RHA. For example, for 5%, 10% and 15% RHA added to expansive clay, there is 56.4%, 71.33% and 84.17% increment in CBR of 7 days curing compared to uncured one; but curing has almost no effect on the soaked CBR values. Hence, the RHA ash treated black cotton soil do not meet the minimum criteria as specified by Ethiopian Roads Authority Pavement design manual (2002) specification for materials suitable for use as sub grade material . The RHA could be used in admixture stabilization.

Soaked CBR 2.5 2 1.5 1 uncured 0.5 7 days cured 14 days cured 0 0
Soaked CBR
2.5
2
1.5
1
uncured
0.5
7 days cured
14 days cured
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
RHA Content, %
CBR

Fig. 4.16: Variation of soaked CBR with application of different RHA content for uncured and 7 & 14 days cured samples

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) value of 0.9 for the

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Unsoaked CBR 50 45 40
Unsoaked CBR 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 uncured 15 10 7 days cured 5
Unsoaked CBR
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
uncured
15
10
7 days cured
5
14 days cured
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
RHA Content, %
CBR

Fig. 4.17: Variation of un-soaked CBR with application of different RHA content for uncured and 7 & 14 days cured samples

CBR-Swell

The effect of RHA on the CBR - Swell for the soil RHA mixtures are shown in Figure 4.18 for all uncured and 7 & 14 days cured samples. When treating the expansive soil at 15% RHA content the uncured soil-RHA sample gives CBR-swell of 6.2 % while that of 7 & 14 days cured CBR- swell is 6.4% from a value of 10% for the natural soil. CBR-swell of the expansive soil decreased insignificantly with an increase in RHA contents and curing has almost no effect on CBR swell values.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Unsoaked CBR 50 45 40

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CBR Swell 12 10 8
CBR Swell 12 10 8 6 4 uncured 7 days cured 2 14 days cured 0
CBR Swell
12
10
8
6
4
uncured
7 days cured
2
14 days cured
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
RHA Content, %
CBR Swell, %

Fig. 4.18: Variation of CBR Swell with application of different RHA content for uncured and 7 & 14 days cured samples

4.3.7 Effect of RHA on Swelling Pressure

The swelling pressure as shown in Figure 4.20 decreases with increase in RHA treatment. The swelling pressure decreased from 300kN/m2 at 0% RHA content to as low as 114 kN/m2 at 15% RHA content. This implies that as more rice husk ash is added, the lesser the swelling potential of the treated soil.

Table 4.2 Swelling Pressure for different RHA application

SWELLING PRESSURE 7 days

 

% RHA

0

5

10

15

SWELLING PRESSURE(kPa)

300

210

146

114

% Decrease of S.P

0

30

51.33

62

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CBR Swell 12 10 8

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 350 300 250 200 150
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 RHA
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
RHA CONTENT , %
SWELLING PRESSURE, kPa

Fig. 4.19: Variation of Swelling Pressure with application of different RHA content for 7 days cured sample

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 350 300 250 200 150

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion

The following conclusions can be drawn from the present investigation:

  • 1. The plasticity index slightly reduced with an increase in RHA content and curing has almost no effect on the plasticity of the expansive soil. The application of RHA results in modest reduction in the free swell of soil.

  • 2. The compaction characteristics showed a decrease in maximum dry density and increase in optimum moisture content with the increase in percentage of rice husk ash content. The maximum dry density (MDD) is observed to decrease slightly with longer curing duration; on the other hand the OMC of the treated sample increases with longer curing days.

  • 3. Un-soaked values of CBR showed an increasing trend with increasing percentages of RHA content; Results also show that curing enhances the un-soaked CBR value of expansive soil treated with RHA.

  • 4. CBR of the soil RHA mixture in soaked condition slightly increased with the addition of RHA but it is significantly small as compared to the corresponding values in un-soaked condition. The change in soaked CBR value is not significant for both cured and uncured samples. Addition of RHA alone does not improve the strength of soils since the formation of cementitious product is limited due to presence of only reactive silica with low amount of calcium content in RHA. Moreover this may be due to the presence of water under soaked condition, water lubricates the soil RHA particles and makes the mechanical interlock unstable, ultimately resulting in low CBR value.

  • 5. The UCS value found to increase appreciably with an increase in RHA content. The maximum increment of UCS for RHA treated soil is 295 % which was obtained for 10% RHA over 14 days of curing. It is observed that the unconfined compressive strength increase as the curing period increases; after that the value goes on decreasing with an increase of curing period.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 6. The swelling pressure of
  • 6. The swelling pressure of the expansive soil decreases with an increase in percentage of RHA.

  • 7. The results obtained during this investigation as discussed in the previous sections showed RHA stabilized expansive soil does not bring significant change for using it as a sub-grade material. Therefore, RHA is not an effective standalone stabilizer for highly plastic expansive soils because of lower calcium amount in the ash. However, the UCS and the un-soaked CBR values increased appreciably with increasing RHA content. RHA may be used in admixture stabilization.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this research, the following recommendations are forwarded:

  • 1. As investigated in this research work RHA is not an effective standalone stabilizer for highly plastic expansive soils. Therefore, it is recommended to study potential use of RHA as admixture stabilizer.

  • 2. Research studies have shown that physical and chemical properties of RHA are dependent on the soil chemistry, paddy variety and climatic conditions. Therefore, it’s mandatory to assess the stabilizing potential of RHA from different sources like Gambella, Somali etc

  • 3. The RHA used in the study was obtained from an uncontrolled burning; Studies should be made using controlled burning of the RHA at different temperature.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 6. The swelling pressure of

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) REFERENCES 1. AASHTO , “Standard

REFERENCES

  • 1. AASHTO, “Standard specification for transportation materials and methods of sampling and testing,” America, 1995.

  • 2. Al-Rawas, A.A., and Mattheus, F.A., “Expansive Soils Recent Advanced in Characterization and treatment,” Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences, Netherlands, 2006.

  • 3. Amu and Salami “Geotechnical properties of lateritic soil stabilized with sugarcane straw ash,”American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2011.

  • 4. ASTM C618 – 03, “Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolanas for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete,” American Society for Testing and Materials, Vol.04.02, Philadelphia, 2003.

  • 5. Astewel, T., “Analysis of rice profitability and marketing chain;The case of Fogera woreda, south Gondar,” MSc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, January 2010.

  • 6. Bell, F.G, “Lime Stabilization of Clay Minerals and Soils,” Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 42, pp. 223-227 1996. As cited by Thian, S.Y, and Lee C.Y, “Shear Strength Behaviour of Mining Sand Treated with Clay and Hydrated Lime,” International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Volume 3, No 1, 2012

  • 7. Bowles, J., “Engineering properties of soil and their measurements,” McGraw-Hill Boston, 4th edition, 1992.

  • 8. Braja M.Das, “Principles of Foundation Engineering” 6 th edition, 2007.

  • 9. Brooks, R.M., “Soil Stabilization with Fly ash and Rice Husk Ash, “International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 3, 2009.

    • 10. Chen, F.H., “Foundation on expansive soils,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988.

    • 11. Chittaranjan, “Agricultural wastes as soil stabilizers, ”International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, pp 50-51, October 2011.

    • 12. Chou, L., “Lime Stabilization: Reactions, Properties, Design, and Construction,” State of the Art Report 5, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1987.

    • 13. Compressibility Characterstics of Compacted Black Cotton Soil Treated with Rice Husk Ash, “Nigera Jornal of Technology, (NIJOTECH), 2012.

    • 14. Department of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, “Technical Manual Soil Stabilization for Pavements,” October 1994.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) REFERENCES 1. AASHTO , “Standard

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 15. Ethiopian Roads Authority, “Pavement
  • 15. Ethiopian Roads Authority, “Pavement Design Manual,” Addis Ababa, 2002.

  • 16. Gourley, 1993 “Expansive Soils,” first international symposium on engineering characterization of arid soils, transport research, UK.

  • 17. Interpretation of Rice Husk Ash on Geotechnical Properties of cohesive Soil, “Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, (EJGE), 2013.

  • 18. Lees, “Sodium Chloride as an Additive in Lime-Soil Stabilisation,” Highway Engineer, Vol. 29, No. 12, pp. 2-8, 1982.

  • 19. Little, D.N., “Handbook for Stabilization of Pavement Subgrades and Base Courses with Lime,” Kendall/Hunt, Iowa, 1995.

  • 20. Expansive Subgrade Soil Using Lime and Con-Aid,” MSc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2002.

  • 21. Makusa, G.P., “Soil Stabilization Methods and Materials in Engineering Practice,”Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural resources engineering, LuleåUniversity of Technology, Luleå, Sweden, 2012.

  • 22. Murthy, V.N.S., “principles and practices of soil mechanics and foundation engineering,” New York,

  • 23. Nebro, D., “Stabilization of Potentially Expansive Subgrade Soil Using Lime and Con-Aid,” MSc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2002.

  • 24. Nelson, D., and Miller, J., “Expansive Soils: Problems and Practices in Foundation and Pavement Engineering,” New York, 1992.

  • 25. Osinubi, K. J., “Lime modification of black cotton soils,” Spectrum Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 112 – 122, 1995.

  • 26. Potentials of Rice Husk Ash for Soil Stabilization , “Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria “,Musa Alhassan .2008

  • 27. Ranjan, G., and Rao, A.S.R., “Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics,” New Delhi, 2002.

  • 28. Stabilization of Expansive Soil with Rice Husk Ash, Lime and Gypsum An Experimental Study, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology(IJEST), Koteswara Rao. D,2011

  • 29. Utilization of Rice Husk with lime, ““Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, (EJGE), Anwar. R, 2012.

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) 15. Ethiopian Roads Authority, “Pavement

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Appendix 1 Atterberg Limits With

Appendix 1 Atterberg Limits With Varying Percentage of RHA

  • i. 0% RHA Content

LL=106%, PL=50% PI=56%

Expansive soil with 0% RHA 120 115 110 105 100 95 10 No of blows 100
Expansive soil with 0% RHA
120
115
110
105
100
95
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %

ii.

5% RHA Content (Uncured)

LL=97%, PL=50% PI=47%

5 % RHA Uncured 105 100 95 90 85 10 No of blows 100 Water Content,
5 % RHA Uncured
105
100
95
90
85
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Appendix 1 Atterberg Limits With

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) iii. 5% RHA Content (7
iii. 5% RHA Content (7 days cured) LL=97%, PL=44% PI=53% 5% RHA 7 days Cured 105
iii.
5% RHA Content (7 days cured)
LL=97%, PL=44% PI=53%
5% RHA 7 days Cured
105
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
iv.
5% RHA Content (14 days cured)
Water Content, %

LL=98%, PL=43% PI=55%

5% RHA 14 days Cured 110 105 100 95 90 10 No of blows 100 Water
5% RHA 14 days Cured
110
105
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) iii. 5% RHA Content (7

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) v. 10% RHA Content (uncured)
  • v. 10% RHA Content (uncured)

LL=94%, PL=57% PI=37%

10% RHA Uncured 105 100 95 90 85 10 No of blows 100 Water Content, %
10% RHA Uncured
105
100
95
90
85
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %

vi.

10% RHA Content (7 Days cured)

LL=98%, PL=53% PI=45%

10% RHA 7 Days Cured 110 105 100 95 90 10 No of blows 100 Water
10% RHA 7 Days Cured
110
105
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) v. 10% RHA Content (uncured)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) vii. 10% RHA Content (14

vii.

10% RHA Content (14 Days cured)

LL=101%, PL=44% PI=57%

10% RHA 14 Days Cured 110 105 100 95 90 10 No of blows 100 Water
10% RHA 14 Days Cured
110
105
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %

viii.

15% RHA Content (Uncured)

LL=95%, PL=57% PI=38%

15% RHA Uncured 105 100 95 90 85 10 No of blows 100 Water Content, %
15% RHA Uncured
105
100
95
90
85
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) vii. 10% RHA Content (14

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ix. 15% RHA Content (7

ix.

15% RHA Content (7 Days Cured)

LL=103%, PL=63% PI=40%

15 % RHA 7 Days Cured 115 110 105 100 95 90 10 No of blows
15 % RHA 7 Days Cured
115
110
105
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %
  • x. 15% RHA Content (14 Days Cured)

LL=104%, PL=47.83% PI=57%

15% RHA 14 Days Cured 115 110 105 100 95 90 10 No of blows 100
15% RHA 14 Days Cured
115
110
105
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
Water Content, %
M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) ix. 15% RHA Content (7

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

M.Sc. Thesis: Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) xi. 5% RHA Content Uncured

xi.

5% RHA Content

Uncured

LL=97%

PL=50%

PI=47%

7 Days

LL=97%

PL=44%

PI=53%

14 Days

LL=98%

PL=44%

PI=55%

xii.

10% RHA

5% RHA 105 uncured 7 Days Cured 14 Days Cured 100 95 90 10 No of
5% RHA
105
uncured
7 Days Cured
14 Days Cured
100
95
90
10
No of blows
100
Water Content,