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Identify and describe the role of the following systems in protecting the central nervous system:

bony structures (see Anatomy Labs 2-3)

- Cranium, vertebral column

meninges (14.1 [p. 476-477])

- Thin membrane layer separating bone (cranium) from brain composed of ependymal cells
- Analogous to spinal meninges, although cranial meninges top layer (dura mater) has two layers
o Inner dura mater layer (meningeal layer) separates from external layer (periosteal layer)
to provide entry to dural venous sinouses (venous blood drain to internal jugular artery)
- Arterial vessels entering brain enclosed by pia mater (middle layer)
- Arachnoid villi (small extensions of deep layer (arachnoid mater) extend into venous sinouses to
allow reabsorption of CSF into vascular system
- Three main deep extensions of dura mater separate major parts of the brain:
o Falx Cerebri: separates left and right cerebrum
o Falx Cerebelli: separates left and right cerebellum
o Tentorum Cerebelli: separates cerebrum from cerebellum

cerebrospinal fluid (14.2 [p. 477-481])

- Fluid composed mainly of H2O, also carrying some level of O2, glucose, proteins, anions and
- Circulate around the subarachnoid space, ventricles of the brain, and central canal of the spinal
cord to provide different methods of protection to the CNS
o Mechanical protection: provides shock absorption from bony surroundings
o Chemical protection: mediates chemical environment for optimum neuronal signalling
o Circulation: acts as a medium for some level of nutrient/waste exchange between blood
and nervous tissue via arachnoid villi
- Formation of CSF:
o Manufactured in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain
o Ependymal cells pump selected substances through tight junctions of the capillaries of
the blood-brain barrier into ventricles and H2O follows through osmosis
o Circulates through each choroid plexus to respective ventricle, eventually flows to
subarachnoid space and is reabsorbed at arachnoid villi into the venous system at the
same rate of production

blood-brain barrier (14.1 [p. 477])

- Consists of tight junctions around brain capillaries created by astrocytes

- Astrocytes secrete chemicals that maintain tightness of barrier and allows only certain
substances to pass through
- O2, CO2, H2O pass through easily through diffusion across lipid bilayer
o Alcohol and caffeine also follow through diffusion
- Facilitated transport pumps can selectively allow other molecules to pass through eg. Glucose

Describe the following areas of the brain and their function:

Brainstem and reticular formation (14.3)

- Part of the brain between spinal cord and diencephalon

- Consists of three ascending structures: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain and one structure
extending through brainstem: reticular formation

Medulla Oblongata

- Continuous with spinal cord and inferior border of pons

- White (myelinated) matter of medulla carries ascending (sensory) information and descending
(motor) output between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain
o Some specific tracts of this white matter forms protrusions on the anterior aspect of the
medulla (pyramids)
Formed by large corticospinal tracts containing nerves controlling voluntary
motor output
Cross laterally at level of medulla (decussation of pyramids)
- Controls many vital body activities:
o Cardiovascular centre controls heart rate
o Respiratory centre controls respiration rate
o Controls reflexes for vomiting, deglutition (swallowing) and sneezing
o Innervates Vagus (X), providing PNS output for pharynx/larynx and many
abdominothoracic viscera


- Latin bridge
- Connect right and left sides of cerebellum, and contains ascending/descending sensor/motor
- Ventral region contains Pontine Nuclei, containing a number of white matter tracts connecting
left and right hemispherical cortexes
- Dorsal region contains ascending/descending nervous tracts
- Pontine Respiratory Group: PRG promotes inhalation by sending nervous stimulation to MRC
- Innervates Facial (VII) and Trigeminal (V), providing in/output for chewing, salivation, facial
sensation, facial expression


- Posterior aspect contains colliculi groups (rounded elevations) providing output for reflexes
- Superior Coliculli: react to visual stimuli; track movements through movement of eye and move
head/body in response to movement
- Inferior Coliculli: react to auditory stimuli; provide same reaction to sound as S. Colliculi
- Innervate Oculomotor (III) and Trochelar (IV) nerves to control eye muscle

Reticular Formation

- Netlike diffusion of ascending/descending neurons

- Ascending portion known as Reticular Activating System
o Mediates consciousness and sends sensory information to cerebral cortex (except smell)
o Filters incoming sensory information and prevents insignificant input from reaching
- Descending portion connects with cerebellum and spinal cord to help control muscle tone
(baseline level of tension), heart rate (medulla) and respiration rate (medulla/PRG)

Cerebellum (14.4)

- Occupies inferior posterior aspect of cranial cavity

- Accounts for tenth of brain mass although occupies nearly half of neurons
- Anterior/posterior lobes control subconscious muscle movement (coordination, eg. walking)
- Flocculonodular (this is a dumb word) lobe controls equilibrium and balance

Diencephalon (14.5)

- Forms a central core of brain tissue superior to the midbrain and almost completely surrounded
by the cerebral hemispheres


- Major relay station for all sensory impulses not filtered by RAS
- Ventral group: motor function and sensory input
o Ventral posterior group: somatic sensation (many sensory input pathways follow
through this group)
- Reticular nuclei: filter and integrate activity from other thalamic nuclei (the boss)


- Autonomic nervous control

o Thirst, hunger, body temperature, circadian rhythm
- Hormone production


- Pineal gland secretes melatonin (assists in sleep-wake cycle)

Describe gross anatomy of the cerebrum (14.6 [p. 492-494])

- Contains primarily white (myelinated) matter in three types of tracts:

o Association tracts: conducting impulses between gyri (folds) in the same hemisphere
o Commissural tracts: conducting impulse between corresponding gyri on opposing
o Projection tracts: conducting impulses between cerebrum and lower parts of the CNS
- To increase surface area, grey (unmyelinated) matter in the cerebrum folds over itself (gyri)
- Deep grooves known as fissures, whereas shallow grooves known as sulci
o Most prominent fissure is the longitudinal fissure (separating left and right
o Connected internally by corpus callosum (commissural tract)

Describe the main functional areas of the cerebral cortex (14.7 [p. 497-499])
- Specific function of each lobe of the cerebrum
o Frontal: executive function, movement/muscle control
o Parietal: sensation
o Occipital: vision
o Temporal: hearing + memory acquisition
o Insula: taste/smell
- The primary areas of each lobe of the cerebrum mediate the function itself, whereas secondary
(association areas) apply meaning to each function

Brain structures involved in:

- prefrontal cortex: personality (p. 499)

o Extensive area in anterior portion of frontal lobe, well developed
o Concerned with makeup of personality, intellect, complex learning ability, memory,
judgment, foresight, reasoning, intuition, mood, planning
- hippocampus: memory (p. 567-568)
- Wernicke and Brocas area: language (p. 498, 499)
o Wernicke: understand/interpreting speech
Damage to Wernickes would allow people to still produce words (through
Brocas) but not create meaning out of words (word salad)
o Broca: motor programming for speech
Damage to Brocas would cause incomprehensible sounds to be produced
instead of speech

Describe the representation of the body in the cerebral cortex (16.3 [p. 558-559])

- Funky looking dude describing how different parts of the body take different amounts of space
in the cortex

Describe the neuroanatomy and function of the major ascending (somatic sensory) pathways (16.3
[p. 555-557])

- Relay information from somatosensory receptors to primary somatosensory area (in the
postcentral gyrus)
- Classification of neurons:
o 1st Order: conduct impulse from SS receptors to spinal cord and brainstem
o 2nd Order: conduct impulse from brainstem to thalamus
o 3rd Order: conduct impulse from thalamus to primary SS area of the associated

Posterior Column Medial Lemniscus Pathway (PCML)

- Conduct impulse from touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception of neck, limbs, trunk, posterior
Impulse -> Posterior Root Ganglion (Spinal Cord) -> Gracile Fasciculus/Cuncate Fasciculus (C-Spine) -
> Gracile Nucleus/Cuncate Nucleus (Medulla) (Decussation of Pyramids) -> Medial Lemniscus
(Midbrain) -> Ventral Posterior Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Primary Somatosensory Area

Anterolateral Spinothalamic Tract Pathway

- Conduct impulse for pain, temperature, itch, tickle

- Pass through spinothalamic tract of spinal cord and decussate at the level of the spinal cord

Impulse -> Posterior Root Ganglion (Spinal Cord) (Decussation) -> Spinothalamic Tract (Medulla) ->
Spinothalamic Tract (Midbrain) -> Ventral Posterior Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Primary Somatosensory

Describe the neuroanatomy and function of the major descending (motor) pathways (16.4 [p. 560-

Corticospinal Tracts

- Anterior Corticospinal Tract

o Decussates at level of spinal cord
o Innervates axial muscles
- Lateral Corticospinal Tract
o Decussates at level of medulla
o Innervates appendicular muscles
- Corticobulbar Tract
o Descends bilaterally
o Innervates head muscles

Identify the role of the Basal Ganglia in movement control (p. 494-495, 568-569)

- Basal nuclei (ganglia) play four major roles in movement control through their effect on upper
motor neurons:
o Initiation of movement
Provide motor output which is sent to the primary motor area
o Suppression of unwanted movement
Inhibit neurons of thalamus until particular movement is desired
o Regulation of muscle tone
Reduce muscle tone through sending impulse to the reticular formation
Identify and describe the function and properties of the somatic sensory receptors (16.1, 16.2)

- Provide somatic sensory input (conscious or unconscious awareness of internal and external
- General senses:
o Visceral (hunger, stretch, nausea)
o Somatic (tactile, pain, thermal, proprioception)
- Special senses:
o Smell, taste, vision, hearing, balance

Tactile Sensation

- Meissner Corpuscle
o Mass of dendrites surrounded by layer of connective tissue
o Rapidly adapting
o Senses touch
- Merkel Disc
o Free bundle of nerve endings
o Slow adapting
o Senses touch
- Ruffini Corpuscle
o Encapsulated free nerve endings
o Slow adapting
o Senses stretch
- Pacinian Corpuscle
o Mass of dendrites surrounded by onion-like layers of connective tissue
o Rapidly adapting
o Senses vibration


- Allow for body to be aware of relative position and weight discrimination

- Muscle Spindle
o Intrafusal fibres distributed throughout muscle fibres that detect lengthening (stretch)
o Participate in activating stretch reflex
- Golgi Tendon Organ
o Specialized cells causing impulse when tension on tendons reaches certain threshold
o Participates in tendon reflex (reverse myotatic reflex) to cause relaxation of muscle,
reducing tendon tension

Describe the concepts underlying stimulus coding (16.1, 16.2)

- Stimulus Coding: modality of input determined by which receptor activated

- Frequency Coding: strength of input partly determined by frequency of impulse
- Population Coding: strength of input also determined by number of neurons recruited to
impulse, but population coding also determines relative area of input
Describe the functional anatomy of the spinal cord, major spinal reflex pathways, and spinal
nerves (13.1, 13.2, 13.3)

Spinal Cord: divided into major nerve branches extending through intervertebral foramina

- 8 cervical nerves (beginning above C1 vertebra)

- 12 thoracic nerves
- 5 lumbar nerves
- 5 sacral nerves
- 1 coccygeal nerve

Spinal cord itself ends at level of L2 (conus medullaris), however nerve roots of L2 and lower are
known as Cauda Equina

Filum Terminae: pia mater extension anchoring spinal cord (cauda equina) to base of coccyx

Spinal nerves branch out and reconnect into plexuses

- Each plexus supplies specific areas of skin (dermatome) and muscle (myotome)
o Brachial plexus: C5-T1 supply upper limb
o Lumbar plexus: L1-L5 supply lower limb
o Sacral plexus: L4-Sa5 supply lower posterior limb

Spinal Reflex Pathways

- Autonomic, stereotyped motor responses to sensory input

- Entirely enclosed within spinal cord

Stretch Reflex (Myotatic Reflex)

Stretch (Input) -> Muscle Spindle (Sensory neuron) -> Interneuron -> Motor neuron of agonist
activated -> Inhibitory Interneuron -> Motor neuron of antagonist inhibited

Tendon Reflex (Reverse Myotatic Reflex)

Tension (Input) -> GTO (Sensory neuron) -> Interneuron -> Motor neuron of agonist inhibited ->
Excitatory interneuron -> Motor neuron of antagonist activated

Crossed Extensor Reflex

Pain (Input) -> Sensory Neuron -> Interneurons -> Excitatory interneuron -> motor neuron of
ipsilateral flexor activated -> Excitatory interneuron -> motor neuron of contralateral extensor
Explain how Membrane Potential is established (12.4)

- Membrane potential is the resting state of electrical potential relative between ICF and ECF
- Exists because of a build up of relatively negative ions in ICF relative to the ECF
- Factors affecting membrane potential:
o Distribution of Ions
In ECF, greater [] of Na+ and Cl-
In ICF, greater [] of K+
There are more passive leak channels allowing K+ to flow out of the cell than
there are leak channels for Na+, so therefore K+ can flow down its
concentration gradient passively at a faster rate, making ICF relatively negative
as K+ leaves the membrane
o Impermeability of Anions
Most anions are too big to leave the ICF, making it inheritably negative
Eg. Amino Acids and free phoshorous of ATP
o Na+/K+ ATPase Pumps
Active pumps pump Na+ out of the cell (after it diffuses into the cell down
concentration gradient) as fast as they enter. K+ diffuses out through leak
channels faster than it can be pumped in

Define and explain the mechanisms underlying Action Potentials and their propagation (12.6)

- Sequence of rapidly occurring events causing depolarization and repolarization of the

membrane potential
- Occurs when graded potentials cause depolarization to threshold levels of -55mV
- Greater strength of suprathreshold stimulus -> greater frequency of action potential firing


- Threshold stimulus causes Na+ voltage gated channels activation gate to open, allowing Na+ to
quickly flow into the ICF down its concentration and electric gradients
- Causes massive and rapid depolarization of charge


- Inactivation gate on Na+ voltage gated channel closes, preventing further entry of Na+
- K+ voltage gated channel completes opening, allowing K+ to flow out of the cell down electric
gradient to the now relatively negative ECF
- Causes repolarization as K+ makes ECF more positive

After Hyperpolarization

- K+ channels may remain open, allowing excess of K+ to flow out, dropping potential to -90mV
- After closing, leak channels and Na+/K+ ATPase pumps restore original membrane potential

Refractory Period

- Another action potential cannot be generated for a period after an impulse due to inactivation
gates on Na+ voltage gated channels not opening until the membrane potential is restored
Describe the processes underlying cell-to-cell communication:

a. Describe the events at a chemical synapse (12.7)

Electrical Synapse

- conduct directly between two neurons at gap junctions

- has the advantage of being very fast and allows synchronization of many post synaptic neurons

Chemical Synapse

- Conducts through actions at a synaptic cleft via neurotransmitters

- Produces graded potential known as post-synaptic potential
- Nerve impulse arrives at synaptic end bulb, causing Ca2+ voltage gated channels to open and
allowing Ca2+ to flow into the ICF from the ECF
- Ca2+ triggers the release of vesicles containing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, where
vesicles fuse with the membrane, releasing neurotransmitters
- Neurotransmitters bind on receptor sites on ligand gated channels allowing ions to flow into the
ICF on the post-synaptic neuron
- Can be excitatory or inhibitory:
o Opening K+ ligand gated channels causes K+ to flow out, hyperpolarizing potential
o Opening Na+ ligand gated channels causes Na+ to flow in, depolarizing potential

b. Describe the action of some neurotransmitters (12.8)

c. Define and explain the mechanisms underlying Graded Potentials (12.5, 12.7)

- Small deviation from resting membrane potential that either makes membrane hyperpolarized
or less polarized
- Sensory input causes either mechanically or ligand gated channels to open
o Eg. pressure causes mechanically gated Na+ channels to open, allowing Na+ ions to
depolarize ICF to some degree

d. EPSPs vs IPSPs (12.7)

- Neurotransmitters cause either EPSP or IPSP at post-synaptic membrane

- Type of graded potential that summates depending on neurotransmitter released

e. Define neuronal integration (12.9)

- Neurons in CNS are organized into neural circuits

- Include simple series circuits, diverging, converging, reverberating, parallel
- Allow for summation of action/ graded potentials
Describe the functional organization of the nervous system (12.1)

- Nervous system organized into CNS and PNS

- CNS includes brain and spinal cord
- PNS includes many different divisions
o Sensory Division
Somatic Sense
Special Sense
o Motor Division
Somatic NS
Skeletal Muscle
Autonomic NS
o Muscle/Glands
Enteric NS
o Smooth Muscle of GI tract

Describe the structural and functional anatomy of neurons (12.2 [p. 402-406], 13.2 [p. 450])

- Possess ability of electrical excitability

- Can conduct action potential of constant rate and strength
- Consist of components:
o Cell body
o Dendrite (incoming)
o Axon (outgoing)
Axon hillock (initial area of axon connecting axon to neuron)
Trigger zone (consists of hillock and intial segment, where action potential
Initial segment
Axon terminal
- Several functional classifications of neurons depending on location of cell body
o Multipolar: Cell body connected to dendrites, with a single axon
o Bipolar: Cell body between dendrites and axon
o Unipolar: Cell body on side of connection between dendrites and axons, connected by
central process and peripheral process

Identify the function of the neuroglial cells (12.2 [p. 406-408])

Neuroglia of the CNS

- Astrocytes
o Protoplasmic (grey matter) and fibrous (white matter)
o Structurally support neurons
o Helps to create blood-brain barrier via excretion of chemicals creating tight junctions in
capillaries of the brain
- Microglia
o Phagocytes of the CNS
- Ependymal cells
o Structural cells creating meninges of brain (blood-CSF barrier) and lines ventricles and
central canal of spinal cord
- Oligodendrocytes
o Form and maintain myelin sheath of many myelinated sites

Neuroglia of the PNS

- Schwann Cells
o Encircle PNS axons and create myelin sheath (one schwann cell to one myelin sheath)
- Satellite cells
o Structural support and exchange of material between neuronal cell body and interstitial

Describe the structure, function, and formation of myelin (12.2 [p. 408-410])

- Lipoprotein covering of points on axon

- Provides electrical insulation, causing impulse conduction to become saltatory jump from
unmyelinated node to unmyelinated node (nodes of Ranvier)

Describe the gross and microscopic structural anatomy of muscles (10.1, 10.2)

- Properties of muscular tissue

o Electrical excitability
o Contractility
o Extensibility
o Elasticity
- Organization of skeletal muscle
o Layers divided by sheets of fascia, connective tissue which also groups muscles of similar
function and separates muscle from skin
o Skeletal muscle (epimysium) -> Fascicle (perimysium) -> Muscle fibre (endomysium) ->
myofibril -> filaments
o Fascial layers connect together to form tendons connecting muscle to bone or form
aponeurosis forming a sheet of tendon-like connective tissue
- Microscopic anatomy of muscle fibre
o Encased by sarcolemma (plasma membrane)
o Encased by transverse tubules
Filled with interstitial fluid containing Ca2+ ions
Conduct action potential throughout muscle fibres of a fascicle so that action
potential is propagated to all myofibrils
o Sarcoplasm (intracellular fluid)
Contains substantial amounts of glycogen for anaerobic glycolysis of ATP
o Myofibrils
Contractile unit of muscle
o Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Fluid filled network of sacs encasing myofibrils containing Ca2+
Two terminal cisterns of SR surround one transverse tubule (known as triad) to
facilitate ECC

Describe the molecular processes underlying sliding filament mechanism (10.2 p. 299-301)

- Within each myofibril are smaller protein structures known as filaments

- Consist of thick and thin filaments that slide across each other
- Thin filament: actin structure surrounded by tropomyosin and troponin
o Actin has myosin binding sites typically covered by tropomyosin, tropomyosin binded to
actin by troponin
o Troponin has Ca2+ binding sites, and when Ca2+ released by triad, changes tropomyosin
shape exposing myosin binding site on actin
- Thick filament: myosin
o Myosin has an actin binding site and a ATP binding site (requires ATP)

Describe the processes that take place at the neuromuscular junction (10.3 p. 305-308)

- Arrival of depolarization at the pre-synaptic membrane causes release of ACh, binding to Na+
ligand gated channels and allowing Na+ to flow into the post-synaptic membrane (motor end

Explain the excitation-contraction coupling process (10.3 p. 304 & 308)

- Depolarization caused by post-synaptic membrane causes terminal cisternae of triad to open

Ca2+ voltage gated channels, allowing Ca2+ to rush into the myofibril, causing troponin to
change shape, exposing the myosin binding site, allowing myosin to bind to actin
- Myosin hydrolyzes ATP, moves into the power stroke position, and pulls a unit of actin forward
- Process repeated until ATP expended or Ca2+ expended, or stimulus ends

Describe the steps in the contraction cycle (10.3 [p. 302-304])

1. Nerve action potential triggers release of ACh

2. Ach binds to receptors in motor end plate, triggering depolarization via Na+ voltage gated
3. Depolarization triggers opening of Ca2+ channels
4. Ca2+ binds to troponin on thin filament, exposing myosin-binding site
5. Myosin binds to actin and undergoes power stroke cycle
6. Ca2+ voltage channels close and Ca2+ ATPase pumps restore Ca2+ levels in sarcoplasm
7. Tropomyosin slides back into covering position of myosin binding site
8. Muscle relaxes

Explain how ATP is produced in and used by muscle fibers (10.4 [p. 309-310])

Creatine Phosphate Pathway

- Relaxed muscle stores excess ATP as ADP and Creatine Phosphate

- When necessary Creatine Phosphate phosphorylized and ADP becomes ATP
- Through enzyme creatine kinase
Anaerobic Glycolysis

- Pathway of choice after PCr depleted

- Depends on availability of glycogen from the sarcoplasm and glucose from blood

Glycogen + Blood Glucose -> Glucose -> Pyruvic Acid + ATP

Pyruvic Acid -> Lactic Acid

- Pyruvic Acid can become ATP through aerobic respiration but in lack of oxygen becomes lactic

Aerobic Respiration

- Occurs with presence of O2 by cellular respiration in mitochondria

Pyruvic Acid, Fatty Acid, Amino Acid + O2 -> ATP + CO2 + H2O + Heat

Describe the possible mechanisms of muscle fatigue (10.4 [p. 310] and p. 323)

- Central fatigue caused by CNS to prevent muscle damage by excessive use

- Decline of Ca2+ concentration in sarcoplasmic reticulum
- Depletion of glycogen
- Insufficient O2
- Build up of ADP and lactic acid

Describe the mechanics of muscle contractions (10.5 [p. 314-315]; 11.1 [p. 329-330])

- Contraction caused by recruitment of motor units

Motor Units

- Axon of motor neuron innervates many muscle fibres within a fascicle

- Innervated fibres are typically spread evenly across fascicle
- Smaller units -> more control
- Larger units -> more force produced
- Strength of a contraction depends on the size and number of motor units recruited

Motor Unit Recruitment

- Offset pattern of unit recruitment for preventing onset of fatigue

- Type of recruitment depends on strength of contraction necessary

Type of Skeletal Muscle Fibres

- Type 1 Slow Oxidative

o Rely mostly on aerobic respiration
o Highly vascularized to promote O2 distribution
o ATP generated slowly, so time necessary to begin contraction
- Type 2A Fast Oxidative/Glycolytic
o Also vascularized to promote O2 distribution
o High amount of intracellular glycogen stores in sarcoplasm
o Relies on anaerobic glycolysis as well as aerobic respiration
- Type 2X Fast Glycolytic
o Relies on anaerobic glycolysis
o Fatigues quickly
o Strongest of the three types

Identify and explain the factors contributing to muscle tension:

- mechanical (10.3 [p. 305])

o Fibres constantly baseline activated to prevent flaccidity
- neural (10.5)
o Cerebellum constantly providing baseline stimulus to promote balance and coordination
- metabolic (10.6, 10.7)

Describe the basic structure of bone (6.1, 6.2)

- Epiphysis: proximal and distal ends of bone

- Metaphysis: transition between epiphysis to diaphysis
- Diaphysis: shaft of bone
- Articular cartilage: shock absorbing pads (type of hyaline cartilage) found at articulations
between bones
- Periosteum: tough connective tissue sheath found on bony surface, attached by perforating
- Medullary cavity: contains yellow bone marrow

Identify and describe the 4 types of cells found in bone tissue (6.3)

Osteoprogenitor Cells

- Unspecialized bone stem cells undergoing cell division to become osteoblasts


- Secrete collagen fibres to build ECM of bone tissue and initiate calcification


- Osteoblasts become this cell after surrounding themselves with ECM

- Maintenance of bone


- Fusion of WBC which causes bone resorption

Compare the structure and function of compact bone vs. spongy bone (6.3, 6.4)

Compact Bone

- Contains few spaces between bone tissue

- Make up bulk of diaphysis of long bones
- Provide protection and support
- Composed of repeating structural units known as osteons


- Consist of concentric lamellae, circular plates of mineralized ECM

o Hold lacunae and canaliculi (small sacs of osteocytes and extracellular fluid network)
o Canaliculi form network between neighbouring concentric lamellae
- Also consist of interstitial lamellae, also having lacunae and canaliculi
o Fragments of older concentric lamellae destroyed by bone growth/rebuilding
- Surrounded by circumferential lamellae
o Connected to periosteum by perforating fibres

Spongy Bone

- Does not contain osteons

- Always on interior of bone, protected by layers of compact bone
- Consists of lamellae arranged in irregular patterns called trabeculae
o Trabeculae also have concentric lamellae

Describe the mechanisms underlying bone growth during infancy, childhood, and adolescence

Growth in Length

1. Zone of Resting Cartilage: zone nearest epiphysis and anchor epiphyseal plate to epiphysis
2. Zone of Proliferating Cartilage: chondrocytes divide and secrete ECM, replacing dead
chondrocytes at zones 3 and 4
3. Zone of Hypertrophic Cartilage: chondrocytes maturing at this zone
4. Zone of Calcified Cartilage: ECM calcified. Osteoclasts dissolve calcified cartilage and osteoblasts
lay down ECM, replacing the cartilage.

Define bone remodeling and describe the factors that influence bone remodeling (6.5, 6.8, 6.9)

Bone remodeling: ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue through bone
resorption and bone deposition

- Factors influencing bone remodeling:

o Minerals
o Vitamins
Vitamin A stimulates osteoblast activity
Vitamin C stimulates synthesis of collagen
Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium from food
o Hormones

Discuss calcium homeostasis (6.7)

- Ca2+ exchange regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH)

- Secretion of PTH -> increases bone resorption -> increases blood Ca2+ level
- Secretion of PTH -> decreases kidney activity preventing loss of Ca2+ in urine
- Secretion of PTH -> stimulates formation of calcitrol (active form of vitamin D) to promote
absorption of Ca2+ from food
- Secretion of calcitonin -> inhibits osteoclast activity, promotes osteoblast activity