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PORT-HAMILTONIAN AND CASCADE SYSTEM

N. Narasimhulu 1, M.Ganesh Babu 2, K.Swathi3, Dr. R. Ramachandra4

1,3 Associate Professor and Head, Department of EEE, SKD College of Engineering, Gooty, AP, India

2,4 PG Student, SKD College of Engineering, Gooty, AP, India

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract: In this paper, a method based on the Port- operation, they do not care about the inherent

Hamiltonian (PH) system and cascade system that is nonlinearities of different power system component, it is

proposed to design some PID control laws for the multi-area very hard to decide the gain of the integrator setting

LFC system successfully works out the aforementioned according to changes in the operating point. Advance

problem. Compared with the existed PID methods for the control system has a lot of advantage over conventional

multi-area LFC system, the proposed method has two integral controller. They are much faster than integral

advantages, which are the decoupling of total tie-line power controllers and also they give better stability response

flow and the robust disturbance rejection. Finally the than integral controllers.

proposed method is simulated with and without reheated

turbine in the environment of Matlab/Simulink to validate Traditional load frequency control (LFC) employs a

the advantages and robustness of proposed method. dedicated communication channel to transmit

measurement and control signals, while the LFC under

Keywords: Interconnected Power System, Multi Area deregulated environment, such as bilateral contract

Concept, PID controller between generation companies (Gencos) and distribution

companies (Discos) for the provision of load following and

I. INTRODUCTION third-party LFC service, tends to use open communication

networks [1][4].

Traditionally, frequency regulation in power system is

achieved by balancing generation and demand through The load Frequency Control problem of an interconnected

load following, i.e., spinning and non-spinning reserves. power system is a well defined problem. The system is

The future power grid, on the other hand, is foreseen to divided into groups of generators which are

have high penetration of renewable energy (RE) power interconnected by tie--lines. Each group of generators is

generation, which can be highly variable. In such cases, called an area, and each area must be able to meet its own

energy storage and responsive loads show great promise load changes and any import or export targets set by the

for balancing generation and demand, as they will help to controllers in advance. Each area has its own response

avoid the use of the traditional generation following characteristics which relate the area frequency and total

schemes; generation for load changes on the specific area. This curve

is the regulation curve of an area and represents the area

This can be costly and/or environmentally unfriendly. The gain (in MW /Hz). The area gain or regulation is a direct

main goals of Load Frequency control (LFC) are, to measure of the effects of all the governors on the prime

maintain the real frequency and the desired power output movers within the area, and plays an important part in the

(megawatt) in the interconnected power system and to steady-state and dynamic performance of the system.

control the change in tie line power between control areas.

So, a LFC scheme basically incorporates an appropriate II. LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL

control system for an interconnected power system, which

is heaving the capability to bring the frequencies of each The purpose of load frequency control loop is to achieve

area and the tie line powers back to original set point power balance between generation and demand by load

values or very nearer to set point values effectively after tracking using speed governors. Under steady state

the load change. This is achieved by the use of condition, the generator supplies power to the load. The

conventional controllers. But the conventional controllers system will be under equilibrium i.e., the generator

are heaving some demerits like; they are very slow in delivers constant power and the turbine provides constant

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accelerating torque. The equilibrium will be affected when about its own area and the tie line power deviation finds

the system is subjected to the load change. the information about the other areas.

When there is an increase in load, the turbine generator Applying the swing equation of a synchronous machine to

set will decelerate. This deceleration leads to the change in small perturbation, we have:

frequency i.e. decrease in frequency. Similarly, during

removal of load, the turbine generator set will accelerate. (1)

This leads to the incremental increase in frequency. Either

increase in load or decrease in load, the frequency is

subjected to change. This makes frequency to be an Or in terms of small deviation in speed

indirect indicator to do the power balance.

(2)

Basically two types of inner control loops are there in LFC

as shown in Figure 1. They are primary control and

secondary control loop. The primary control loop adjusts

the turbine power based on frequency change using

control valve. This loop works much faster. The response

time will be in seconds. The loop does only coarse on

frequency. The secondary control loop eliminates the small

error in frequency. It works after the control action of

primary loop completes. It does the control action through

speed changer until the frequency error becomes zero. It Figure 2: Mathematical modeling block diagram for

also controls the net power interchange between the generator

power pool members.

The speed-load characteristic of the composite load is

given by:

(3)

mechanical power output Pm to the changes in the steam

valve position PV.

(4)

percentage between no load and full load.

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of LFC

(5)

III. MULTI-AREA POWER SYSTEM MODEL

Or in s- domain

In a two area interconnected power system, where the two

areas are connected through tie lines, the control area are (6)

supplied by each area and the power flow is allowed by the

tie lines among the areas. Whereas, the output frequencies

of all the areas are affected due to a small change in load in The command Pg is transformed through hydraulic

amplifier to the steam valve position command PV. We

any of the areas so as the tie line power flow are affected.

So the transient situation informations of all other areas assume a linear relationship and consider simple time

are needed by the control system of each area to restore constant g we have the following s-domain relation:

the pre defined values of tie line powers and area

frequency. Each output frequency finds the information

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1219

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

(7) -K-

-K-

1 1 num(s) FREQ1

PM1

0.08s+1 0.4s+1 den(s)

-K- PID

num(s)

s

-K-

P TIE

-K-

-K-

1 1

num(s) FREQ2

0.06s+1 0.44s+1 den(s)

PM2

-K- PID

-K- -K-

p.u.MW for the two Areas 1 and 2, respectively. It is

Figure 3: Mathematical Modeling of Block Diagram of necessary to point out that the overshoot and responding

single system consisting of Generator, Load, Prime Mover speed of Ptie,i are small and fast, respectively. Thus, the

and Governor proposed method is effective and is shown in Figure 5.

-3

Figure 4 is a control block diagram for the ith area of a x 10

frequency (Hz)

in the load frequency control problem because only small -10

delta f1 delta f2

-15

The largest part used control strategy in industry is P-I-D

controller. It is used for various control problems such as -20

0 5 10 15 20

automated systems or plants. A PID-Controller includes Time (sec)

called a three term controller. Proportional control, Figure 5: Frequency response for LFC two-area with non-

Integral control and Derivative control is the expansion of reheated turbine

PID.

To prove the advantages of the proposed method, a four

To meet up different design specifications for the system, area LFC system with non-reheated turbines containing

PID control is able to put into operation. These can include four areas is considered, as shown in Figure 6. Areas 1, 2

the settling and rise time plus the accuracy and overshoot and 3 are interconnected with each other, while Area 4 is

of the system step response. The three stipulations should only connected with Area 1.

be measured separately to realize the function of a

feedback controller for PID.

validity and advantage of the proposed method. To prove

the validity of the proposed method, a two-area LFC power

system (1) with non-reheated turbines is considered,

which rates of areas 1 and 2 are 1000 MW and 800 MW, Figure 6: Simplified diagram of a four-area power system

respectively. The synchronizing coefficients T12 =T21 = 0.2

p.u. MW/Hz. The matlab block diagram is shown in Figure Figure 6 is simulated the response curves related to

4. frequency is presented in Figure 7 & Figure 8.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1220

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

-3 0.01

x 10

5

0.005

0 0

delta f1 (Hz)

delta f1 (Hz)

Proposed Proposed

-0.005

-5 Conventional Conventional

-0.01

-10

-0.015

-15 -0.02

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 50 100 150 200

Time (sec)

Time(sec)

(a) Frequency response of Area1

-3

x 10

-3 4

x 10

5

2

delta f2 (Hz)

0 0

delta f2 (Hz)

Proposed -2

-5 Proposed

Conventional Conventional

-4

-10

-6

-15 -8

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 50 100 150 200

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

(b) Frequency response of Area2

-3

-3 x 10

x 10 5

5

0

0

delta f3 (Hz)

delta f3 (Hz)

Proposed Proposed

-5

-5 Conventional Conventional

-10

-10

-15

-15

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Time (sec) -20

0 50 100 150 200

Time (sec)

(c) Frequency response of Area3

-3

5 x 10 0.015

0.01 Proposed

0 Conventional

Frequency (f)

delta f4 (Hz)

0.005

-5 Proposed

0

Conventional

-10

-0.005

-15 -0.01

-20 -0.015

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 50 100 150 200

Time (sec) Time (sec)

Figure 7: Frequency response curves of four area power Figure 8: Frequency response curves of four area power

system with non-reheated turbines system with reheated

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power systems via internal model control scheme

In this paper, a control method based on the PH system and model-order reduction, IEEE Trans. Power

and cascade system for the multi-area LFC system is Sys., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 27492757, Aug. 2013.

proposed. In short, compared with the traditional

methods, the proposed method applies the structure and [9]. Y. Mi, Y. Fu, C. Wang, and P. Wang, Decentralized

energy properties of multi-area LFC system to design a sliding mode load frequency control for multi-

control law, which successfully works out the problem on area power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,

how to effectively utilize the total tie-line power flow. vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 43014309, Nov. 2013.

Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the

proposed solution under different operating modes. [10]. D. Rerkpreedapong, A. Hasanovic, and A. Feliachi,

Robust load frequency control using genetic

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2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1222

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 11 | Nov -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

[18]. T. Pham, H. Trinh, and L. Hien, Load frequency Dr. R. RAMACHANDRA has completed

control of power systems with electric vehicles his professional career of education in B.

and diverse transmission links using distributed Tech (MECHANICAL) from JNTU

functional observers, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. Hyderabad. He obtained M. Tech degree

7, no. 1, pp. 238252, Jan. 2016. from JNTU, Hyderabad. He obtained Ph.

D degree from JNTU, Hyderabad At

[19]. H. Bevrani and P. Daneshmand, Fuzzy logic- present working as Professor and

based load-frequency control concerning high Principal in Sri krishna Devaraya

penetration of wind turbines, IEEE Syst. J., vol. 6, Engineering College, Gooty of Anantapuramu district (AP).

no. 1, pp. 173180, Mar. 2012.

Mitani, and T. Hiyama, Intelligent LFC concerning

high penetration of wind power: Synthesis and

real-time application, IEEE Trans. Sustain.

Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 655662, Apr. 2013.

BIOGRAPHY:

professional career of education in B.

Tech (EEE) from JNTU Hyderabad in the

year 2003. He obtained M. Tech degree

from JNTU, HYDERABAD, in year 2008.

He is pursuing Ph. D in the area of power

system in JNTU Anantapuramu. He has

worked as Assistant Professor from 2003-2008 and at

present working as an Associate Professor and Head of the

EEE Department in Srikrishna Devaraya Engineering

College, Gooty of Anantapuramu district (AP). He is a life

member of ISTE, FIE, IEEE. His areas of interests include

Electrical Power Systems, Electrical Circuits and Control

Systems

professional career of education in B.E

(EEE) at Acharya Institute of

Technology,Bangalore and pursuing

M.Tech from Sri Krishnadevaraya

engineering college, Gooty,

Anantapur(AP). He is interested in

Electrical Power Engineering .

teaching in graduate and post graduate

level and at present she is working as an

Assistant professor in the department of

EEE ,Sri Krishna devaraya Engineering

College, Gooty, AP, India.

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