Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Red River Fault atau Song Hong Fault adalah sesar utama di Yunnan, China dan Vietnam yang

mengakomodasi pergerakan China Selatan (Yangtze Plate) ke arah selatan. Hal ini digabungkan dengan
Sagaing Fault di Burma, yang mengakomodasi gerakan utara lempeng India , dengan tanah (Indocina) di
antara sesar dan memutar searah jarum jam. Hal ini bertanggung jawab atas gempa Tonghai tahun
1970. Dinamai Red river fault karena setelah pembentukannya sungai Merah mengalir melalui celah
lembahnya. Red river fault adalah sinistral strike-slip fault yang terletak pada orientasi NW-SE.

The Three Pagodas Fault adalah pemindahan right-lateral strike-slip fault antara Burma dan Thailand.
Hal ini berkembang sebagai konsekuensi tumbukan antara lempeng India dan lempeng Eurasia. The
Three Pagodas Fault Zone (TPFZ) adalah zona selebar 50 km yang memisahkan daerah paling barat dari
Bukit Tenasserim dari pantai Tenasserim di Myanmar. Seluruh area ditandai oleh sejumlah jejak
kesalahan dan lereng homoclinal batu kapur Paleozoik. The Three Pagodas Fault Zone mengakomodasi
ekstrusi tenggara Indocina, dengan tekanan memutar searah jarum jam.

Uplift, in geology, vertical elevation of the Earths surface in response to natural causes. Broad, relatively
slow and gentle uplift is termed warping, or epeirogeny, in contrast to the more concentrated and
severe orogeny, the uplift associated with earthquakes and mountain building. Uplift of the Earths
surface also has occurred in response to the removal of Pleistocene ice sheets through melting and
wastage. Such elastic rebound is both measurable and ongoing in southern Canada and in the general
Scandinavian area today.

Uplift adalah elevasi vertikal permukaan bumi sebagai respons terhadap penyebab secara alami. Secara
luas, peningkatan yang relatif lambat dan lembut disebut warping, atau epeirogeni, berbeda dengan
orogeni yang lebih terkonsentrasi dan berat, pengangkatan yang terkait dengan gempa bumi dan
bangunan gunung. Permukaan permukaan bumi juga telah terjadi sebagai respons terhadap pelepasan
lapisan es Pleistosen melalui pencairan dan pemborosan. Rebound elastis seperti itu terukur dan
berkelanjutan di Kanada bagian selatan dan di wilayah Skandinavia umum hari ini.

The Sorong Fault Zone is a major left-lateral fault system separating Australia from the Philippine Sea
Plate and the Molucca Sea Plate. The fault zone juxtaposes Mesozoic-Tertiary continental and
arc/ophiolitic rocks. Continental crust was derived from the Australian margin. Crust of Philippine Sea
Plate origin has a basement of ophiolitic and/or arc origin.

Zona Sorong Fault adalah sistem left-lateral fault utama yang memisahkan Australia dari Lempeng Laut
Filipina dan Lempeng Laut Maluku. Zona sesar mendekatkan kontinental dan busur / ophiolitik
Mesozoik-Tersier. Kerak benua berasal dari margin Australia. Kerak dari Lempeng laut Filipina berasan
dari dasar ophiolitik dan / atau busur.
1. Cekungan busur belakang (bahasa Inggris: back-arc basins) adalah fitur geologi, cekungan
submarin yang berasosiasi dengan busur kepulauan dan zona subduksi. Mereka ditemukan di
beberapa batas lempeng konvergen, yang saat ini terkonsentrasi di Samudra pasifik bagian
barat. Sebagian besar dari mereka terbentuk akibat gaya tensional yang disebabkan oleh
pemutaran kembali (rollback) palung samudra ( palung samudra menujam ke arah berlawanan)
dan runtuhnya ujung benua.

2. Cekungan busur muka (bahasa Inggris: forearc basin) adalah wilayah yang terletak di antara
palung samudra dan busur vulkanik. Selama subduksi, lempeng samudra terdorong ke bawah
lempeng tektonik lainnya, yang dapat berupa lempeng samudra maupun lempeng benua. Air
dan volatil-volatil lainnya di lempeng yang menujam ini menyebabkan terjadinya alirah lelehan
pada mantel atas, membentuk magma yang naik dan terpenetrasi melalui lempeng di atasnya,
dan akhirnya membentuk busur vulkanik. Efek dari slab pada lempeng samudra menyebabkan
terbentuknya palung samudra. Area di antara palung dengan busur inilah yang disebut wilayah
muka busur, dan area di belakang busur (sisi lain dari palung) adalah wilayah busur belakang.

3.Sorong Fault Zone


4. Processes and rates of terrane amalgamation: the Sorong Fault Zone, eastern
Indonesia
5. The Sorong Fault Zone is a major left-lateral fault system separating Australia from the
Philippine Sea Plate and the Molucca Sea Plate. The fault zone juxtaposes Mesozoic-
Tertiary continental and arc/ophiolitic rocks. Continental crust was derived from the
Australian margin. Crust of Philippine Sea Plate origin has a basement of ophiolitic
and/or arc origin.

6.
7. SRTM DEM of eastern Indonesia
8. Fragments of Australian and Philippine Sea Plate origin have a common stratigraphic
history after the early Miocene. The geology of the region indicates that arc-continent
collision between the Philippine Sea and Australia occurred at ~25 Ma and led to creation
of the left-lateral Sorong Fault Zone. Subsequent Neogene convergence between East
Asia and the Philippine Sea Plate occurred by subduction to produce the Halmahera arc.
Arc activity started earliest in the south, in Obi, and ceased earliest in the south. Neogene
movement of Australia northward has occurred without subduction although
accompanied by movements of small fragments and local collisions. The Australian-
Philippine Sea plate boundary has been a strike-slip zone since the early Miocene. This
implies northward movement of the plate boundary in the Sorong Fault Zone region at a
similar rate to that of Australia.
9. All Cretaceous-Neogene rocks of Philippine Sea Plate origin in the Halmahera region
record shallow inclinations and formed at low latitudes. Our data indicate southward
translation of this part of the plate between ~50 and ~25 Ma and northward translation
during the Neogene. Geologically composite islands immediately adjacent to the Sorong
Fault Zone include continental and arc/ophiolitic rocks. Palaeomagnetism indicates
latitudinal shifts similar to the Philippine Sea Plate and both counter-clockwise and
clockwise rotations interpreted as block movements within the left-lateral Sorong Fault
Zone. In the region north of the Sorong Fault Zone we interpret declination shifts to
indicate long-term clockwise rotation although rotation was discontinuous.
10. Upper Neogene rocks record small clockwise declination deflections suggesting rotation
rates of approximately 1/Ma consistent with amounts that would be expected from
angular velocities and rotation poles calculated for the Philippine Sea Plate for the
interval 0-~5 Ma. Rocks of ages between ~20-25 Ma and ~38-42 Ma show clear
clockwise declination deflections of ~40. We interpret results from Lower Miocene-
Upper Eocene rocks as indicating that (1) approximately 40 of clockwise rotation
occurred after ~20-25 Ma and (2) no significant rotation took place between ~20-25 and
~38-42 Ma. The very large area over which consistent declination shifts are observed in
sites of post-Eocene age indicate that this region has behaved as a single block since the
end of the Eocene. We assume rigid block behaviour since the beginning of the Eocene.
Lower Eocene sites record declinations of ~270 interpreted as indicating ~45 of
clockwise rotation between ~50 and 38-42 Ma. Cretaceous rocks record primary
magnetisations wi northward declinations and shallow inclinations. We interpret these
results to indicate large clockwise rotations between the Late Cretaceous and the Early
Eocene of the order of ~90.
11. The new palaeomagnetic data from eastern Indonesia provide a means to determine the
history of motion of the Philippine Sea Plate in the interval 0-~50 Ma. These data support
previous models indicating large clockwise rotations but indicate more complex
latitudinal translations than previously suggested. An important constraint in locating
possible rotation poles is the need to satisfy the condition that all palaeomagnetic
investigations of the plate north of Halmahera report northward motions for the period
~50-25 Ma whereas the Halmahera region moved south during most of this interval. An
additional geological condition is evidence of a major regional unconformity at the
beginning of the Miocene representing collision of a Philippine Sea Plate volcanic arc
with the Australian margin. Thus, rotation poles must satisfy the requirement that the
Halmahera-Waigeo block should be on or near the Australian margin at ~25 Ma. This
provides an important limit for pole positions. Using the new data, earlier palaeomagnetic
data, and this geological condition we can estimate quite accurately the positions of
rotation poles for the plate with respect to magnetic north. We describe the motion of the
plate using the Philippine Sea Plate-Eurasia pole of Seno et al. (1987) for the interval 0-5
Ma. Two poles best fit the palaeomagnetic declination and inclination data for the period
5-50 Ma: for the interval 5-25 Ma 15N 160E 1.75/Ma, for the interval 25-50 Ma
10N 150E 2/Ma.