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API 580 Exam Strategy (75 Multiple Choice Qs in 4 hours)

Please Read Below Carefully & Start Study Several Months Ahead
1.0 What you must know: The API 580 RBI exam is a very difficult exam if you do not
understand exactly what you need to know and study and where to focus study efforts.
However, if you follow these simple instructions & perform the minimum recommended
study hours listed below in What you must do to pass the exam (assuming adequate
English skills), then you will likely pass the exam on the first attempt. Due to the high
degree of difficulty on this exam (38% have passed since 2008 & 2010), which is all
about RBI & your ability to memorize the concepts, it may take two attempts to pass.
2.0 What you must do to pass (49 of 70)? API 580 RBI exam is a very difficult exam.
For this reason, it is recommended that you follow these 10 CRITICAL STUDY TIPS:
1. Take the one-week exam preparation course offered by PEDD and use the E-Library
2. Plan your application & study several (4 or more) months in advance of the 580 exam
3. A final day PEDD Course score will determine how much added study time you need
4. Follow recommendations in this study guide carefully and track your own study time
5. Study time depends on English skills (average English skills = 200+ hrs. of study)
6. Review Chapters (1 17) individually & answer practice exam questions afterwards
7. Repeat review of the 17 chapters (at least 4 5 times) & note test score improvements
8. Priority of Study is listed on next page along with three priorities chapter by chapter
9. After you have completed the full review chapter by chapter each time, take the exam
10. When you can honestly score 80%+ taking E-Library practice exams, you are ready
3.0 Do I really need to take PEDD Preparation Course (1 week) with Final Day Exam?
This is strongly recommended, unless you are already an RBI expert And even if
you are already an RBI expert with significant experience, you still benefit from a PEDD
Course before taking the 580 exam. PEDD Instructor Langla failed an API 580 exam in
Sept. 2011 after studying for only about 40 hours, including highlighting sections for
likely exam questions & reading through 580 twice. Mr. Langlas failing score was 64%
(45 of 70 questions correct). Passing score = 49 of 70 as number of questions has risen!
4.0 What are the latest (Nov. 2011) API Pass Rate Statistics (averaged since 2010)?
http://www.api.org/certifications/icp/geninfo/upload/Overall_Stats_Nov_2011.pdf
API 510 = 54% pass rate 109/150 (73%) = Passing/Certification
API 570 = 52% pass rate 108/150 (72%) = Passing/Certification
API 653 = 57% pass rate 102/150 (68%) = Passing/Certification = easiest of 3
API 571 = 45% pass rate 49 / 70 (70%) = Passing/Certification
API 577 = 65% pass rate 49 / 70 (70%) = Passing/Certification = next easiest
API 936 = 74% pass rate 51 / 75 (68%) = Passing/Certification = easiest exam
API 580 = 38%* pass rate 49/70 (70%) = Passing/Cert = Hardest API exam
*The 38% passing rate is the lowest passing rate of all of the API exams, and it is today
documented as being even harder than the API 571 exam, which has a 45% passing rate
Study Guide & 20 Hour Course Breakdown
1st (Top) Priority 2nd Priority 3rd (Lowest) Priority

# of Course Hour
Chapter for API 580 API 580 Sections to Priority
Exam (1 20)
Exam Questions Chapter Review of Study
Qs

Introduction to Risk-Based Insp 6 9 6.1 6.8 1 4-5

Risk Determ, Assessment & Mgmt. 12 10 12.1 12.8 1 13-14

Risk Mgmt. with Insp. Activities 13 8 13.1 13.7 1 15-16

Definitions and Acronyms 4 4 4.1 4.2 2 2

Basic Concepts 5 5 5.1 5.6 2 3

Planning the RBI Assessment 7 5 7.1 7.6 2 6-7

Assessing Probability of Failure 10 5 10.1 10.4 2 10

Assessing Consequences of Failure 11 5 11.1 11.6 2 11-12

1.1 1.4 &


Introduction, Purpose and Scope 1&2 2 3 1
2.1 2.6

Data & Info Coll. for RBI Assess. 8 3 8.1 8.5 3 8

Identifying DMs and Failure Modes 9 2 9.1 9.5 3 9

Other Risk Mitigation Activities 14 3 14.114.13 3 17


Reassessment & Updating RBI 15 3 18
Assessments 15.1 15.3 3

Roles, Resp., Training, & Quals 16 3 16.1 16.3 3 19

RBI Document. & Record-keeping 17 3 17.1 17.9 3 20

Summary of RBI Pitfalls Not on Brief


18 0 18.1 18.12 2010 exam
(Not on 2010 exam) Discussion

*Note: PEDD Training = 20 hrs. *20 hr Training


+ exam time over 5 days
~~~~~~ 70 Qs ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ Course (5 days)
Note: Above information was compiled from the Sept. 2010 API 580 examination!
Instructions: 1. Review each chapter & then answer chapter exam questions honestly covering
answers. Put your correct score in the chapter section listed below (Use Practice Score # 1 Column)!
2. After you finish 17 chapters, take Round # 1 (75 question) exam & document your score below!
3. Complete this process another two times as a minimum we recommend up to 5 times!
4. You should see your scores improving steadily as you repeat this process! Final Target = 90%+!

# of Priority Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Average


Chapter for API 580 API
exam Practice
580 Of Score Score Score Score Score
Exam Questions Score
Chap. Qs Study #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 (1 5)

Introduction to Risk-Based Insp 6 9 1 56 of 75 71 of 75 72 of 75 __ of 75 __ of 75 __ of 75

Risk Determ, Assessment & Mgmt. 12 10 1 24 of 32 27 of 32 29 of 32 __ of 32 __ of 32 __ of 32

Risk Mgmt. with Insp. Activities 13 8 1 35 of 40 36 of 40 38 of 40 __ of 40 __ of 40 __ of 40

Definitions and Acronyms 4 4 2 63 of 85 73of 85 79 of 85 __ of 85 __ of 85 __ of 85

Basic Concepts 5 5 2 32 of 40 35 of 40 37 of 40 __ of 40 __ of 40 __ of 40

Planning the RBI Assessment 7 5 2 37 of 50 45of 50 __ of 50 __ of 50 __ of 50 __ of 50

Assessing Probability of Failure 10 5 2 18 of 23 21of 23 __ of 23 __ of 23 __ of 23 __ of 23

Assessing Consequences of Failure 11 5 2 18 of 24 21 of 24 __ of 24 __ of 24 __ of 24 __ of 24

Introduction, Purpose and Scope 1/2 2 3 46 of 50 42 of 50 __ of 50 __ of 50 __ of 50 __ of 50

Data & Info Coll. for RBI Assess. 8 3 3 13 of 16 14 of 16 15 of 16 __ of 16 __ of 16 __ of 16

Identifying DMs and Failure Modes 9 2 3 10 of 15 13 of 15 15 of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15

Other Risk Mitigation Activities 14 3 3 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15

Reassessment & Updating RBI


15 3 3 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15
Assessments

Roles, Resp., Training, & Quals 16 3 3 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15

RBI Document. & Record-keeping 17 3 3 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15 __ of 15

Summary of RBI Pitfalls Not on


18 0 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(Not on 2010 exam) exam

A) PRACTICE EXAM (500 Qs) 500 352 398 _____ _____ _____ _____
~~~~ ~~~~~~
Total Scores Documented Qs of 450 of 450 of 500 of 500 of 500 of 500

100 _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____


B) PRACTICE EXAM (100 Qs) ~~~~ ~~~~~~
Qs Of 100 Of 100 Of 100 Of 100 Of 100 Of 100

Percentage Score Documented Ch. 3 4 hrs. 78.22% 88.4% _____% _____% _____% _____%
A. result
(90%+ is the minimum targeted & 18 on
B. result _____% _____% _____% _____% _____% _____%
score before the real API 580 exam) = N/A exam
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
1 Foreword
This recommended practice (RP) is intended to provide guidance on developing a risk-based
inspection (RBI) program for fixed equipment and piping in the hydrocarbon and chemical
process industries. It includes: What is RBI? What are the key elements of RBI?
How to implement an RBI program? How to sustain an RBI program?
It is based on the knowledge and experience of engineers, inspectors, risk analysts, and other
personnel in the hydrocarbon and chemical industry. Shall: As used in a Std, shall denotes
a minimum requirement in order to conform to the specification. Should: As used in a standard,
should denotes a recommendation or that which is advised but not required in order to conform
to the specification. This RP is intended to supplement API 510, API 570, and API 653. These
API inspection codes and standards allow an owner/user latitude to plan an inspection strategy
and increase or decrease the code designated inspection frequencies and activities based on
the results of an RBI assessment. The assessment must systematically evaluate both the POF
and the associated consequence of failure (COF). The POF assessment should be evaluated by
considering all credible damage mechanisms. Refer to the appropriate code for other RBI
assessment requirements.
1 Introduction
This recommended practice (RP) provides information on using risk analysis to develop an
effective inspection plan. Inspection planning is a systematic process that begins with
identification of facilities or equipment and culminates in an inspection plan.
Both the probability*** of failure (POF) and the consequence of failure (COF) should be
evaluated by considering all credible damage mechanisms that could be expected to affect the
facilities or equipment. In addition, failure scenarios based on each credible damage mechanism
should be developed and considered.
Tip/Note: ***Likelihood is sometimes used as a synonym for probability; however, probability
is used in API 580 for consistency. Exam Tip: If you see likelihood They mean probability.
The output of the inspection planning process conducted according to these guidelines should
be an inspection plan for each equipment item analyzed that includes:
a) Inspection methods that should be used
b) Extent of inspection (percent of total area to be examined or specific locations)
c) Inspection interval or next inspection date (timing)
d) Other risk mitigation activities
e) Residual level of risk after inspection & other mitigation actions have been implemented
The RBI plan produced according to the guidance herein, combined with a comprehensive set of
integrity operating windows for each process unit & a rigorous MOC program should provide
the basis for sound management of the integrity of fixed equipment in the refining and
petrochemical process industry.
RBI is synonymous with risk-prioritized inspection, risk-informed inspection and with
inspection planning using risk based methods.
Exam Tip: Expect several (4+) questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Forward Section questions)
1. API 580 is intended to provide guidance on developing an RBI program for:
A) All types of equipment and piping in all industries
C) Fixed equipment and piping in the Oil and Gas Industry
B) All types of equipment and piping in the Oil and Gas Industry
D) Fixed equipment and piping in the hydrocarbon and chemical process industries
Answer: D (Forward Section API 580 RBI intentions)
2. An RBI Program is based on the knowledge and experience of:
A) Engineers, inspectors, risk analysts, and other personnel in hydrocarbon & chemical industry
B) Engineers, inspectors & risk analysts in hydrocarbon & chemical industry
C) Engineers & inspectors in the hydrocarbon & chemical industry only
D) Engineers & inspectors in the Oil & Gas Industry
Answer: A (Forward Section API 580 Forward Statements)
3. API 580 is intended to supplement (which one of the following):
A) Equipment Codes of Construction (ASME, etc) & API 510, API 570, and API 653 Codes
B) The API 510, API 570, and API 653 Inspection Codes only
C) Equipment Codes of Construction (ASME, etc) only
D) None of these is correct
Answer: B (Forward Section API 580 Forward Statements)
4. Based on the results of an RBI assessment, the API 510/570/653 inspection codes and
standards allow an owner/user the latitude (option) to plan an inspection strategy and:
A) Decrease the code designated inspection frequencies and activities
B) Eliminate the code designated inspection frequencies and activities
C) Increase or decrease the code designated inspection frequencies and activities
D) None of these are correct
Answer: C (Forward Section API 580 Forward Statements)
5. The RBI assessment must systematically evaluate:
A) The Root cause of Failure (RCOF) only
B) The Possibility of Failure (POF) only
C) Both the Root Cause of Failure (RCOF) and possibility of Failure (POF)
D) Both the Probability of Failure (POF) and associated consequence of failure (COF)
Answer: D (Forward Section API 580 Forward Statements) Correct your typos
6. The POF assessment should be evaluated by considering:
A) All credible damage mechanisms B) All root causes of failure
C) All consequences of failure (COF) D) All root causes of failure & COF
Answer: A (Forward Section API 580 Forward Statements)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)

Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Introduction Section questions)

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

7. API 580 provides information on using risk analysis to develop an effective:

A) Inspection plan
B) Risk Based Inspection (RBI) program
C) PSM Program using RBI
D) None of these

Answer: A (Introduction Section for API 580)

8. Inspection planning is a systematic process that begins with identification of facilities or


equipment and ends up as:

A) PSM Program using RBI


B) RBI Program using PSM
C) Inspection Plan
D) RBI Program

Answer: C (Introduction Section for API 580)

9. A systematic process that begins with identification of facilities or equipment and ends
up as an inspection plan is called:

A) RBI program
B) Inspection planning
C) PSM Program using RBI
D) RBI Program using PSM

Answer: B (Introduction Section for API 580)

10. In RBI, what should be evaluated by considering all credible damage mechanisms that
could be expected to affect the facilities or equipment?

A) Root cause of Failure (RCOF) only


B) Possibility of Failure (POF) only
C) Both the RCOF & POF
D) Both the POF & COF

Answer: D (Introduction Section for API 580) POF = Probability, not possibility
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Introduction Section questions)
Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

11. A synonym for probability recognized by API 580, but not used in the document, is:

A) Possibility B) Chance
C) Likelihood D) Event

Answer: C (Introduction Section for API 580)

12. The output of inspection planning process conducted as per API 580 guidelines should
be an inspection plan for each equipment item analyzed that includes all of these except:

A) Inspection methods that should be used


B) Inspection interval or next inspection date (timing)
C) Extent of inspection (percent of total area to be examined or specific locations)
D) Residual level of risk before inspection & other mitigation actions have been implemented

Answer: D (Introduction Section for API 580) Residual level of risk AFTER Inspection

13. An RBI plan produced per API 580 guidance should be combined with which of these
elements to provide the basis for sound management of the integrity of fixed equipment:

A) A comprehensive set of IOWs for each process unit & a rigorous MOC program
B) An inspection plan using risk-prioritized and risk-informed methods
C) Inspection planning using risk-based methods
D) None of these is correct

Answer: A (Introduction Section for API 580)

14. RBI is synonymous with risk-prioritized/risk-informed inspection & inspection


planning using:

A) Risk analysis methods B) Risk-based methods


C) Risk management D) None of these

Answer: B (Introduction Section for API 580)

15. RBI is synonymous with which of these following elements?

A) Risk-prioritized inspection only


B) Both risk-prioritized and risk-informed inspection
C) Inspection planning using risk-based methods only
D) Risk-prioritized & risk-informed inspection & inspection planning using risk-based methods

Answer: D (Introduction Section for API 580)


Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
1 Purpose
1.1 General
The purpose of this document is to provide users with the basic elements for developing,
implementing, and maintaining a risk-based inspection (RBI) program. It provides guidance
to owners, operators, and designers of pressure-containing equipment for developing and
implementing an inspection program. These guidelines include means for assessing an
inspection program and its plan. The approach emphasizes safe and reliable operation through
risk-prioritized inspection. A spectrum of complementary risk analysis approaches (qualitative
through fully quantitative) can be considered as part of the inspection planning process.
RBI guideline issues covered include an introduction to the concepts and principles of RBI for
risk management; and individual sections that describe the steps in applying these principles
within the framework of the RBI process include:
a) Understanding the design premise Chapter 6 and others
b) Planning the RBI assessment Chapter 7
c) Data and information collection Chapter 8
d) Identifying damage mechanisms and failure modes Chapter 9
e) Assessing probability of failure (POF) Chapter 10
f) Assessing consequence of failure (COF) Chapter 11
g) Risk determination, assessment, and management Chapter 12
h) Risk management with inspection activities and process control Chapter 13
i) Other risk mitigation activities Chapter 14
j) Reassessment and updating Chapter 15
k) Roles, responsibilities, training, and qualifications Chapter 16
l) Documentation and recordkeeping Chapter 17
The expected outcome from the application of the RBI process should be the linkage of
risks with appropriate inspection, process control or other risk mitigation activities to
manage the risks.
The RBI process is capable of generating (5 items):
1) A ranking by relative risk of all equipment evaluated
2) A detailed description of inspection plan to be employed for each equipment item, incl:
Inspection method(s) that should be used (VT, ultrasonic (UT), radiography, WFMT)
Extent of application of inspection method(s) (% of total area examined or specific locations)
Timing of inspections/examinations (inspection intervals/due dates)
Risk management achieved through implementation of the inspection plan
3) A description of any other risk mitigation activities [such as repairs, replacements or safety
equipment upgrades, equipment redesign or maintenance, integrity operating windows (IOWs),
and controls on operating conditions]
4) The expected risk levels of all equipment after the inspection plan and other risk
mitigation activities have been implemented
5) Identification of risk drivers
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
1 Purpose 1.1 General
Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!
16. Regarding RBI programs, the purpose of API 580 is to provide users with basics for:

A) Developing their RBI program only


B) Developing and implementing their RBI program
C) Developing and implementing and maintaining their RBI program
D) Developing and implementing and maintaining and terminating their RBI program

Answer: C (Ref: Purpose Section 1.1, First Para.)

17. The purpose of API 580 is to provide its users with the basic elements necessary to:

A) Develop/implement/maintain RBI program & develop and implement an inspection program


B) Develop/implement/maintain RBI Program with risk-prioritized/informed inspection plans
C) Develop/maintain RBI Program with risk-prioritized/informed inspection plans
D) Develop/implement/maintain both RBI program and Inspection program

Answer: A (Ref: Purpose Section 1.1, First Para.)

18. The purpose of API 580 is to provide guidance to whom regarding the development and
implementation of an inspection program?

A) Owners & operators of pressure-containing equipment only


B) Owners & operators & designers of pressure-containing equipment
C) All users of API 580 (RBI Team) who work with pressure-containing equipment
D) None of these is correct

Answer: B (Ref: Purpose Section 1.1, First Para.)

19. The API 580 (RBI) approach emphasizes safe and reliable operation through:
A) Risk analysis B) Risk assessment
C) Risk management D) Risk-prioritized inspection

Answer: D (Ref: Purpose Section 1.1, First Para.)

20. A spectrum of complementary risk analysis approaches (qualitative through fully


quantitative) can be considered as part of:

A) The inspection planning process


B) Risk management and mitigation
C) RBI program development/implementation/maintenance
D) None of these is correct

Answer: A (Ref: Purpose Section 1.1, First Para.)


Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)

1 Purpose 1.1 General


Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

21. An expected outcome from application of RBI process should be linkage of risks with:
A) Process controls or other risk mitigation activities to effectively reduce or eliminate the risks
B) Appropriate inspection, process control or other risk mitigation activities to manage the risks
C) Appropriate inspection, process control or other risk mitigation activities to control the risks
D) Process controls or other risk mitigation activities to effectively reduce or control the risks
Ans: B Ref: Purpose Sect. 1.1, 2nd Para EXPECTED OUTCOME FROM RBI

22. The RBI process is capable of generating all of these except:


A) Expected risk levels of all equipment before the inspection plan has been implemented
B) A ranking by relative risk of all equipment evaluated and the identification of risk drivers
C) A detailed description of the inspection plan to be employed for each equipment item
D) A description of other risk mitigation activities (non-inspection items such as repairs)
Ans: A Ref: Purpose Sect. 1.1, 2nd Para. FIVE RBI PROCESS OUTCOME ITEMS

23. The RBI process is capable of generating a detailed description of the inspection plan to
be used for each equipment item that includes all of the following except:
A) Extent of application of inspection method(s) (% of total area examined or specific locations)
B) Inspection method(s) that should be used (VT, UT, RT, WFMT, etc)
C) Timing of inspections/examinations (inspection intervals/due dates)
D) Residual risk before the implementation of the inspection plan
Ans: D Ref: Purpose Sect. 1.1, 2nd Para. FIVE RBI PROCESS OUTCOME ITEMS

24. The RBI process is capable of generating a description of other non-inspection risk
mitigation activities for equipment that includes all of the following except:
A) Repair or Replacement or safety equipment upgrade
B) Integrity operating windows (IOWs)
C) Equipment/material design review
D) Controls on operating conditions
Answer: C (Ref: Purpose Section 1.1, Second Para. Five RBI process outcome items)

25. The RBI process is capable of generating which of the following:


A) A ranking by residual risk of all equipment evaluated
B) An overview of the inspection plan by unit
C) An overview of all risk mitigation plans
D) Identification of risk drivers
Answer: D (Ref: Purpose Sectio
n 1.1, Second Para. Five RBI process outcome items)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
1 Purpose
1.2 RBI Benefits & Limitations
The primary work products of the RBI assessment and management approach are plans that
address ways to manage risks on an equipment level. These equipment plans highlight risks
from a safety/health/environment perspective and/or from an economic standpoint.
RBI plans should include cost-effective actions along with a projected risk mitigation.
Implementation of these (RBI) plans provides one of the following:
a) An overall reduction in risk for the facilities and equipment assessed,
b) An acceptance/understanding of the current risk.
The RBI plans also identify equipment that does not require inspection or some other form of
mitigation because of the acceptable level of risk associated with the equipments current
operation. In this way, inspection and maintenance activities can be focused and more cost
effective. This often results in a significant reduction in the amount of inspection data that is
collected. This focus on a smaller set of data should result in more accurate information.
In some cases, in addition to risk reductions and process safety improvements, RBI plans may
result in cost reductions.
RBI is based on sound, proven risk assessment and management principles.
Nonetheless, RBI will not compensate for:
a) Inaccurate or missing information,
b) Inadequate designs or faulty equipment installation,
c) Operating outside the acceptable IOWs,
d) Not effectively executing the plans,
e) Lack of qualified personnel or teamwork,
f) Lack of sound engineering or operational judgment.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

26. The primary work products of the RBI assessment and management approach are
plans that address ways to manage risks on what level?
A) An equipment level B) A single plant unit level
B) An entire operating plant level D) None of these are correct
Answer: A (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, First Sentence RBI Benefits & Limitations)

27. RBI equipment plans highlight risks from what perspectives and standpoints?
A) From a safety perspective only
B) From both a safety & health perspective only
C) From a safety/health/environment perspective only
D) From a safety/health/environment perspective and/or from an economic standpoint
Answer: D (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, Second Sentence RBI Benefits & Limitations)

Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)

1 Purpose

1.2 RBI Benefits & Limitations


Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

28. Regarding RBI benefits & Limitations, RBI plans should include cost-effective actions:

A) Along with an overall projected risk B) Along with a projected risk mitigation
C) Along with residual risk after inspection D) Along with detailed risk identification
Answer: B (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, Third Sentence RBI Benefits & Limitations)

29. Implementation of RBI plans provide what benefits for facilities/equipment assessed:

A) An overall risk reduction


B) An acceptance/understanding of the current risk
C) Either an overall risk reduction or an acceptance/understanding of the current risk
D) Both an overall risk reduction or an acceptance and understanding of the current risk
Answer: C (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, Second Sentence RBI Benefits)

30. In some cases, in addition to risk reductions and process safety improvements, RBI
plans may result in:

A) Cost reductions B) Elimination of all inspections


C) Elimination of all RBI D) Elimination of all inspections & RBI
Answer: A (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, Third Paragraph RBI Benefits)

31. RBI is based on which of these principles?

A) Sound and proven risk analysis principles


B) Sound and proven risk management principles
C) Sound and proven risk analysis and risk management principles
D) Sound and proven risk assessment and risk management principles
Answer: D (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, Last Paragraph RBI Benefits & Limitations)

32. A limitation of RBI is that it will not compensate for all of the following except:
A) Inaccurate or missing information & inadequate designs or faulty equipment installation
B) Lack of qualified personnel or teamwork, or sound engineering or operational judgment
C) Operating within the acceptable IOWs
D) Not effectively executing the plans
Answer: C (Ref: Purpose Section 1.2, Last Paragraph RBI Limitations)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
1 Purpose
1.3 Using RBI as a Continuous Improvement Tool
Utilization of RBI provides a vehicle for continuously improving the inspection of facilities and
systematically reducing the risk associated with pressure boundary failures. As new data
(such as inspection results and industry experiences with similar processes) becomes available
or when changes occur (e.g. operating conditions), reassessment of the RBI program can be
made that will provide a refreshed view of the risks. Risk management plans should then be
adjusted appropriately.
RBI offers the added advantage of identifying gaps or shortcomings in the effectiveness of
commercially available inspection technologies and applications. In cases where technology
cannot adequately and/or cost-effectively mitigate risks, other risk mitigation approaches can be
implemented. RBI should serve to guide the direction of inspection technology development, and
hopefully promote a faster and broader deployment of emerging inspection technologies as well
as proven inspection technologies that may be available but are underutilized.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

33. Using RBI provides a vehicle for continuously improving inspection of facilities and:

A) Systematically reducing the risk associated with plant operations and hazards
B) Systematically managing the risk associated with plant operations and hazards
C) Systematically reducing the risk associated with pressure boundary failures
D) Systematically managing risk associated with pressure boundary failures
Answer: C (Ref: Sect 1.3, First Paragraph RBI as a Continuous Improvement Tool)

34. As new data (such as inspection results and industry experiences with similar processes)
becomes available or when changes occur (e.g. operating conditions), what should be done
that will provide a refreshed view of the risks?

A) Adjustment of the inspection levels in the RBI program


B) Adjustment of the inspection intervals in the RBI program
C) Adjustment of the inspection levels and the intervals in the RBI program
D) Reassessment of the RBI program
Answer: D (Ref: Sect 1.3, First Paragraph RBI as a Continuous Improvement Tool)

35. When RBI is used as a continuous improvement tool, it offers an added advantage of:

A) Identifying gaps in effectiveness of commercially available Insp. technologies & applications


B) Identifying cases where technology can cost-effectively mitigate risks
C) Identifying cases where technology can adequately mitigate risks
D) Identifying cases where inspection technology is adequate
Answer: A (Ref: Sect 1.3, Second Para. RBI as a Continuous Improvement Tool)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
1 Purpose
1.4 RBI as an Integrated Management Tool
RBI is a risk assessment and management tool that addresses an area of risk management not
completely addressed in other organizational risk management efforts such as process hazards
analyses (PHA), IOWs or reliability centered maintenance (RCM). Integration of these risk
management efforts, including RBI, is key to the success of a risk management program.
RBI produces inspection and maintenance plans for equipment that identify the actions that
should be taken to provide reliable and safe operation. The RBI effort can provide input into
an organizations annual planning and budgeting that define the staffing and funds required to
maintain equipment operation at acceptable levels of performance and risk.
RBI needs to be integrated with a management system for defining and maintaining IOWs as
well as a robust management of change (MOC) process as a basis for managing & controlling
damage mechanisms in fixed equipment.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!


36. RBI is a risk assessment & management tool that addresses an area of risk management
not completely addressed in other organizational risk management efforts that may include
all of the following except:
A) Process hazards analyses (PHA) B) Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs)
C) Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) D) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Answer: D (Ref: Sect 1.4, First Para. RBI as an Integrated Management Tool)
37. Integration of other risk management efforts (PHA, IOWs, RCM) with RBI is the key
to the success of:
A) Risk Analysis B) Risk Management Programs
C) Risk Mitigations D) Risk-based Inspection Programs
Answer: B (Ref: Sect 1.4, First Para. RBI as an Integrated Management Tool)
38. RBI produces inspection and maintenance plans for equipment that identify the actions
that should be taken to provide:
A) Reliable and safe operation B) Cost-effective mitigation
C) Environmental protection D) Process Safety Management
Answer: A (Ref: Sect 1.4, Second Para. RBI as an Integrated Management Tool)
39. As a basis for managing & controlling damage mechanisms in fixed equipment, RBI
needs to be integrated with a management system for what purpose?
A) Defining and maintaining PHAs as well as a robust Process Safety Management Program
B) Controlling and managing IOWs as well as a robust Process Safety Management Program
C) Defining and maintaining IOWs as well as a robust management of change (MOC) process
D) Defining and maintaining RCMs as well as a robust management of change (MOC) process
Answer: C (Ref: Sect 1.4, Third Para. RBI as an Integrated Management Tool)
2 Scope

2.1 Industry Scope


Although the risk management principles and concepts that RBI is built on are universally
applicable, this RP is specifically targeted at the application of RBI in the hydrocarbon and
chemical process industry.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!


40. API 580 specifically targets the application of RBI in what industry (or industries)?
A) Oil & Gas Industry
B) Hydrocarbon Industry
C) Hydrocarbon & Chemical Process Industry
D) Any industry using toxic substances that chooses to follow API 580 guidelines
Answer: C (Ref: Sect 2.1 First Paragraph Industry Scope)

2.2 Flexibility in Application


Because of the broad diversity in organizations size, culture, federal and/or local regulatory
requirements, this RP offers users the flexibility to apply the RBI methodology within the
context of existing corporate risk management practices and to accommodate unique local
circumstances. The document is designed to provide a framework that clarifies the expected
attributes of a quality risk assessment without imposing undue constraints on users. This RP is
intended to promote consistency & quality in the identification, assessment, & management
of risks pertaining to material deterioration, which could lead to loss of containment.
Many types of RBI methods exist and are currently being applied throughout industry. This
document is not intended to single out one specific approach as the recommended method for
conducting an RBI effort. The document instead is intended to identify and clarify the essential
elements of an RBI analysis and program.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

41. Regarding Material deterioration that could lead to loss of containment, the Scope of
API 580 is intended to promote:
A) Consistency & quality in the identification, assessment, & management of risks
B) Cost-effective solutions to reduce risk using inspection
C) Understanding of RBI and management of risk
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A (Ref: Sect 2.2 First Paragraph Flexibility in Application)

42. API 580 is intended to identify and clarify the essential elements of:
A) An RBI analysis B) Both an RBI analysis and program
C) An RBI Program D) None of these are correct
Answer: B (Ref: Sect 2.2 Second Paragraph Flexibility in Application)
Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)
2 Scope 2.3 Mechanical Integrity Focused
The RBI process is focused on maintaining the mechanical integrity of pressure equipment items
& minimizing the risk of loss of containment due to deterioration. RBI is not a substitute for
a PHA or hazard and operability assessment (HAZOP). Typically, PHA risk assessments
focus on the process unit design and operating practices and their adequacy given the units
current or anticipated operating conditions. RBI complements the PHA by focusing on the
mechanical integrity related damage mechanisms & risk management through inspection.
RBI also is complementary to RCM programs (because) both programs are focused on
understanding failure modes, addressing the modes and therefore improving the reliability
of equipment and process facilities.
Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!
43. The RBI process is focused on maintaining the mechanical integrity of pressure
equipment items and:
A) Minimizing the risk of equipment damage and personnel injury
B) Minimizing the risk of loss of containment due to deterioration
C) Minimizing the risk of damage to the environment
D) None of these are correct
Answer: B (Ref: Sect 2.3 First Paragraph Mechanical Integrity Focused)

44. API 580 focuses on Mechanical Integrity, and RBI is not a substitute for which of these:
A) PHA or hazard and operability assessment (HAZOP)
B) Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Program
C) Process Safety Management Program
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A (Ref: Sect 2.3 First Paragraph Mechanical Integrity Focused)

45. RBI complements the PHA by focusing on the:


A) Risk management through inspection
B) Mechanical integrity related damage mechanisms
C) Mechanical integrity related damage mechanisms & risk management through analysis
D) Mechanical integrity related damage mechanisms & risk management through inspection
Answer: D (Ref: Sect 2.3 First Paragraph Mechanical Integrity Focused)

46. RBI also is complementary to RCM programs (because) both programs are focused on
all of the following except:
A) Understanding failure modes
B) Addressing the failure modes
C) Focusing on the process unit design & operating conditions
D) Improving the reliability of equipment and process facilities
Answer: C (Ref: Sect 2.3 First Paragraph Mechanical Integrity Focused)

Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)

2 Scope 2.4 Equipment Covered

These types of equipment & associated components/internals are covered by this document.
a) Pressure VesselsAll pressure containing components
b) Process PipingPipe and piping components
c) Storage TanksAtmospheric and pressurized
d) Rotating EquipmentPressure containing components
e) Boilers and HeatersPressurized components
f) Heat exchangers (shells, floating heads, channels, and bundles)
g) Pressure-relief devices.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

47. The types of equipment & associated components/internals covered by API 580 include
all of these except:

A) Pressure vessels, atmospheric/pressurized storage tanks, process pipe, pressure-relief devices


B) Heat exchangers (shells, floating heads, channels, and bundles)
C) Rotating Equipment (pressure-containing components)
D) Boilers and Heaters (all components)

Ans: D (Ref: Sect 2.4 First Para Equip Covered) Only Pressure-containing parts

2.5 Equipment Not Covered


The following equipment is not covered by this document:
a) Instrument and control systems
b) Electrical systems
c) Structural systems
d) Machinery components (except pump and compressor casings).
However, these systems and components may be covered by other types of RBI or risk
assessment work processes such as RCM.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

48. The types of equipment not covered by API 580 include all of these except:

A) Machinery components (except pump and compressor casings)


B) Electrical systems, Instruments and control systems
C) Structural systems (includes foundations)
D) Pressure-relief Devices
Ans: D (Ref: Sect 2.5 Equipment Not Covered) Machinery (except casings) = not
covered and pressure relief devices ARE COVERED!

Priority 3 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 1/2 Forward/Introduction/Purpose/Scope)

2 Scope

2.6 Target Audience

The primary audience for this RP is inspection and engineering personnel who are
responsible for the mechanical integrity and operability of equipment covered by this RP.

However, while an organizations inspection/materials engineering group may champion the RBI
initiative, RBI is not exclusively an inspection activity.

RBI requires the involvement of various segments of the organization such as engineering,
maintenance and operations.

Implementation of the resulting RBI product (e.g. inspection plans, replacement/upgrading


recommendations, other mitigation activities, etc.) may rest with more than one segment of the
organization.

RBI requires the commitment and cooperation of the total operating organization.

In this context, while the primary audience may be inspection and materials engineering
personnel, other stakeholders who are likely to be involved should be familiar with the concepts
and principles embodied in the RBI methodology to the extent necessary for them to understand
the risk assessment process and to be able to accept the results.

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

49. The primary audience for API 580 is:


A) Inspection/engineering personnel responsible for equipment mech. integrity & operability
B) Inspection/engineering/materials personnel responsible for equipment mech. integrity
C) Inspection/engineering personnel responsible for equipment mech. integrity
D) None of these, because the audience is the total operating organization

Answer: A (Ref: Sect 2.3 First Paragraph Mechanical Integrity Focused)

50. RBI requires involvement of various segments of the organization such as engineering,
maintenance and operations, and requires the commitment and cooperation of:

A) The entire RBI team


B) The entire Operating organization
C) The entire Engineering organization
D) The entire Engineering & Inspection organizations

Answer: B (Ref: Sect 2.3 First Paragraph Mechanical Integrity Focused)

3 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
API Publication 510, Pressure Vessel Insp. Code: Inspection, Rating, Repair, & Alteration
API Publication 570, Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating of
In-service Piping Systems
API Recommended Practice 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the
Refining Industry
API Standard 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-For-Service
API Recommended Practice 581, Risk-Based Inspection Technology
API Standard 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction
API Recommended Practice 752, Management of Hazards Associated With Location of
Process Plant Buildings
API Recommended Practice 941, Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and
Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants
AICHE, Dows Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, 1994
ASME PVRC Project 99-IP-01, A Comparison of Criteria For Acceptance of Risk, Feb 16, 2000
EPA 58 FR 54190 (40 CFR Part 68), Risk Management Plan (RMP) Regulations
ISO Guide 73, Risk Management Vocabulary
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

Exam Tip: Expect at least three questions from Forward/Intro/Purpose/Scope (5 pages)!

Exam Tip/Notice: It is not expected that you will have questions on Section 3 as there were
none listed in exam results for September 2010 However, I believe you will see above
highlighted items in test questions coming from other sections, especially the following:
API 510, 570, 571 & 653 (where referenced in this document)
API Standard 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-For-Service
API Recommended Practice 581, Risk-Based Inspection Technology
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals
Example Exam Question: Fitness-For-Service assessment is often accomplished through
the knowledge and expertise of the inspector and engineers involved when deterioration is
within known acceptable limits, but on occasion will require an engineering analysis such
as those in:
A) API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 B) OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119
C) API RP 752 D) None of these are correct

Example Answer: A (Ref: Sect 6.6.3 Evaluation & Fitness for Service Analysis)

Priority 2 Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations
4.1 Terms and Definitions: For purposes of this RP, these terms, definitions, acronyms,
and abbreviations shall apply. Yellow Highlighted sections are the highest priority for study!
4.1.1 Absolute risk: An ideal and accurate description and quantification of risk.
4.1.2 Acceptable risk: A level of risk that is acceptable to the owner-user.
4.1.3 As low as reasonably practical (ALARP): A concept of minimization that postulates
that attributes (such as risk) can only be reduced to a certain minimum under current
technology and with reasonable cost.
4.1.4 Components: Parts that make up a piece of equipment or equipment item. For example
a pressure boundary may consist of components (pipe, elbows, nipples, heads, shells,
nozzles, stiffening rings, skirts, supports, etc.) that are bolted or welded into assembles to
make up equipment items.
4.1.5 Consequence: An outcome from an event. There may be one or more consequences from
an event. Consequences may range from positive to negative. However, consequences are
always negative for safety aspects. Consequences may be expressed qualitatively or
quantitatively.
4.1.6 Corrosion specialist: A person who is knowledgeable and experienced in the specific
process chemistries, corrosion degradation mechanisms, materials selection, corrosion
mitigation methods, corrosion monitoring techniques, and their impact on pressure
equipment.
4.1.7 Cost-effective: An activity that is both effective in resolving an issue (e.g. some form of
mitigation) and is a financially sound use of resources.
4.1.8 Damage (or deterioration) mechanism: A process that induces micro and/or macro
material changes over time that is harmful to the material condition or mechanical
properties. Damage mechanisms are usually incremental, cumulative, and, in some
instances, unrecoverable. Common damage mechanisms include corrosion, stress
corrosion cracking, creep, erosion, fatigue, fracture, and thermal aging.
4.1.9 Damage (or deterioration) mode: The physical manifestation of damage (e.g. wall
thinning, pitting, cracking, rupture).
4.1.10 Damage tolerance: The amount of deterioration that a component can withstand without
failing.
4.1.11 Design premise: Assumptions made during the design (e.g. design life and corrosion
allowance needed).
4.1.12 Deterioration: Reduction in the ability of a component to provide its intended purpose
of containment of fluids. This can be caused by various damage mechanisms (thinning,
cracking, mechanical). Damage or degradation may be used in place of deterioration.
4.1.13 Equipment: An individual item that is part of a system. Examples include pressure
vessels, relief devices, piping, boilers, and heaters.

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations

4.1 Terms and Definitions


4.1.14 Event: Occurrence of a particular set of circumstances. The event may be certain or
uncertain. The event can be singular or multiple. The probability of an event occurring
within a given period of time can be estimated.
4.1.15 Event tree: An analytical tool that organizes and characterizes potential occurrences in a
logical and graphical manner. The event tree begins with the identification of potential
initiating events. Subsequent possible events (including activation of safety functions)
resulting from the initiating events are then displayed as the second level of the event
tree. This process is continued to develop pathways or scenarios from the initiating events
to potential outcomes.
4.1.16 External event: Events resulting from forces of nature, acts of God, sabotage, or events
such as neighboring fires or explosions, terrorism, neighboring hazardous material
releases, electrical power failures, forces of nature, & intrusions of external transportation
vehicles, such as aircraft, ships, trains, trucks, or automobiles. External events are usually
beyond the direct or indirect control of persons employed at or by the facility.
4.1.17 Facility: Any location containing equipment and/or components to be addressed under
this RP.
4.1.18 Failure: Termination of the ability of a system, structure, equipment or component to
perform its required function of containment of fluid (i.e. loss of containment). Failures
may be unannounced and undetected at the instant of occurrence (unannounced failure).
For example, a slow leak under insulation may not be detected until a pool of fluid forms
on the ground or someone notices a drip or wisp of vapor. A small leak may not be
noticed until the next inspection (unannounced failure), e.g. slow leakage from buried
piping or small leak in a heat exchanger tube; or they may be announced and detected by
any number of methods at the instance of occurrence (announced failure), e.g. rupture of
a pipe in a process plant or sudden decrease in pressure in the system.
4.1.19 Failure mode: The manner of failure. For RBI, the failure of concern is loss of
containment of pressurized equipment items. Examples of failure modes are small hole,
crack, and rupture.
4.1.20 Fitness-For-Service assessment: Methodology whereby damage or flaws/imperfections
contained within a component or equipment item are assessed in order to determine
acceptability for continued service.
4.1.21 Hazard: A physical condition or a release of a hazardous material that could result from
component failure and result in human injury or death, loss or damage, or environmental
degradation. Hazard is the source of harm. Components that are used to transport, store,
or process a hazardous material can be a source of hazard. Human error and external
events may also create a hazard.

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations
4.1 Terms and Definitions
4.1.22 Hazard and operability study (HAZOP study): A HAZOP study is a form of failure
modes and effects analysis (FMEA). HAZOP studies, which were originally developed
for the process industry, use systematic techniques to identify hazards and operability
issues throughout an entire facility. It is particularly useful in identifying unforeseen
hazards designed into facilities due to lack of information, or introduced into existing
facilities due to changes in process conditions or operating procedures. The basic
objectives of the techniques are:
To produce a full description of the facility or process, including the intended
design conditions; to systematically review every part of the facility or process to
discover how deviations from the intention of the design can occur;
To decide whether these deviations can lead to hazards or operability issues;
To assess effectiveness of safeguards.
4.1.23 Inspection: Activities performed to verify that materials, fabrication, erection,
examinations, testing, repairs, etc., conform to applicable code, engineering, and/or
owners written procedure requirements. It includes the planning, implementation, and
evaluation of the results of inspection activities. The external, internal, or on-stream
assessment (or any combination of the three) of the condition of pressure equipment.
4.1.24 Integrity operating window (IOW): Established limits for process variables that can
affect the integrity of the equipment if the process operation deviates from the established
limits for a predetermined amount of time.
4.1.25 Likelihood: Probability.
4.1.26 Management of change (MOC): A documented management system for review and
approval of changes in process, equipment or piping systems prior to implementation of
the change.
4.1.27 Mitigation: Limitation of any negative consequence or reduction in probability of a
particular event.
4.1.28 Probability: Extent to which an event is likely to occur within the time frame under
consideration. The mathematical definition of probability is a real number in the scale 0
to 1 attached to a random event. Probability can be related to a long-run relative
frequency of occurrence or to a degree of belief that an event will occur. For a high
degree of belief, the probability is near one (1). Frequency rather than probability may be
used in describing risk. Degrees of belief about probability can be chosen as classes or
ranks like rare/unlikely/moderate/likely/almost certain or incredible / improbable /
remote/occasional/probable/frequent.
4.1.29 Process unit: A group of systems arranged in a specific fashion to produce a product or
service. Examples of processes include power generation, acid production, fuel oil
production, and ethylene production.
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)
4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations
4.1 Terms and Definitions
4.1.30 Qualitative risk analysis: An analysis that uses broad categorizations for probabilities &
consequences of failure. Methods that use primarily engineering judgment & experience
as the basis for the determination of probabilities and consequences of failure. The results
of qualitative risk analyses are dependent on the background and expertise of the analysts
and the objectives of the analysis. FMEA and HAZOPs are examples of qualitative risk
analysis techniques that become QRA methods when consequence and failure probability
values are estimated along with the respective descriptive input.
4.1.31 Quantitative risk analysis (QRA): An analysis that quantifies the probabilities and
consequences of the probable damage mechanisms and that:
identifies and delineates the combinations of events that, if they occur, may lead to a
severe event or any other undesired consequence;
estimates the probability of occurrence for each combination;
estimates the consequences.
QRA generally:
integrates information about facility design, operating practices, operating history,
component reliability, human actions, the physical progression of incidents, and potential
environmental and health effects;
uses logic & probabilistic models depicting combinations of events & the progression
of incidents to provide both qualitative and quantitative insights into the level of risks;
analysis logic models consisting of event trees and fault trees to estimate the
frequency of each incident sequence.
4.1.32 Reassessment: Process of integrating inspection data or other changes into a risk analysis
4.1.33 Relative risk: The comparative risk of a facility, process unit, system, equipment item or
component to other facilities, process units, systems, equipment items, or components,
respectively.
4.1.34 Residual risk: The risk remaining after risk mitigation.
4.1.35 Risk: Combination of the probability of an event and its consequence. In some situations,
risk is a deviation from the expected. When probability and consequence are expressed
numerically, risk is the product.
4.1.36 Risk acceptance: A decision to accept a risk. Risk acceptance depends on risk criteria.
4.1.37 Risk analysis: Systematic use of information to identify sources and to estimate the risk.
Risk analysis provides a basis for risk evaluation, risk mitigation and risk acceptance.
Information can include historical data, theoretical analysis, informed opinions, and
concerns of stakeholders.
4.1.38 Risk assessment: Overall process of risk analysis and risk evaluation.
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)
4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations
4.1 Terms and Definitions
4.1.39 Risk avoidance: Decision not to become involved in, or action to withdraw from a risk
situation. The decision may be taken based on the result of risk evaluation.
4.1.40 Risk-based inspection (RBI): A risk assessment and management process that is
focused on loss of containment of pressurized equipment in processing facilities, due to
material deterioration. These risks are managed primarily through equipment inspection.
4.1.41 Risk communication: Exchange or sharing of information about risk between the
decision maker and other stakeholders. The information may relate to the existence,
nature, form, probability, severity, acceptability, mitigation, or other aspects of risk.
4.1.42 Risk criteria: Terms of reference by which the significance of risk is assessed. Risk
criteria may include associated cost and benefits, legal and statutory requirements, socio-
economic and environmental aspects, concerns of stakeholders, priorities and other inputs
to the assessment.
4.1.43 Risk driver: An item affecting either the probability, consequence, or both such that it
constitutes a significant portion of the risk.
4.1.44 Risk estimation: Process used to assign values to the probability and consequence of a
risk. Risk estimation may consider cost, benefits, stakeholder concerns, and other
variables, as appropriate for risk evaluation.
4.1.45 Risk evaluation: Process used to compare the estimated risk against given risk criteria to
determine the significance of the risk. Risk evaluation may be used to assist in the
acceptance or mitigation decision.
4.1.46 Risk identification: Process to find, list, and characterize elements of risk. Elements may
include: source, event, consequence, probability. Risk identification may also identify
stakeholder concerns.
4.1.47 Risk management: Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with
regard to risk. Risk management typically includes risk assessment, risk mitigation, risk
acceptance, and risk communication.
4.1.48 Risk mitigation: Process of selection and implementation of measures to modify risk.
The term risk mitigation is sometimes used for measures themselves.
4.1.49 Risk reduction: Actions taken to lessen the probability, negative consequences, or both
associated with a particular risk.
4.1.50 Semi-quantitative analysis: A semi-quantitative analysis includes aspects of both
qualitative and quantitative analyses.
4.1.51 Source: Thing or activity with a potential for consequence. Source in a safety context is
a hazard.
4.1.52 Stakeholder: Any individual, group or organization that may affect, be affected by, or
perceive itself to be affected by the risk.
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)
4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations
4.1 Terms and Definitions
4.1.53 System: A collection of equipment assembled for a specific function within a process
unit. Examples of systems include service water system, distillation systems, and
separation systems.
4.1.54 Turnaround: A period of down time to perform inspection, maintenance, or
modifications and prepare process equipment for the next operating cycle.
4.1.55 Toxic chemical: Any chemical that presents a physical or health hazard or an
environmental hazard according to the appropriate material safety datasheet. These
chemicals (when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin) can cause damage to
living tissue, impairment of the central nervous system, severe illness, or in extreme
cases, death. These chemicals may also result in adverse effects to the environment
(measured as ecotoxicity and related to persistence and bioaccumulation potential).
4.1.56 Unmitigated risk: The risk prior to mitigation activities.
4.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations
ACC American Chemistry Council

AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers

ALARP As low as reasonably practical

ANSI American National Standards Institute

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASNT American Society of Nondestructive Testing

ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials


BLEVE Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion

CCPS Center for Chemical Process Safety

COF Consequence of failure

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

FMEA Failure modes and effects analysis

HAZOP Hazard and operability assessment

IOW Integrity operating window

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations
4.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations
ISO International Organization for Standardization
LOPA Layers of protection analysis
MOC Management of change
MSD Material selection diagrams
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NDE Nondestructive examination
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PHA Process hazards analysis
PMI Positive material identification
POF Probability of failure
PSM Process safety management
PTASCC Polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking
PVRC Pressure Vessel Research Council
QA/QC Quality assurance/quality control
QRA Quantitative risk assessment
RBI Risk-based inspection
RCM Reliability centered maintenance
RMP Risk management plan
SIL Safety integrity level
TEMA Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association
TNO The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research
UT Ultrasonic testing

Try 85 Practice Exam Qs after your review!


The first 40 will be risk-related questions!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)
4 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations = 10% of your exam!
Tip: Initial & date the definition when you can correctly answer all questions!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)
Best Tip: Learn everything there is to know about the different types of RISK (40 Q&A)
The Lesson Jumps ahead of 4.1.1 See the definition of risk itself (4 good questions)

1. The combination of the probability of an event and its consequence is called:

A) Absolute risk B) Estimated risk


C) Relative risk D) Risk

Answer: D Definitions Para. 4.1.35

2. In some situations, a deviation from the expected is called:

A) Absolute risk B) Unacceptable risk


C) Risk D) Acceptable Risk

Answer: C Definitions Para. 4.1.35

3. When probability & consequence are expressed numerically, the product of this is:

A) Estimated risk B) Risk


C) Relative risk D) Residual Risk

Answer: B Definitions Para. 4.1.35

4. The combination of the probability of an event and its consequence which can be
expressed numerically is called:

A) Risk B) Estimated Risk


C) Relative risk D) Residual Risk

Answer: A Definitions Para. 4.1.35

~~END OF RISK QUESTIONS NOW 36 RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~


5. An ideal and accurate description and quantification of risk is called:

A) Absolute risk B) Acceptable risk


C) Relative risk D) Residual Risk

Answer: A Definitions Para. 4.1.1

6. A level of risk that is acceptable to the owner-user is called:

A) Absolute risk B) Acceptable risk


C) Relative risk D) Residual Risk

Answer: B Definitions Para. 4.1.2

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


Best Tip: Know everything there is to know about the different types of risk (40 Q&A)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MORE RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

7. The comparative risk of a facility, process unit, system, equipment item or component to
other facilities, process units, systems, equipment items, or components, respectively is:

A) Absolute risk B) Acceptable risk


C) Relative risk D) Residual Risk

Answer: C Definitions Para. 4.1.33

8. The risk remaining after risk mitigation is called:

A) Absolute risk B) Acceptable risk


C) Relative risk D) Residual Risk

Answer: D Definitions Para. 4.1.34

9. A decision to accept a risk that depends on risk criteria is called:

A) Calculated Risk B) Estimated Risk


C) Risk Acceptance D) Risk Assessment

Answer: C Definitions Para. 4.1.36

10. Systematic use of information to identify sources and to estimate the risk is called:

A) Risk Mitigation B) Risk Estimation


C) Risk Assessment D) Risk Analysis

Answer: D Definitions Para. 4.1.37

11. Which of these provides a basis for risk evaluation, risk mitigation & risk acceptance?
A) Risk Communication B) Risk Analysis
C) Risk Assessment D) Risk Estimation

Answer: B Definitions Para. 4.1.37

12. Which of these may provide information that can include historical data, theoretical
analysis, informed opinions, and concerns of stakeholders?

A) Risk Analysis B) Risk Assessment


C) Risk Estimation D) None of these

Answer: A Definitions Para. 4.1.37

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


Best Tip: Know everything there is to know about the different types of risk (40 Q&A)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MORE RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

13. The overall process of risk analysis and risk evaluation is called:

A) Risk-based Inspection B) Risk Estimation


C) Risk Assessment D) Risk Management

Answer: C Definitions Para. 4.1.38

14. A decision not to become involved in, or an action to withdraw from a risk situation is:

A) Risk analysis B) Risk Estimation


C) Risk Assessment D) Risk Avoidance

Answer: D Definitions Very easy (not likely on the exam) Para. 4.1.39

15. A risk assessment and management process that is focused on loss of containment of
pressurized equipment in processing facilities, due to material deterioration is called:.

A) Risk-based Management B) Risk-based Inspection


C) Risk Analysis D) Risk Estimation

Answer: B Definitions Para. 4.1.40

16. In RBI, the risks are managed primarily through:

A) Equipment Inspection B) Process Safety Management


C) Risk Analysis D) Risk Mitigation

Answer: A Definitions Para. 4.1.40


17. Exchange or sharing of information about risk between the decision maker & other
stakeholders that may relate to the existence, nature, probability, severity, acceptability,
mitigation, or other aspects of risk is called:

A) Risk Analysis B) Risk Identification


C) Risk Communication D) Risk assessment

Answer: C Definitions Para 4.1.41

18. Terms of reference by which the significance of risk is assessed is called:

A) Risk Driver B) Risk Identification


C) Risk Communication D) Risk Criteria

Answer: D Definitions Para 4.1.42

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

Best Tip: Know everything there is to know about the different types of risk (40 items)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MORE RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

19. An item affecting either the probability, consequence, or both such that it constitutes a
significant portion of the risk is:

A) Relative Risk B) Risk Driver


C) Absolute Risk D) Risk Criteria

Answer: B Definitions Para 4.1.43

20. Process used to assign values to probability & consequence of a risk (that may consider
cost, benefits, stakeholder concerns, & other variables, as appropriate for risk evaluation):

A) Risk Estimation B) Risk Evaluation


C) Risk Analysis D) Risk Criteria

Answer: A Definitions Expect the shorter version of the question to be on the exam
as underlined above Para 4.1.44

21. Process used to compare the estimated risk against given risk criteria to determine the
significance of the risk (that may be used to assist in the acceptance or mitigation decision):

A) Risk Mitigation B) Risk Analysis


C) Risk Evaluation D) Risk Criteria

Answer: C Definitions Expect the shorter version of the question to be on the exam
as underlined above Para 4.1.45
22. Process to find, list, and characterize elements of risk (that may include a source, event,
consequence, or probability):

A) Risk Estimation B) Risk Evaluation


C) Risk Analysis D) Risk identification

Answer: D Definitions Expect the shorter version of the question to be on the exam
as underlined above Para 4.1.46

23. Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to risk.

A) Risk Estimation B) Risk Management


C) Risk-Based Inspection D) Risk identification

Answer: B Definitions Para 4.1.47

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


Best Tip: Know everything there is to know about the different types of risk (40 items)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MORE RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

24. Risk management typically includes all of the following except:

A) Risk assessment B) Risk mitigation


C) Risk acceptance D) Risk reduction

Ans: D Definitions, etc Para 4.1.47 Risk communication = 4th item

25. Process of selection and implementation of measures to modify risk is called:

A) Risk mitigation B) Risk reduction


C) Risk avoidance D) Risk management

Ans: A Definitions, etc Par 4.1.48 Risk Mitigation = actual measure taken to
modify risk Non-inspection mitigation measures are in Section 14 (must know)

26. Actions taken to lessen the probability, negative consequences, or both associated with a
particular risk is called:

A) Risk mitigation B) Risk reduction


C) Risk avoidance D) Risk management

Answer: B Definitions Para 4.1.49

27. The risk prior to mitigation activities is called:

A) Risk mitigation B) Unacceptable risk


C) Unmitigated risk D) Unidentified risk
Answer: C Definitions Para 4.1.56

28. A concept of minimization that postulates that attributes (such as risk) can only be
reduced to a certain minimum under current technology and with reasonable cost.

A) ALARP B) ALARA
C) Risk Reduction D) Risk Mitigation

Answer: A Definitions Para 4.1.3

29. The acronym QRA is short for: -------------Start of Risk analysis type questions!

A) Qualitative risk analysis B) Quantitative risk analysis


C) Semi-Quantitative risk analysis D) Qualitative risk assessment

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.31 Definition of Quantitative Risk Analysis

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


Best Tip: Know everything there is to know about the different types of risk (40 items)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MORE RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

30. Systematic use of information to identify sources and to estimate the risk is called:

A) Risk analysis B) Qualitative risk analysis


C) Quantitative risk analysis D) Semi-Quantitative risk analysis

Ans: A Definition Par. 4.1.37 Risk Analysis Question 10 repeated again for effect

31. An analysis that uses broad categorizations for probabilities & consequences of failure:

A) Risk analysis B) Qualitative risk analysis


C) Quantitative risk analysis D) Semi-Quantitative risk analysis

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.30 Definition of Qualitative Risk Analysis

32. An analysis that quantifies the probabilities and consequences of the probable damage
mechanisms is called:

A) Risk analysis B) Qualitative risk analysis


C) Quantitative risk analysis D) Semi-Quantitative risk analysis

Answer: C Definitions Par 4.1.31 Definition of Quantitative Risk Analysis

33. An analysis that includes aspects of both qualitative and quantitative analyses is called:

A) Qualitative Risk analysis B) Semi-qualitative risk analysis


C) Quantitative risk analysis D) Semi-Quantitative risk analysis
Answer: D Definitions Par 4.1.50 Definition of Semi-Quantitative Risk Analysis

34. Which of these statements are not true regarding a Quantitative Risk Analysis?

A) It identifies the combinations of events (IF they were to occur) that can lead to a severe event
B) It quantifies the probabilities and consequences of the probable damage mechanisms
C) It estimates the probability of occurrence for each combination of events
D) It precisely quantifies the consequences of each event

Ans: D Definition Par 4.1.31 QRA ESTIMATES the consequences

35. QRA generally integrates information regarding all of the following except:
A) Past history of incidents at the facility B) Component reliability & human actions
C) Potential environmental & health effects D) Facility design, operating practices and history

Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.31 QRA the physical progression of incidents

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


Best Tip: Know everything there is to know about the different types of risk (40 items)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MORE RISK RELATED QUESTIONS BELOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

36. QRA generally uses which of these to depict combinations of events and progression
of incidents that provide both qualitative and quantitative insights into the level of risks?

A) Logic & probabilistic trees B) Event and Fault Trees


C) Logic & probabilistic models D) Event & Fault Models

Answer: C Definitions Par 4.1.31 Definition of Quantitative Risk Analysis

37. QRA generally uses analysis logic models to estimate the frequency of each incident
sequence using what is known as:

A) Probability trees & decision trees B) Probability trees & fault trees
C) Logic trees & decision trees D) Event trees & fault trees

Answer: D Definitions Par 4.1.31 Definition of Quantitative Risk Analysis

38. Which of these statements are not true regarding a Qualitative Risk Analysis?

A) FMEA and HAZOPs are very good examples of QRA


B) It is an analysis that uses broad categorizations for POF & COF
C) Analyses results are dependent on the background/expertise of analysts & analysis objectives
D) Its methods use engineering judgment/experience as a basis for determination of POF & COF

Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.30 Qualitative Risk Analysis = NOT QRA


39. FMEA and HAZOPs are examples of qualitative risk analysis techniques that become
QRA methods when consequence and failure probability values are:

A) Established using the respective descriptive input (from FMEA & HAZOPs)
B) Estimated along with the respective descriptive input (from FMEA & HAZOPs)
C) Precisely determined using the respective descriptive input (from FMEA & HAZOPs)
D) None of the above are correct

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.30 Qualitative Risk Analysis = NOT QRA

40. The Process of integrating inspection data or other changes into a risk analysis is called:

A) Reassessment B) Risk Management


C) Reintegration D) Risk Mitigation

Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.32 Reassessment

END OF RISK RELATED QUESTIONS YOUR SCORE OF 40 _____OF 40


Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

41. Which of the following statements are not true regarding the definition of consequence?
A) Consequences may range from positive to negative and are always negative for safety aspects
B) A consequence is defined by API 580 as an outcome from an event
C) Consequences may only be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively
D) There can be only one consequence from a single event

Answer: D Definitions Para 4.1.5 Consequence

42. As defined by API 580, a Corrosion Specialist is a person who is knowledgeable and
experienced in all of the following areas except:
A) Specific process chemistries & materials selection
B) Mitigation & risk analysis methods
C) Corrosion degradation mechanisms
D) Corrosion monitoring techniques

Answer: B Definitions Para 4.1.6 Corrosion Mitigation methods only

43. Which of the statements are not true regarding the API 580 definition of cost-effective?
A) It is an activity with a level of risk acceptable to the owner-user
B) It is an activity that is a financially sound use of resources
C) It is an activity that is effective in resolving an issue
D) It is an activity that is a form of mitigation

Answer: A Definitions Para 4.1.7 A = Acceptable risk (See 4.1.2)

~~~~~~~~~START OF DETERIORATION, DAMAGE & FAILURE QUESTIONS~~~~~~


44. Which of the following statements are not true regarding the API 580 definition of a
damage (or deterioration) mechanism?
A) Process that induces micro material changes over time (harmful to a material condition)
B) Process that induces micro material changes over time (harmful to material mech. properties)
C) They include corrosion, SCC, creep, erosion, fatigue, fracture, and thermal aging
D) Damage mechanisms are always incremental, cumulative, and unrecoverable

Answer: D Definitions Para 4.1.8 D = NOT ALWAYS

45. Physical manifestation of damage (wall thinning, pitting, cracking, rupture) is called:
A) A damage (or deterioration) mechanism
B) A damage (or deterioration) mode
C) Deterioration
D) Degradation

Answer: B Definitions Para 4.1.9 See also 4.1.8 & 4.1.12 (Tricky)

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~DETERIORATION, DAMAGE & FAILURE QUESTIONS~~~~~~~~~~~~

46. The amount of deterioration that a component can withstand without failing is called:

A) Damage tolerance
B) Damage mode
C) Failure mode
D) Degradation

Answer: A Definitions Para 4.1.10 See also 4.1.8 & 4.1.12 (Tricky)

47. Which of these statements is not true regarding the API 580 definition of deterioration?

A) Deterioration can be caused by various damage mechanisms (thinning, cracking, mechanical)


B) Reduction in the ability of a component to provide its intended purpose of fluid containment
C) Per API 580, either damage or degradation may be used in place of deterioration
D) Deterioration may be unannounced and undetected at the instant of occurrence

Answer: D Definition Par 4.1.12 D = Failure may be unannounced and (Tricky)

48. Termination of the ability of a system, structure, equipment or component to perform


its required function of containment of fluid (i.e. loss of containment) is called:

A) Deterioration B) Degradation
C) Failure D) Damage

Ans: C Definition Par 4.1.18 Know the difference between deterioration & failure!
Failure = termination of the ability (#48) Deterioration = reduction of the ability (#47)
49. Unannounced failure is one that is:

A) Undetected at the instant of occurrence


B) Detected at the instant of occurrence by any number of methods
C) Either undetected or detected at the instance of occurrence by any number of methods
D) None of the above are correct
Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.18 Two types of failures (announced/unannounced)

50. Announced failure is one that is:

A) Undetected at the instant of occurrence


B) Detected at the instant of occurrence by any number of methods
C) Either undetected or detected at the instance of occurrence by any number of methods
D) None of the above are correct

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.18 Two types of failures (announced/unannounced)

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~DETERIORATION, DAMAGE & FAILURE QUESTIONS~~~~~~~~~~~~

51. Examples of an unannounced failure include all of these except:

A) Slow leak under insulation not detected (until someone notices a drip or wisp of vapor)
B) Slow leak under insulation not detected (until a pool of fluid forms on the ground)
C) Small leak in a heat exchanger tube or a small leak in a buried piping system
D) Slow leak under insulation in an H2S line detected by a plant alarm

Answer: D Definitions Par 4.1.18 Two types of failures (announced/unannounced)

52. Examples of an announced failure include all of these except:

A) Rupture of a pipe in a process plant B) Sudden decrease in the pressure of a system


C) Rupture of a process unit pressure vessel D) Sudden increase in the pressure of a system

Answer: D Definitions Par 4.1.18 Two types of failures (announced/unannounced)

53. Which of these statements are not true regarding the API 580 term failure mode?

A) For RBI, the failure of concern is loss of containment of pressurized equipment items.
B) Examples of failure modes are thinning, pitting, cracking and rupture
C) Examples of failure modes are small hole, crack, and rupture
A) Failure mode is defined as the manner of failure

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.19 This is different from Damage Mode in 4.1.9

~~~~~~~~~END OF DETERIORATION, DAMAGE & FAILURE QUESTIONS~~~~~~~~~


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~EVENT RELATED QUESTIONS~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

54. By API 580 definition, an event is the occurrence of a particular set of:

A) Circumstances B) Initiated actions


C) Consequences D) Scenarios

Answer: A Definitions, Section 4.1.14 Must know all the types of events

55. Which of the following statements is false regarding the API 580 definition of an event?

A) An event is the occurrence of a particular set of circumstances


B) The event may be certain or uncertain, and can be singular or multiple
C) The probability of an event occurring within a given period of time can be estimated
D) Events can result from forces of nature, acts of God, sabotage, electrical power failures

Answer: D Definitions, Section 4.1.14 & 4.1.16 Must know all the types of events

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~EVENT RELATED QUESTIONS~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

56. An analytical tool that organizes and characterizes potential occurrences in a logical
and graphical manner is called:

A) Event Risk Analysis B) Event tree


C) External Event D) Event Analysis

Answer: B Definitions, Sect 4.1.15 Event tree Must know event types

57. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding API 580s definition of an event tree?

A) An event tree begins with the identification of potential initiating events


B) The process is to develop pathways or scenarios from initiating events to potential outcomes
C) Analytical tool that organizes & characterizes past occurrences in a logical and graphical way
D) Subsequent possible events resulting from initiating events are shown in a 2nd level of the tree

Ans: C Definitions, Section 4.1.15 Must know! Potential occurrences!

58. Which statement is NOT true regarding API 580s definition of an external event?

A) An event resulting from forces of nature, acts of God, sabotage, terrorism, & power failures
B) An event resulting from intrusions of external transportation vehicles (ships, trains, trucks)
C) An event resulting from neighboring fires, explosions, or even hazardous material releases
D) An event that can usually be controlled by persons employed at the facility

Ans: D Definitions, Section 4.1.15 Must know! Cannot be controlled!


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~END OF EVENT RELATED QUESTIONS~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

59. Assumptions made during design (e.g., design life, corrosion allowance) are called a:

A) Risk estimation B) Design estimation


C) Risk premise D) Design premise

Answer: D Definitions Para 4.1.11

60. Methodology whereby damage or flaws/imperfections contained within a component or


equipment item are assessed in order to determine acceptability for continued service is a:

A) Process Safety Management


B) Process Hazards Analysis
C) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
D) Fitness-for-Service Assessment

Answer: D Definitions Para 4.1.20

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

61. Which of these statements is not true regarding the API 580 definition of a Hazard?

A) Physical condition or release of a hazardous material that could result from component failure
B) A hazard could result in human injury or death, loss or damage, or environmental degradation
C) Components used to transport/store/process a hazardous material cannot be a source of hazard
D) A hazard is a source of harm, and human error and external events may also create a hazard

Answer: C Definitions Para 4.1.21 Components can be a SOURCE of hazard

62. A thing or activity with a potential for consequence is called a:

A) Source
B) Hazard
C) Risk
D) None of these

Ans: A Definition Par 4.1.51 Source in a Safety Context is a HAZARD 4.1.21

63. Which of the statements is false regarding the API 580 definition of a HAZOP Study?

A) A HAZOP study is a form a Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA)


B) HAZOP studies use systematic techniques to identify risks & operability issues in a facility
C) It is useful to identify unforeseen hazards designed into facilities (due to lack of information)
D) It is useful to identify unforeseen hazards introduced into existing facilities (process changes)
Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.22 HAZOP = Identify hazards & operability issues

64. A Hazard and operability study (HAZOP study) is a form of:

A) Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA)


B) Process Safety Management (PSM)
C) Process Hazards Analysis (PHA)
D) Risk Analysis

Answer: A Definitions Para 4.1.22 HAZOP MUST KNOW THIS ONE!!!

65. Basic objectives of the techniques used in HAZOP studies include all of these except:

A) To systematically review every part of a process to discover how design deviations can occur
B) To produce a full description of the facility or process, including intended design conditions
C) To decide whether any design deviations can lead to hazards or operability issues
D) To assess effectiveness of operations

Ans: D Definitions Par 4.1.22 HAZOP Assess effectiveness of safeguards

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

66. Activities performed to verify that materials, fabrication, erection, examinations,


testing, repairs, etc., conform to applicable code, engineering, and/or owners written
procedure requirements are called:

A) Risk-based Inspection B) Risk-based Assessment


C) Risk-based Analysis D) Inspection

Answer: D Definitions Par 4.1.23 Definition of inspection!

67. Per API 580, inspection includes which of these items related to inspection activities?

A) It includes the physical activity of the inspection performed only


B) It includes the implementation, and evaluation of the results of activities
C) It includes the planning, implementation, and evaluation of results of activities
D) It includes the planning, implementation, & evaluation/assessment of results of activities

Ans: C Definitions Par 4.1.23 Inspection = plan, implement, evaluate results!

68. Inspection is defined as which of these that relates to condition of pressure equipment?

A) External, internal, or on-stream assessment (or any combination of these three items)
B) External (including Routine), Internal, On-stream, Thickness Measurement, and CUI
C) Any inspection activity that is performed in accordance with API 510, 570 and 653 codes
D) None of these are correct per API 580

Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.23 Definition of inspection!


69. Established limits for process variables that can affect the integrity of equipment if the
process operation deviates from established limits for a predetermined amount of time is a:

A) Design Premise
B) IOW
C) MOC
D) None of these

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.24 Definition of integrity operating window!

70. A documented management system for review and approval of changes in process,
equipment or piping systems prior to implementation of the change is called:

A) Risk Management
B) Design Premise
C) IOW
D) MOC

Answer: D Definitions Par 4.1.26 Definition of Likelihood!

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

71. Likelihood is defined as:

A) Accepted Risk
B) Chance or risk
C) Probability
D) Probable risk

Ans: C Definitions Par 4.1.25 Definition of Likelihood! Likelihood = Probability

72. Limitation of any negative consequence or reduction in probability of a particular event


is called:

A) Mitigation
B) Risk reduction
C) Probability
D) Likelihood

Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.27 Definition of Mitigation

73. Extent to which an event is likely to occur within the time frame under consideration.

A) Chance or risk
B) Probability
C) Likelihood
D) Mitigation
Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.28 Definition of Probability

74: The mathematical definition of probability is:

A) A long-run relative frequency of occurrence or a degree of certainty that an event will occur
B) A ranking such as rare / unlikely / moderate / likely /almost certain
C) A real number in the scale 0 to 1 attached to a random event
D) Frequency rather than probability used in describing a risk

Answer: C Definitions Par 4.1.28 Mathematical definition of Probability

75. Which of these statements are false (not true) regarding Probability?

A) For a high degree of belief, the probability is near the value one (1)
B) It can be related to a long-run relative frequency of occurrence
C) It can be related to a degree of belief that an event will occur
D) Frequency rather than belief may be used in assessing risk

Ans: D Par 4.1.28 Probability than probability may be used in describing risk

Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 4 Definitions & Acronyms)

76. Degrees of belief about probability can be chosen as classes or ranks (which of these
apply as a good API 580 example showing the degrees of belief in ascending order)?

A) Incredible remote probable improbable occasional frequent


B) Incredible remote improbable probable occasional frequent
C) Rare Unlikely Moderate Likely Almost certain
D) Rare Moderate Unlikely Almost certain Likely

Answer: C Definitions Par 4.1.28 Examples (degree of belief related to probability)

77. Any individual, group or organization that may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself
to be affected by the risk is known as:

A) Stakeholder B) Inspector
C) Engineer D) None of these is correct

Answer: A Definitions Par 4.1.52 Definition of Stakeholder

78. A period of down time to perform inspection, maintenance, or modifications and


prepare process equipment for the next operating cycle is called:

A) Shutdown B) T & I
C) Turnaround D) None of these is correct

Answer: C Definitions Par 4.1.54 Definition of TURNAROUND


79. This is something that presents a physical or health hazard or an environmental hazard
according to the appropriate material safety data sheet and it is called:

A) Process Hazard B) Toxic Chemical


C) Lethal Service D) None of these is correct

Answer: B Definitions Par 4.1.55 Definition of Toxic Chemical

80. Which of these statements is false regarding toxic chemicals?

A) When ingested/inhaled/absorbed by skin, they can cause tissue damage/severe illness/death


B) They present a physical/health/environmental hazard according to an appropriate MSDS
C) They may result in adverse effects to the environment
D) None of the above statements are true

Ans: D Definition Par 4.1.55 Definition Toxic Chemical All the above are true

Are you absolutely sure you know the EASY FIVE!


You could never be so lucky to have these 5 easy questions on your 580 exam!
***TOO EASY*** COMPONENT: No possible question Too easy Definition 4.1.4
Component = Parts that make up a piece of EQUIPMENT or equipment item. Too easy!
***TOO EASY*** EQUIPMENT: No possible question Too easy Definition 4.1.13
An individual item* that is part of a SYSTEM. (*pressure vessel, relief device, piping, boiler, heater)
***TOO EASY*** SYSTEM: No possible question Too easy Definition 4.1.53
A collection of equipment assembled for a specific function within a PROCESS UNIT
***TOO EASY** PROCESS UNIT: No possible question (too easy) Definition 4.1.53
A group of systems arranged in a specific fashion to produce a product or service
***TOO EASY*** FACILITY: No possible question Too easy Definition 4.1.17
Any location containing equipment and / or components to be addressed under this RP.

COMPONENT EQUIPMENT SYSTEM PROCESS UNIT FACILITY

Which of the EASY 5 belong in the boxes below? Did you guess all 5 correctly?

81. Parts that make up a piece of Equipment or an equipment item:

___________________ Tip: It cannot be Equipment


82. An individual item* that is part of a SYSTEM:

___________________ Tip: It cannot be a System

83. A collection of equipment assembled for a specific function within a PROCESS UNIT:

___________________ Tip: It cannot be a Process Unit

84. A group of systems arranged in a specific fashion to produce a product or service:

___________________ Tip: It cannot be a System

85. Any location containing equipment and / or components to be addressed under this RP:

___________________ Tip: It cannot be Component or Equipment


Correct Qs? __ of 85! 60 of 85 = 70%, 68 of 85 = 80%, 77 of 85 = 90% Target
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts 5.1 What is Risk?
Risk is something that we as individuals live with on a day-to-day basis. Knowingly or unknowingly,
people are constantly making decisions based on risk. Simple decisions such as driving to work or
walking across a busy street involve risk. More important decisions such as buying a house, investing
money, and getting married all imply an acceptance of risk. Life is not risk-free and even the most
cautious, risk-adverse individuals inherently take risks. Some people take more risks than others
(knowingly or unknowingly), e.g. sky divers, mountain climbers, coal miners, and people who drive
while intoxicated. For example, in driving a car, people accept the probability that they could be killed or
seriously injured. The reason this risk is accepted is that people consider the probability of being killed or
seriously injured to be sufficiently low as to make the risk acceptable. Influencing the decision are the
type of car, the safety features installed, traffic volume and speed, and other factors such as the
availability, risks and affordability of other alternatives (e.g. mass transit).
Risk is the combination of the probability of some event occurring during a time period of
interest and the consequences, (generally negative) associated with the event. In mathematical
terms, risk can be calculated by equation: Risk = Probability Consequence Likelihood is
sometimes used as a synonym for probability; however probability is used throughout this
document for consistency. Effective risk assessment should be a rational, logical, structured
process, which contains at least two key steps. First to determine how big the risk is, and
second, to determine whether the risk is acceptable.
API 580 Sect 5.1 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts What is Risk?)
1. Risk is the combination of the probability of some event occurring during a time period
of interest and the:
A) Consequences associated with the event B) Likelihood of a failure
C) Probability of a failure D) Consequence of a failure
Answer: A (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts What is Risk?)
2. In mathematical terms, risk can be calculated by which of these equations:
A) Risk = Probability Consequence B) Risk = Probability Consequence
C) Risk = Consequence Probability D) Risk = Consequence + Probability
Answer: B (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts What is Risk?)
3. Likelihood is sometimes used as a synonym for:
A) Risk B) Consequence C) Probability D) None of these
Answer: C (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts What is Risk?)
4. Which of these statements is TRUE regarding effective risk assessments?
A) They should first determine the consequence of failure then the probability of failure
B) They should first determine the probability of failure then the consequence of failure
C) They should be a rational, logical, structured process that contains at least two steps
D) They should first determine if the risk is acceptable and then how big the risk is
Answer: C (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts What is Risk?) Did you answer A or B?
Discussion: The Cheese* is a trick tactic used by API to list 2 opposing answers in the first two
possible answers A & B Many fall for the trick They ass/u/me 1 statement MUST be true
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts
5.2 Risk Management and Risk Reduction
Once risk is known and the magnitude of the risk is established, it is time for risk
management. At first, it may seem that risk management and risk reduction are
synonymous. However, risk reduction is only part of risk management. Risk reduction is
the act of mitigating a known risk that is deemed to be too high to a lower, more acceptable
level of risk with some form of risk reduction activity. Risk management, on the other
hand, is a process to assess risks, to determine if risk reduction is required and to develop a
plan to maintain risks at an acceptable level. By using risk management, some risks may be
identified as acceptable so that no risk reduction (mitigation) is required.
API 580 Sect 5.2 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts, Risk Mgmt. & Reduction)
5. Once the risk is known and the magnitude of the risk is established, it is time for:
A) Risk mitigation B) Risk reduction
C) Risk management D) Risk communication
Answer: C (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts Risk Mgmt. & Reduction)
6. Which of these statements are true regarding Risk Management & Risk Reduction?
A) Once the risk is known & the magnitude of the risk is established, it is time for risk reduction
B) Risk management and risk reduction are synonymous
C) Risk management is only a part of risk reduction
D) None of the above statements are true
Ans: D (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts Risk Mgmt. & Reduction A/B/C=False)
7. Risk reduction is the act of mitigating a known risk that is deemed to be too high to a:
A) Lower, more manageable level of risk using risk communication
B) Lower, more acceptable level of risk with some form of risk reduction activity
C) Lower, more manageable level of risk with some form of risk analysis to be performed
D) None of the above statements are correct
Answer: B (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts Risk Mgmt. & Reduction)
8. Risk management is a process that includes all of the following items except:
A) To mitigate a known risk deemed to be too high to a lower more acceptable level of risk
B) To develop a plan to maintain risks at an acceptable level
C) To determine if risk reduction is required
D) To assess risks
Answer: A (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts Risk Mgmt. & Reduction)
9. By using risk management, some risks may be identified as acceptable so that:
A) No risk management is required B) No risk reduction (mitigation) is required
C) No risk communication is required D) None of these statements are correct
Answer: B (Basic Risk Assessment Concepts Risk Mgmt. & Reduction)
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
5.3 The Evolution of Inspection Intervals/Due Dates
In process plants, inspection and testing programs and process monitoring are established to
detect and evaluate deterioration due to the effects of in-service operation. The effectiveness
of inspection programs varies widely, ranging from reactive programs that concentrate on
known areas of concern to broad proactive programs covering a variety of equipment. One
extreme of this would be the dont fix it unless its broken approach. The other extreme would
be complete inspection of all equipment items on a frequent basis. Setting the intervals/due dates
between inspections evolved over time. With the need to periodically verify equipment integrity,
organizations initially resorted to time-based or calendar-based intervals/due dates.
With advances in inspection approaches, and better understanding of the type and rate of
deterioration, inspection intervals/due dates became more dependent on equipment condition
(i.e. condition-based inspection), rather than what might have been an arbitrary calendar date.
Codes and standards such as API 510, API 570, and API 653 evolved to an inspection
philosophy with elements such as:
a) Inspection intervals/due dates based on some percentage of equipment life (half-life, etc)
b) On-stream inspection in lieu of internal inspection (based on low deterioration rates)
c) Internal inspection requirements for DMs related to process environment induced cracking
d) Consequence based inspection intervals/due dates.
RBI represents the next generation of inspection approaches and interval/due date setting,
recognizing that the ultimate goal of inspection is the safety & reliability of operating facilities
RBI, as a risk-based approach, focuses attention specifically on the equipment and associated
damage mechanisms representing the most risk to the facility. In focusing on risks and their
mitigation, RBI provides a better linkage between the mechanisms that lead to equipment failure
(loss of containment) and the inspection approaches that will effectively reduce the
associated risks. Though there can be many definitions for failure of pressure equipment, in this
document, failure is defined as loss of containment.
580 Sect 5.3 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates)
10. In process plants, inspection & testing programs & process monitoring are established:
A) To detect and evaluate deterioration caused by calendar-based damage mechanisms
B) To detect and evaluate deterioration due to the effects of in-service operation
C) To detect and evaluate deterioration affecting a percentage of remaining life
D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3
11. Inspection program effectiveness ranges from reactive programs to:
A) Those that concentrate on known areas of concern
B) Those that concentrate on both known areas of concern and best practices
C) Those broad proactive programs that are covering a wide variety of equipment
D) None of these are correct
Answer: C Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
580 Sect 5.3 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates)
12. Setting the intervals/due dates between inspections has evolved over time. With the
need to periodically verify equipment integrity, organizations initially resorted to:
A) Time-based or calendar-based intervals/due dates
B) Internal inspection requirements for DMs related to process environment induced cracking
C) Inspection intervals/due dates based on some percentage of equipment life (such as half-life)
D) On-stream inspection in lieu of internal inspection based on low deterioration rates
Answer: A Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3
13. With advances in inspection approaches and better understanding of the type and rate
of deterioration, inspection intervals/due dates over time became more dependent on:
A) On-stream inspection in lieu of internal inspection based on low deterioration rates
B) Equipment condition (condition-based inspection), rather than arbitrary calendar dates
C) Internal inspection requirements for DMs related to process environment induced cracking
D) Inspection intervals/due dates based on some percentage of equipment life (such as half-life)
Answer: B Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3
14. Codes and standards such as API 510, API 570, and API 653 have evolved into an
inspection philosophy with elements that include all of the following EXCEPT:
A) Inspection intervals/due dates based on some percentage of equipment life (such as half-life)
B) Internal inspection requirements for DMs related to process environment induced cracking
C) On-stream inspection in lieu of internal inspection based on low deterioration rates
D) Consequence based inspection plans
Ans: D Evolution of Sect 5.3 D = Consequence based insp. intervals/due dates
15. RBI represents the next generation of inspection approaches and interval/due date
setting, recognizing that the ultimate goal of inspection is:
A) Safety & reliability of operating facilities B) To locate damage mechanisms
C) To cost effectively perform inspection D) To effectively reduce all facility risks
Answer: A Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3 Must Know!!!
16. RBI, as a risk-based approach, focuses attention specifically on the equipment and
associated damage mechanisms representing:
A) The most damaging to the personnel B) The most cost to the facility
C) The most risk to the facility D) None of these are correct
Answer: C Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3 Must Know!!!
17. In focusing on risks & mitigation, RBI provides a better linkage between mechanisms
that lead to equipment failure (loss of containment) & insp. approaches that effectively:
A) Eliminate the associated risks B) Reduce the associated risks
C) Manage the associated risks D) Cost-effectively handle the risks
Answer: B Evolution of Insp. Intervals/Due Dates Section 5.3 Must Know!!!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
5.4 Overview of Risk Analysis
The complexity of a risk analysis is a function of the number of factors that can affect the risk
and there is a continuous spectrum of methods available to assess risk. The methods range from a
strictly relative ranking to rigorous calculation. The methods generally represent a range of
precision for the resulting risk analysis (see 6.4).
Any particular analysis may not yield usable results due to a lack of data, low-quality data or
the use of an approach that does not adequately differentiate the risks represented by the
equipment items. Further, analysis results may not be realistic. Therefore, the risk analysis
should be validated before decisions are made based on the analysis results.
A logical progression for a risk analysis is:
a) Collect and validate the necessary data and information (see Section 8)
b) Identify damage mechanisms and, optionally, determine the damage mode(s) for each
mechanism (e.g. general metal loss, local metal loss, pitting) (see Section 9)
c) Determine damage susceptibility and rates (see Section 9)
d) Determine the POF over a defined time frame for each damage mechanism (see Section 10)
e) Determine credible failure mode(s) [e.g. small leak, large leak, rupture (see Section 10)]
f) Identify credible consequence scenarios that will result from the failure mode(s) (see Sect 11)
g) Determine the probability of each consequence scenario, considering the POF and the
probability that a specific consequence scenario will result from the failure (see Section 11)
h) Determine the risk, including a sensitivity analysis, and review risk analysis results for
consistency/reasonableness (see Section 12).
Then the logical progression after completing the risk analysis is to develop an inspection plan
and, if necessary, other mitigation actions, and evaluate the residual risk (see Section 13).
If the risk is not acceptable, consider mitigation. For example, if the damage mode is general
metal loss, a mitigation plan could consist of on-stream wall thickness measurements, with a
requirement to shut down or to repair on-stream if the wall thickness measurements do not meet
Fitness-For-Service acceptance criteria.

580 Sect 5.4 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Overview of Risk Analysis)

18. The complexity of a risk analysis is a function of the:


A) Degree of complexity of the risk B) The number of factors that can affect the risk
C) Cost associated with the risk D) The seriousness of the risk
Answer: B Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 must know this one!

19. There is a continuous spectrum of methods available to assess risk ranging from a
strictly relative ranking to:
A) Rigorous calculation B) Engineering Judgment
C) Engineering & Inspector Judgment D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 must know this one!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
580 Sect 5.4 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Overview of Risk Analysis)

20. Any particular risk analysis may not yield usable results due to any of these reasons
(with the exception of):
A) Lack of data or low-quality data
B) Analysis results may not be realistic
C) Decisions are based on validated analysis results
D) Use of an approach not adequately differentiating risks represented by the equipment items
Answer: C Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 A, B & D are correct!

21. The risk analysis should be VALIDATED before decisions are made based on:
A) Credible consequence scenarios B) The extent of the risk
C) Damage susceptibility D) Analysis results
Answer: D Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 Only D is correct!

22. The first step in a logical progression for a risk analysis is: (8 STEPS EXIST)
A) Determine damage susceptibility and rates
B) Collect and validate the necessary data and information
C) Identify DMs & determine damage mode(s) for each mechanism
D) Determine the POF over a defined time frame for each damage mechanism
Answer: B Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 B is the first of 8 steps!

23. Which of the following is not a step in the logical progression of a risk analysis?
A) Determine credible failure mode(s)
B) Identify credible consequence scenarios that will result from the failure mode
C) Determine risk and review risk analysis results for consistency/reasonableness
D) Determine the probability of each consequence scenario, considering POF only
Ans: D Overview of Risk Analysis Sect 5.4 D is incorrect of 8 logical steps in 22/23!

24. The logical progression after completing the risk analysis is to:
A) Develop an inspection plan & if needed, perform other mitigation actions
B) Follow an effective inspection plan & if needed, perform other mitigation actions
C) Develop an inspection plan & if needed, other mitigation actions, & evaluate residual risk
D) Follow an effective inspection plan & if needed, other mitigation actions, & evaluate the risk
Answer: C Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 Only C is the most correct!

25. After completing a risk analysis, if the risk is not acceptable, what must be considered?
A) Mitigation B) Inspection
C) Reassessment D) None of these is correct
Answer: A Overview of Risk Analysis Section 5.4 Only A is correct!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
5.5 Inspection Optimization
When the risk associated with individual equipment items is determined and the relative
effectiveness of different inspection techniques and process monitoring in reducing risk is
estimated or quantified, adequate information is available for planning, optimizing, and
implementing an RBI program.

Figure 1 presents stylized curves showing the reduction in risk that can be expected when the
degree and frequency of inspection are increased. The upper curve in Figure 1 represents a
typical inspection program. Where there is no inspection, there may be a higher level of risk, as
indicated on the y-axis in the figure. With an initial investment in inspection activities, risk
generally is significantly reduced. A point is reached where additional inspection activity begins
to show a diminishing return and, eventually, may produce very little additional risk reduction.
If excessive inspection is applied, the level of risk may even go up. This is because invasive
inspections in certain cases may cause additional deterioration (moisture ingress in equip.
with polythionic acid, inspection damage to protective coatings or glass-lined vessels etc).
This situation is represented by the dotted line at the end of the upper curve.
A complete RBI program provides a consistent methodology for assessing the optimum
combination of methods and frequencies of inspection. Each available inspection method can
be analyzed and its relative effectiveness in reducing failure probability can be estimated. Given
this information and the cost of each procedure, an optimization program can be developed.
The key to developing such a procedure is the ability to assess the risk associated with each
item of equipment and then to determine the most appropriate inspection techniques for
that piece of equipment. A conceptual result of this methodology is illustrated by the lower
curve in Figure 1. The lower curve indicates that with application of an effective RBI program,
lower risks can be achieved with the same level of inspection activity, because, through RBI,
inspection activities are focused on higher risk items and away from lower risk items.
As shown in Figure 1, risk cannot be reduced to zero solely by inspection efforts. The residual
risk factors for loss of containment include, but are not limited to issues such as the following:
a) Human error b) Natural disasters c) External events (collisions or falling objects)
d) Secondary effects from nearby units e) Consequential effects from associated equip in
same unit f) Deliberate acts (sabotage) g) Fundamental limitations of insp. methods
h) Design errors i) Unknown or unanticipated mechanisms of damage
Many of these factors are strongly influenced by the PSM system in place at the facility.
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
580 Sect 5.5 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Inspection Optimization)
26. When the risk associated with individual equipment items is determined & the relative
effectiveness of different inspection techniques and process monitoring in reducing risk is
estimated or quantified, adequate information is available for:
A) Planning an RBI program
B) Planning and implementing an RBI program
C) Planning, implementing, and optimizing an RBI program
D) Planning, implementing, optimizing, and evaluating an RBI program
Answer: C Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 C is the best answer!

Exam Tip: Expect to see Figure 1 on the real API 580 exam YOU MUST KNOW IT!
27. Fig. 1 presents stylized curves showing the reduction in risk that can be expected when:
A) The degree and frequency of inspection are optimized
B) The degree and frequency of inspection are increased
C) The level of inspection does not become excessive
D) The degree of the risk is known and mitigated
Answer: B Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 B is the best answer!
28. Which of these statements are false regarding the upper curve in Figure 1 of API 580?
A) With an initial investment in inspection activities, risk generally is significantly reduced
B) A point is reached where additional inspection activity begins to show a diminishing return
C) It represents typical inspection program & where there is no inspection, risk levels are higher
D) If excessive insp is applied, risk levels may fall (invasive inspection may cause deterioration)
Answer: D Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 D risk levels may rise = correct!
29. A complete RBI program provides a consistent methodology for assessing the optimum
combination of:
A) Methods and frequencies of inspection B) Methods and analysis of inspection
C) Frequencies and analysis of inspection D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 A is the best answer!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
580 Sect 5.5 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Inspection Optimization)
30. Each available inspection method can be analyzed and its relative effectiveness in
reducing failure probability can be estimated, and given this information and the cost of
each procedure, what can be developed?
A) An inspection optimization program B) An Inspection Plan
C) An effective mitigation strategy D) A cost-effective inspection strategy
Answer: A Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 A is the best answer!

31. The key to developing an inspection optimization procedure is the ability to assess the
risk associated with each item of equipment and then to determine:
A) The most efficient approach to focus on the highest risk items and away from lower risk items
B) The most cost-effective approach to mitigate the risks that are involved
C) The most appropriate inspection techniques for that piece of equipment
D) None of these are correct
Answer: C Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 C is the best answer!

32. Figure 1 Lower curve indicates which of the following can be achieved with application
of an effective RBI program?
A) Inspection activities are focused on higher risk items and away from lower risk items
B) Lower risks can be achieved with the same level of inspection activity as a typical program
C) Higher risks cannot be mitigated to the same levels of inspection activity as a typical program
D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 B is the best answer!

33. As shown in Figure 1, risk cannot be reduced to zero solely by:


A) Mitigation plans B) RBI Programs
C) Risk management efforts D) Inspection efforts
Answer: D Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 D is the best answer!

34. The residual risk factors for loss of containment include all of these issues except:
A) Deliberate acts (sabotage), design errors, and fundamental limitations of inspection methods
B) Secondary effects (nearby units) & consequential effects from associated equip in same unit
C) Human error, natural disasters, external events (such as collisions or falling objects)
D) Known or anticipated mechanisms of damage
Answer: D Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 D is the best answer!

35. Many residual risk factors are strongly influenced by which of the following:
A) The PSM system in place at the facility B) The PHA system in place at the facility
C) The RCM system in place at the facility D) None of these is correct
Answer: A Inspection Optimization Section 5.5 A is the best answer!
Priority 2 Exam Qs (API 580 Ch. 5 Basic Risk Assessment Concepts)
5.6 Relative Risk vs. Absolute Risk
Complexity of risk calculations is a function of the number of factors that can affect the risk.
Calculating absolute risk can be very time and cost consuming and often cannot be done with a
high degree of accuracy, due to having too many uncertainties.
Many variables are involved with loss of containment in hydrocarbon and chemical facilities and
the determination of absolute risk numbers is often not even possible and not cost effective.
RBI is focused on a systematic determination of relative risks. In this way, facilities, units,
systems, equipment, or components can be ranked based on their relative risk.
This serves to focus the risk management efforts on the higher ranked risks and allow decisions
to be made on the usefulness of risk management efforts on lower ranked risks.
If a quantitative RBI study is conducted rigorously and properly, the resultant risk number
should be a fair approximation of the actual risk of loss of containment due to deterioration.
Numeric relative risk values determined in qualitative and semi-quantitative assessments using
appropriate sensitivity analysis methods also may be used effectively to evaluate risk acceptance.
580 Sect 5.6 Exam Qs (Basic Risk Assess. Concepts, Relative Risk versus Absolute Risk)
36. The complexity of risk calculations is a function of (which of the following):
A) The number of factors that can affect the risk B) The sophistication of the Process Unit
C) The amount of mitigation required after analysis D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Relative Risk versus Absolute Risk Section 5.6 A is the best answer!
37. Calculating absolute risk can be very time and cost consuming and often cannot be
done with a high degree of accuracy, due to:
A) The number of factors that can affect the risk B) The sophistication of the Process Unit
C) The amount of mitigation required after analysis D) Too many uncertainties
Answer: D Relative Risk versus Absolute Risk Section 5.6 D is the best answer!
38. Many variables are involved with loss of containment in hydrocarbon and chemical
facilities and the determination of absolute risk numbers is often:
A) Possible and cost effective B) Not even possible and not cost effective
C) Possible, but not cost effective D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Relative Risk versus Absolute Risk Section 5.6 B is the best answer!
39. RBI is focused on a systematic determination of this type of risk so that facilities, units,
systems, equipment or components can be ranked & risk management efforts can focus on
the higher ranked risks:
A) Residual risk B) Absolute risk
C) Relative risk D) Actual risk
Answer: C Relative Risk versus Absolute Risk Section 5.6 C is the best answer!
40. If a quantitative RBI study is conducted rigorously and properly, the resultant risk
number should be a fair approximation of the:
A) Residual risk B) Absolute risk
C) Relative risk D) Actual risk
Ans: D Relative Risk vs. Absolute Risk Sect 5.6 Actual risk of failure (loss of cont.)
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions
(API 580 Chapter 6 Introduction to RBI)
Note: 9 of 70 exam questions came from Chapter 6
API 580 Section 6.1 Review section & answer four possible exam questions below
6.1 Key Elements of an RBI Program Top Priority for Study
Key elements that should exist in any RBI program include:
a) Management systems for maintaining documentation, personnel qualifications, data
requirements, consistency of the program and analysis updates
b) Documented method for POF determination
c) Documented method for COF determination
d) Documented methodology for managing risk through inspection, process control and other
mitigation activities
However, all the elements outlined in Section 1 should be adequately addressed in all RBI
applications, in accordance with the recommended practices in this document.
API 580 Section 6.1 possible exam questions Key elements of an RBI Program
1. Key elements of any RBI Program should include documented methods to determine:
A) Probability of Failure (POF) only B) Probability & Consequence of Failure (POF/COF)
C) Consequence of Failure (COF) only D) Cause of Failure (COF) only
Ans: B Both POF & COF determination is correct & should be in every RBI Program
2. Key elements of any RBI Program should include all of the following management
systems except those for maintaining:
A) Documentation B) Personnel Qualifications
C) Data Requirements D) Mitigation Efforts
Answer: D Analysis updates is correct
3. Key elements of any RBI Program should include all of the following documented
methodologies except those for:
A) Managing risk through Inspection
B) Managing risk through process control
C) Managing risk through other mitigation activities
D) Managing risk through PSM boundary limit determination
Answer: D D = The only incorrect answer
4. Key elements of any RBI Program should include documented methodologies for
managing risk using any of the following except:
A) Inspection
B) Risk Analysis
C) Process control
D) Other mitigation activities
Answer: B Key Element of an RBI Program
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions
(API 580 Chapter 6 Introduction to RBI)
Note: 9 of 70 exam questions came from Chapter 6
API 580 Section 6.2 Review section & answer several (four) possible exam questions
6.2 Consequence and Probability for RBI Top Priority for Study
The objective of RBI is to determine what incident could occur (consequence) in the event of
an equipment failure, and how likely (probability) it is that the incident could happen.
For example, if a pressure vessel subject to damage from corrosion under insulation develops a
leak, a variety of consequences could occur. Some of the possible consequences are:
a) Form a vapor cloud that could ignite causing injury and equipment damage
b) Release of a toxic chemical that could cause health problems
c) Result in a spill and cause environmental damage
d) Force a unit shut down and have an adverse economic impact
e) Have minimal safety, health, environmental, and/or economic impact.
Combining the probability of one or more of these events with its consequences will
determine the risk to the operation. Some failures may occur relatively frequently without
significant adverse safety, environmental or economic impacts. Similarly, some failures have
potentially serious consequences, but if the probability of the incident is low, the risk may not
warrant immediate or extensive action.
However, if the probability and consequence combination (risk) is high enough to be
unacceptable, then a mitigation action to reduce the probability and/or the consequence of the
event is appropriate.
Traditionally, organizations have focused solely on the consequences or the POF without
systematic efforts tying the two together. They have not considered how likely it is that an
undesirable incident will occur in combination with the consequence. Only by considering both
factors (POF/COF) can effective risk-based decision-making take place. Typically, risk
acceptability criteria are defined, recognizing that not every failure will lead to an undesirable
incident with serious consequence (e.g. water leaks) and that some serious consequence incidents
have very low probabilities (e.g. rupture of a clean propane vessel).
Understanding the two-dimensional aspect of risk allows new insight into the use of risk for
inspection prioritization and planning. Figure 2 displays the risk associated with the operation of
a number of equipment items in a process plant. Both probability and COF have been determined
for 10 equipment items, and the results have been plotted.
The points represent the risk associated with each equipment item. Ordering by risk produces a
risk-based ranking of the equipment items to be inspected. From this list, an inspection plan can
be developed that focuses attention on the areas of highest risk. An ISO-risk line is shown on
Figure 2. ISO-risk line represents a constant risk level, as shown across the matrix in Fig. 2.
All items that fall on or very near ISO-risk line are roughly equivalent in their level of risk.
A user defined acceptable risk level could be plotted as an ISO-risk line. In this way the
acceptable risk line would separate the unacceptable from the acceptable risk items.
Often a risk plot is drawn using log-log scales for a better understanding of the relative risks of
the items assessed.
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.2 Consequence and Probability for RBI Top Priority for Study Contd

Exam TIP: You should see an exam question showing Fig 2 & asking about the ISO-risk lines and item locations
API 580 Section 6.2 possible exam questions Consequence & Probability for RBI
5. All items that fall on or very near an ISO-risk line (as illustrated in Figure 2) indicate:
A) Greater risk levels B) Lesser risk levels
C) Roughly equivalent risk levels D) None of these is correct (It depends upon number order)
Answer: C Know what the number locations relative to ISO-risk lines means for RBI!
6. An ISO-risk line where items are separated (such as Items 2 and 10 above) indicates:
A) Roughly equivalent risk levels as they are an even distance away from the ISO-risk line
B) One item has an acceptable risk level and the other item has an unacceptable risk level
C) Greater risk levels for both items 2 & 10 as they are both similar distances away
D) None of these because lesser risk levels are indicated for items 2 & 10
Answer: B Know what the number locations relative to ISO-risk lines means for RBI!
7. The objective of RBI is to determine (what in the event of an equipment failure)?
A) Only what possible incident or incidents could occur
B) Only how likely it is that the incident or incidents could happen
C) Only the result or consequence of the incident or incidents
D) Probability of Failure & consequence of failure
Answer: D Know the objectives of RBI Again, its POF/COF!
8. If the probability and consequence combination (risk) is high enough to be unacceptable,
then what action is appropriate?
A) Mitigation action to reduce the probability and/or the consequence of the event
B) Risk assessment of the COF only
C) Risk assessment of the POF only
D) Risk assessment of COF/POF
Answer: A Know when there is a need for mitigation! Expect tricky questions like this!
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study
API 580 Section 6.3 Review section & answer several (four) possible exam questions

Various types of RBI assessment may be conducted at several levels.

The choice of approach is dependent on multiple variables such as:

a) Objective of the study


b) Number of facilities and equipment items to study
c) Available resources
d) Assessment time frame
e) Complexity of facilities and processes
f) Nature and quality of available data
g) The amount of risk discrimination needed

The RBI procedure can be applied qualitatively, quantitatively or by using aspects of both
(i.e. semi-quantitatively). Each approach provides a systematic way to screen for risk,
identify areas of potential concern, and develop a prioritized list for more in depth inspection or
analysis.

Each (approach) develops a risk ranking measure to be used for evaluating separately the
POF and the potential COF. These two values are then combined to estimate risk of failure.

The chosen approach may be selected at the beginning of the analysis process and carried
through to completion, or the approach may be changed (i.e. the analysis may become more or
less quantitative) as the analysis progresses. However, consistency of approach will be vital to
comparing results from one assessment to the next.

If the risk determined using any approach is below the acceptance criterion specified by the
management of the organization conducting the analysis, no further analysis, inspection or
mitigation steps are typically required within the analysis time frame as long as the conditions
and assumptions used in the analysis remain valid.

The spectrum of risk analysis should be considered to be a continuum with qualitative and
quantitative approaches being the two extremes of the continuum and everything in
between being a semi-quantitative approach (see 6.3.4 and Figure 3).

Use of expert opinion will typically be included in most risk assessments regardless of type or
level.

SEE FIG. 3 on the following page regarding Continuum


of RBI approaches and answer 4 possible exam questions
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd

API 580 TYPO ERROR SHOULD BE SEMI-QUANTITATIVE ABOVE


Exam TIP: You should see an exam question regarding Continuum of RBI approaches Know this figure!
API 580 Section 6.3 possible exam questions Types of RBI assessments 3 Types
9. Regarding RBI assessments, the RBI procedure can be applied using all of the following
approaches except:
A) Qualitative B) Quantitative
C) Semi-quantitative D) Semi-qualitative
Answer: D Know 3 different types of approaches for RBI procedures!
10. Each RBI procedural approach provides a systematic way to accomplish all of the
following except:
A) Screen for risk B) Identify areas of potential concern
C) Develop a prioritized list for mitigation D) Develop a prioritized list for more in-depth insp
Answer: C Develop a prioritized list for more in-depth analysis
11. Each RBI procedural approach develops a risk ranking measure to be used for
evaluating both POF and COF in order to:
A) Quantify any risk of failure B) Estimate the risk of failure
C) Determine precisely the risk of failure D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Understand basic principles of RBI procedural approaches & risk rankings

12. The spectrum of risk analysis should be considered to be a continuum with qualitative
and quantitative approaches being:
A) Two extremes of the continuum and everything in between is a semi-quantitative approach
B) Two extremes of the continuum and everything in between is a semi-qualitative approach
C) Equal in risk of failure
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Understand basics of Continuum of RBI approaches
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd
6.3.1 Qualitative Approach
This approach requires data inputs based on descriptive information using engineering
judgment and experience as the basis for the analysis of probability and COF. Inputs are
often given in data ranges instead of discrete values. Results are typically given in qualitative
terms such as high, medium, and low, although numerical values may also be associated with
these categories. The value of this type of analysis is that it enables completion of a risk
assessment in the absence of detailed quantitative data. The accuracy of results from a
qualitative analysis is dependent on the background and expertise of the risk analysts and
team members. Although the qualitative approach is less precise than more quantitative
approaches it is effective in screening out units and equipment with low risk.
The qualitative approach may be used for any aspect of inspection plan development; however,
the conservatism generally inherent in the more qualitative approach should be considered when
making final mitigation and inspection plan decisions.
API 580 Section 6.3.1 possible exam questions on Qualitative Approach
13. The qualitative approach requires data inputs based on descriptive information using:
A) Expert opinion as the basis for risk rankings
B) Expert opinion as the basis for the analysis of POF & COF
C) Engineering judgment and experience as the basis for risk rankings
D) Engineering judgment and experience as the basis for the analysis of POF & COF
Answer: D Understand basics of Qualitative Approach
14. The value of qualitative approach analysis is the completion of a risk assessment:
A) Without using any detailed semi-quantitative data
B) Without using any inspection data whatsoever
C) Without using any detailed quantitative data
D) None of these are correct
Answer: C Understand basics of Qualitative Approach
15. The accuracy of results from a qualitative analysis is dependent on:
A) The background and expertise of the risk analysts and team members
B) The background and expertise of the Engineers and Inspectors
C) The expert opinion of the risk analysts and team members
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Understand basics of Qualitative Approach
16. Although the qualitative approach is less precise than more quantitative approaches it
is effective in screening out units and equipment with:
A) High risk B) Low risk
C) Medium risk D) Any risk level
Answer: B Understand basics of Qualitative Approach
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd
6.3.2 Quantitative Approach QRA = Quantitative Risk Analysis
Fully QRA integrates into a uniform methodology the relevant information about facility
design, operating practices, operating history, component reliability, human actions, the
physical progression of accidents, and potential environmental and health effects.
QRA uses logic models depicting combinations of events that could result in severe accidents
and physical models depicting the progression of accidents and the transport of a hazardous
material to the environment.
The models are evaluated probabilistically to provide both qualitative and quantitative insights
about the level of risk and to identify the design, site, or operational characteristics that are the
most important to risk.
QRA is distinguished from the qualitative approach by the analysis depth and integration
of detailed assessments.
QRA logic models generally consist of event trees and fault trees.
Event trees delineate initiating events and combinations of system successes and failures,
while fault trees depict ways in which system failures represented in event trees can occur.
QRA logic models are analyzed to estimate the probability of each accident sequence.
Results using QRA are typically presented as risk numbers (e.g. cost per year).
QRA refers to a prescriptive methodology that has resulted from the application of risk
analysis techniques at many different types of facilities, including hydrocarbon and chemical
process facilities.
For all intents and purposes, it (QRA) is a traditional risk analysis.
An RBI analysis shares many of the techniques and data requirements with a QRA.
If a QRA has been prepared for a process unit, the RBI consequence analysis can borrow
extensively from this effort.
The traditional QRA is generally comprised of five tasks:
1) Systems identification
2) Hazards identification
3) Probability assessment
4) Consequence analysis
5) Risk results
The systems definition, hazard identification and consequence analysis are integrally linked.
Hazard identification in an RBI analysis generally focuses on identifiable failure mechanisms
in the equipment (inspectable causes) but does not explicitly deal with other potential failure
scenarios resulting from events such as power failures or human errors.
A QRA deals with total risk, not just risk associated with equipment damage.

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)

6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd

6.3.2 Quantitative Approach Contd QRA = Quantitative Risk Analysis

The QRA typically involves a much more detailed evaluation than an RBI analysis. The
following data are typically analyzed:
a) Existing HAZOP or PHA results b) Dike & drainage design c) Hazard detection systems
d) Fire protection systems e) Release statistics f) Injury stats g) Population distributions
h) Topography i) Weather conditions j) Land use
A QRA is generally performed by experienced risk analysts. There are opportunities to link the
detailed QRA with an RBI study.

API 580 Section 6.3.2 possible exam questions on the Quantitative Approach
17. Fully QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) integrates into a uniform methodology the
relevant information about all of these factors except:
A) Facility design, operating practices, and operating history
B) Potential environmental and health effects
C) Component reliability and human actions
D) The physical root cause of accidents
Answer: D The physical progression of accidents Understand basics of QRA

18. QRA uses what types of models in a risk-based assessment?


A) Logic models and physical models B) Logic models only
C) Physical models only D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Understand basics of QRA

19. QRA using logic models will show (which of these):


A) Progression of accidents and the release of hazardous material to the environment
B) Combinations of events that could result in severe accidents
C) Progression of accidents only
D) Root Cause of accidents only
Answer: B Understand basics of QRA

20. How are QRA models evaluated to provide insights into the level of risk and important
risk factors?
A) Quantitatively B) Qualitatively
C) Probabilistically D) Semi-quantitatively
Answer: C Understand basics of QRA

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)

6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd

6.3.2 Quantitative Approach Contd QRA = Quantitative Risk Analysis

API 580 Section 6.3.2 possible exam questions on the Quantitative Approach
21. QRA is distinguished from the qualitative approach by the:
A) Depth of analysis and the integration of detailed assessments
B) Integration of detailed assessments only
C) Analysis depth only
D) None of these
Answer: A Understand basics of QRA
22. QRA logic models generally consist of what type or types of trees?
A) Event trees and Decision trees B) Event trees and Fault trees
C) Fault trees and Decision trees D) None of these are correct (event trees only)
Answer: B Understand basics of QRA
23. When performing QRA, Event Trees are used to delineate (outline):
A) Consequences associated with system failures
B) Initiating events responsible for system successes
C) Initiating events and combinations of system successes and failures
D) None of these are correct
Answer: C Understand basics of QRA
24. When performing QRA, Fault Trees are used to depict (show):
A) Consequences associated with system failures
B) Initiating events responsible for system successes
C) Initiating events and combinations of system successes and failures
D) None of these are correct
Answer: D Understand QRA Fault trees depict ways in which system failures
represented in event trees can occur None of the above = often the correct answer on
API exams Expect 4 to 5 questions to have None of the above & most are the answer!
25. QRA logic models are analyzed to estimate the probability of:
A) Each accident sequence B) Increased risk
C) Increased cost D) None of these
Answer: A Understand basics of QRA
26. Results using QRA are typically presented as:
A) Risk Probability B) Risk Numbers
C) Risk cost D) None of these
Answer: B Understand basics of QRA Risk numbers = cost per year

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd
6.3.2 Quantitative Approach Contd QRA = Quantitative Risk Analysis
API 580 Section 6.3.2 possible exam questions on the Quantitative Approach
27. For all intents and purposes, a QRA is a(n):
A) Traditional risk analysis B) Detailed risk analysis
C) Detailed risk comparison D) None of these is correct
Answer: A Understand basics of QRA
28. A QRA shares many of the same techniques and data requirements as a(n):
A) Traditional risk analysis B) Detailed risk analysis
C) Detailed risk comparison D) RBI Analysis
Answer: D Understand basics of QRA
29. Traditional QRA generally consists of which of the following Tasks (Know the five):
A) POF, COF, consequence analysis, detailed risk analysis, risk results
B) Consequence & detailed risk analysis, probability assessment, RBI analysis, risk results
C) System & hazard identification, probability assessment, consequence analysis, risk results
D) None of these is correct
Answer: C Understand basics of QRA
30. Hazard identification in an RBI analysis generally focuses on:
A) Unidentifiable failure mechanisms in the equipment
B) Identifiable failure mechanisms in the equipment (inspectable causes)
C) Other potential failure scenarios resulting from events such as power failures or human errors
D) None of these is correct
Answer: B Understand basics of QRA
31. A QRA deals with what type of risk?
A) Total risk
B) Risk associated with equipment damage
C) Risk associated with equipment damage including any environmental impact
D) None of these is correct
Answer: A Understand basics of QRA
32. Which of these statements are true regarding the QRA and an RBI analysis?
A) Both are generally performed by experienced risk analysts
B) There are never opportunities to link the less detailed QRA with the more detailed RBI study
C) The QRA typically involves a much more detailed evaluation than an RBI analysis
D) None of these statements are true regarding QRAs & RBI studies
Ans: C Understand basics of QRA C = true, A = Only a QRA is generally performed
by experienced risk analysts, B = There are opportunities to link the detailed QRA with an
RBI study, and D = Not correct because C was the only correct answer.
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd
6.3.3 Semi-quantitative Approach
Semi-quantitative is a term that describes any approach that has aspects derived from both the
qualitative and quantitative approaches. It is geared to obtain the major benefits of the
previous two approaches (e.g. speed of the qualitative and rigor of the quantitative).
Typically, most of the data used in a quantitative approach is needed for this approach but in less
detail. The models also may not be as rigorous as those used for the quantitative approach.
The results are usually given in consequence and probability categories or as risk numbers but
numerical values may be associated with each category to permit the calculation of risk and the
application of appropriate risk acceptance criteria.

API 580 Section 6.3.3 possible exam questions on the Semi-quantitative Approach
33. Semi-quantitative is a term that describes any approach that has aspects derived from:
A) Either the qualitative and the quantitative approaches
B) Both the qualitative and the quantitative approaches
C) Only the quantitative approach using less analysis
D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Understand basics of Semi-quantitative Approach
34. Which of the following statements is false regarding the semi-quantitative approach?
A) It uses the benefits of both a qualitative approach (speed) and a quantitative approach (rigor)
B) Most of the data used in a quantitative approach is needed for this approach but in less detail
C) Models may not be as rigorous as those used for the quantitative approach
D) None of these statements are false
Ans: D Understand basics of Semi-quantitative Approach A/B/C are true & D = False

6.3.4 Continuum of Approaches


In practice, RBI study typically uses aspects of qualitative, quantitative and semi-quantitative
approaches.
These RBI approaches are not considered as competing but rather as complementary.
For example, a high level qualitative approach could be used at a unit level to select the unit
within a facility that provides the highest risk for further analysis. Systems and equipment within
the unit then may be screened using a qualitative approach with a more quantitative approach
used for the higher risk items. Another example could be to use a qualitative consequence
analysis combined with a semi-quantitative probability analysis.
When performing risk analysis across different equipment, a single site or multiple sites, the user
is cautioned about comparing specific results unless the same or very similar RBI methodologies
and assumptions were applied. The user is also cautioned against drawing conclusions about
different results when different methodologies are used to evaluate the same piece of equipment.
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.3 Types of RBI Assessment Top Priority for Study Contd

6.3.4 Continuum of Approaches Contd


The RBI process, shown in the simplified block diagram in Figure 4, depicts the essential
elements of inspection planning based on risk analysis.
This diagram is applicable to Figure 3 regardless of which RBI approach is applied, i.e. each of
the essential elements shown in Figure 4 are necessary for a complete RBI program regardless of
approach (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative).
Exam TIP: You MUST KNOW how the RBI PROCESS works Continuum= Continuously = Never Ending!

API 580 Section 6.3.4 possible exam questions on the Continuum of Approaches
35. In practice, an RBI study typically uses aspects of which of the following approaches?
A) Qualitative approach and a quantitative approach
B) Quantitative approach and a semi-quantitative approach
C) Qualitative approach and a quantitative approach and a semi-quantitative approach
D) None of these statements are correct
Ans: C Understand basics of Continuum of Approaches It uses all three approaches
36. According to the RBI process, using the diagram, which of these statements is FALSE?
A) Risk Assessment Process includes both Consequence of Failure & Probability of Failure
B) Risk Assessment Process results in a risk ranking that is then applied to Inspection Planning
C) After Inspection Plans, any Mitigation results in Reassessment & more Data & Info collection
D) Data and Info Collection is performed only after initial Risk Assessment Process (COF/ POF)
Ans: D Understand Continuum of Approaches! Continuous Process Never ending!
Note: Be prepared for exam questions regarding the sequence of events in this Continuum
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.4 Precision versus Accuracy
It is important to understand the difference between precision & accuracy regarding risk analysis.
Accuracy is a function of the analysis methodology, the quality of the data and consistency of
application while precision is a function of selected metrics and computational methods.
Risk presented as a precise numeric value (as in a quantitative analysis) implies a greater level
of accuracy when compared to a risk matrix (as in a qualitative analysis). However, the implied
linkage of precision and accuracy may not exist because of the element of uncertainty that is
inherent with probabilities and consequences. The basis for predicted damage and rates, the
level of confidence in inspection data and the technique used to perform the inspection are all
factors that should be considered. In practice, there are often many extraneous factors that will
affect the estimate of damage rate (probability) as well as the magnitude of a failure
(consequence) that cannot be fully taken into account with a fixed model. Therefore, it may be
beneficial to use quantitative and qualitative methods in a complementary fashion to produce the
most effective and efficient assessment. Quantitative analysis uses logic models to calculate
probabilities and consequences of failure. Logic models used to characterize materials damage of
equipment and to determine the COFs typically can have significant variability and therefore
could introduce error and inaccuracy impacting the quality of the risk assessment. Therefore, it is
important that results from these logic models are validated by expert judgment.
Accuracy of any type of RBI analysis depends on using sound methodology, quality data &
knowledgeable personnel & is important to any RBI methodology type selected for application.
API 580 Section 6.4 possible exam questions on Precision versus Accuracy
37. Which statement is NOT TRUE regarding Accuracy versus Precision in risk analysis?
A) RBI analysis accuracy depends on sound methodology/quality data/ knowledgeable personnel
B) Accuracy is a function of analysis methodology & quality of data & application consistency
C) Regarding risk analysis, there is little significant difference between accuracy & precision
D) Precision is a function of selected metrics & computational methods
Ans: C Precision vs. Accuracy Significant differences exist uncertainty POF/COF
38. Which statement is TRUE regarding Accuracy versus Precision in risk analysis?
A) Accuracy is a function of selected metrics & computational methods
B) Regarding risk analysis, there is little significant difference between accuracy & precision
C) Precision is a function of analysis methodology & quality of data & application consistency
D) RBI analysis accuracy depends on sound methodology/quality data/ knowledgeable personnel
Answer: D Understand basics of Precision versus Accuracy
39. In risk analysis (regarding precision vs accuracy), what statement is true regarding risk
using a precise numeric value (quantitative) when compared to a risk matrix (qualitative)?
A) A precise number value implies a greater level of accuracy when compared to a risk matrix
B) A precise number values implies a lower level of accuracy when compared to a risk matrix
C) A precise number value implies a greater level of precision when compared to a risk matrix
D) A precise number values implies a lower level of precision when compared to a risk matrix
Answer: A Understand basics of Precision versus Accuracy
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.5 Understanding How RBI Can Help to Manage Operating Risks
Mechanical integrity and functional performance of equipment depends on the suitability
of the equipment to operate safely & reliably UNDER NORMAL & ABNORMAL (UPSET)
operating conditions to which the equipment is exposed.
In performing RBI assessment, equipment susceptibility to damage by one or more
mechanisms (e.g. corrosion, fatigue and cracking) is established.
The susceptibility of each equipment item should be clearly defined for the current and
projected operating conditions including such factors as:
a) Normal operation,
b) Upset conditions,
c) Normal start-up and shutdown,
d) Idle or out-of-service time,
e) Emergency shutdown and subsequent start-up.
Process variables that should be considered for each operating condition include, but are
not limited to:
a) Process fluid, contaminants and aggressive components;
b) Pressures, including cyclic and transient conditions;
c) Temperatures, including cyclic and transient conditions;
d) Flow rates;
e) Desired unit run length between scheduled shutdowns (turnarounds).
Suitability and current condition of the equipment within the established IOW will determine
the POF (see Sect 10) of the equipment from one or more damage mechanisms. This probability,
when coupled with the associated COF (see Sect. 11) will determine the operating risk associated
with the equipment item (see Sect. 12), and therefore the need for mitigation, if any, such as
inspection, metallurgy change or change in operating conditions (see Section 13 and Section 14).
Since risk is dynamic (i.e. changes with time) it is vital that any RBI process that is developed
or selected for application have the ability to be easily updated (including changes in the
inspection plan) when changes occur or new information is discovered.
Those changes might include such things as:
a) New data from insp activities (i.e. changes in rates of deterioration noted in inspections);
b) Changes in operation, operating variables or operation outside of the IOW;
c) Changes in the process fluids, however small;
d) Changes in process equipment, including additions;
e) Equipment leaks or failures.
Any and all of this type of information must be communicated on a timely basis so that changes
in the inspection plan can be made, as necessary.
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
API 580 Sect 6.5 possible exam questions on Understanding How RBI can manage Op risks
40. Regarding RBI & Operational risk, Mechanical integrity & functional performance of
equipment depends on the suitability of the equipment to operate safely & reliably (when)?
A) Under normal & abnormal (upset) operating conditions that equipment is exposed to
B) Only under the normal operating conditions that the equipment will be exposed to
C) Only under abnormal (upset) operating conditions that equipment is exposed to
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Understanding how RBI can manage Operating Risk Very Easy Question
41. Regarding RBI, susceptibility of each equipment item to damage mechanisms should be clearly
defined for current & projected operating conditions incl. all these EXCEPT:
A) Normal operation and upset conditions including normal start-up and shutdown
B) Emergency shutdown and the subsequent start-up
C) Less than normal operating conditions
D) Idle times or out-of-service times
Answer: C Understanding how RBI can manage Operating Risk Too Easy Question
42. Regarding RBI & Managing Operational Risk, all of the following Process variables that should
be considered for each operating condition include all of these EXCEPT:
A) Pressures & Temperatures, including cyclic and transient conditions
B) Desired unit run length between scheduled shutdowns (turnarounds)
C) Process fluid, contaminants and aggressive components
D) Flow rates, atmospheric relief and relief capacity
Answer: D Understanding how RBI can manage Operating Risk Flow rates only
43. Regarding RBI & Managing Operational Risk, suitability and current condition of the
equipment within the established IOW (integrity operating windows) will determine:
A) Both the POF & COF of the equipment from one or more damage mechanisms
B) The POF of the equipment from one or more damage mechanisms
C) The COF of the equipment from one or more damage mechanisms
D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Understanding how RBI can manage Operating Risk
44. Regarding RBI & Managing Operational Risk, POF of equipment from damage when added
with associated COF will determine the operating risk and therefore the need for the following
exept:
A) Any mitigation (inspection) B) Any mitigation (repair of any leaks)
C) Any mitigation (metallurgy change) D) Any mitigation (change operating conditions)
Answer: B Understanding how RBI can manage Operating Risk
45. Regarding RBI & Managing Operational Risk, risk changes with time and is known to be:
A) Dynamic, so the inspection plan must be easily updatable when changes occur or new info is found
B) Certain, so any changes in operation are not outside of the IOW
C) Variable, so that operating variables are within the IOW
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Understanding how RBI can manage Operating Risk
Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.6 Management of Risks
6.6.1 Risk Management through Inspection
The objective of RBI is to direct managements decision process of prioritizing resources to
manage risk. Inspection influences the uncertainty of the risk associated with pressure
equipment primarily by improving knowledge of the deterioration state and predictability of
the POF. Although inspection does not reduce risk directly, it is a risk management activity
(provider of new information) that may lead to risk reduction.
Impending failure of pressure equipment is not avoided by inspection activities unless the
inspection precipitates risk mitigation activities that change the POF.
In-service inspection is primarily concerned with detection & monitoring of deterioration.
The POF due to such deterioration is a function of four factors:
a) Deterioration type and mechanism b) Rate of deterioration c) Probability of identifying
and detecting deterioration and predicting future deterioration states with inspection technique(s)
d) Tolerance of the equipment to the type of deterioration
API 580 Sect 6.6.1 possible exam questions on Risk Management through Inspection
46. To manage risk, the objective of RBI is to direct managements decision process for prioritizing:
A) Inspections B) Mitigation efforts C) Resources D) Analysis
Answer: C Risk Management (Thru Inspection) This question may be seen in different ways
47. Inspection influences uncertainty of risk associated with pressure equipment by improving the knowledge
of the deterioration state and the:
A) Predictabilityof COF B) Predictabilityof POF C) Unpredictabilityof POF D) Unpredictabilityof COF
Answer: B Risk Management (Thru Inspection)
48. Risk management activity (providing new information) that may lead to risk reduction:
A) Inspection B) Analysis C) Mitigation D) None of these
Answer: A Risk Management (Thru Inspection)
49. Impending failure of pressure equipment is not avoided by inspection activities unless the inspection
precipitates risk mitigation activities that change the:
A) COF B) LOF C) ROF D) POF
Answer: D Risk Management (Thru Inspection)
50. Inservice inspection is primarily concerned with the detection and monitoring of:
A) Deterioration B) DMs C) POF D) None of these
Answer: A Risk Management (Thru Inspection)
51. The POF due to deterioration is a function of all of the following factors except:
A) Probability of identifying/detecting deterioration and predicting future deterioration with inspection techniques
B) Deterioration type and mechanism
C) Deterioration location
D) Rate of deterioration
Ans: C Risk Management (Thru Inspection) Correct is tolerance of equipment to type of deterioration)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.6 Management of Risks
6.6.2 Using RBI to Establish Inspection Plans and Priorities
The primary product of an RBI effort should be an inspection plan for each equipment item
evaluated. RBI is a logical and structured process for planning and evaluating inspection
activities for pressure equipment. The inspection plan should detail the unmitigated risk
related to the current operation. For risks considered unacceptable, the plan should contain the
mitigation actions that are recommended to reduce the unmitigated risk to acceptable
levels. For those equipment items where inspection is a cost-effective means of risk
management, the plans should describe the type, scope and timing of inspection/examination
recommended. Ranking of the equipment by the unmitigated risk level allows users to assign
priorities to the various inspection/examination tasks. A level of an unmitigated risk should
be used to evaluate urgency for performing an inspection.
API 580 Sec 6.6.2 possible questions on Risk Mgmt. (Using RBI for Insp Plans & Priorities)
52. Regarding RBI for Insp Plans, the primary product of an RBI effort should be a (n):
A) Inspection plan for each equipment item evaluated B) Inspection plan for every equipment item
C) Insp plan for each high risk equipment item evaluated D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities)
53. A logical & structured process for planning/evaluating insp activities for pressure equipment is a (n):
A) Risk Analysis B) RBI C) Inspection Planning D) Mitigation
Answer: B Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities)
54. The inspection plan should detail (what) related to the current operation?
A) POF B) Mitigated risk C) Unmitigated risk D) None of these
Answer: C Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities)
55. For risks considered unacceptable, the inspection plan should contain (what)?
A) Mitigation actions that are required to reduce mitigated risk to acceptable levels
B) Mitigation actions that are required to reduce unmitigated risk to acceptable levels
C) Mitigation actions that are recommended to reduce mitigated risk to acceptable levels
D) Mitigation actions that are recommended to reduce unmitigated risk to acceptable levels
Answer: D Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities)
56. For those equipment items where inspection is a cost-effective means of risk management, the plans
should describe all of the following related to the inspection/examination recommended except for:
A) Type B) Scope C) Timing D) Cost
Answer: D Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities) Were you fooled? )
57. Ranking of equipment by (what) allows users to assign priorities to various inspection/examination tasks?
A) Unmitigated risk level B) Mitigated risk level C) Risk analysis D) None of these
Answer: A Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities)
58. A level of an unmitigated risk should be used to evaluate the:
A) Time to perform an inspection B) Urgency for performing an inspection
C) Interval for performance of an inspection D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Risk Management (Using RBI for Insp Plans/Priorities)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)

6.6 Management of Risks


6.6.3 Evaluation and Fitness-For-Service Analysis

Evaluation of the results of the inspection and examination activities and conducting an
assessment of fitness for continued service are also key parts of the RBI process.
Although the reduction in uncertainty provided by the inspection process can help to better
quantify the calculated risk, without evaluation of inspection results and assessment of
equipment Fitness-For-Service after the inspection, effective risk reduction may not be
accomplished.
Fitness-For-Service assessment is often accomplished through knowledge and expertise of the
inspector and engineers involved when deterioration is within known acceptable limits, but on
occasion will require engineering analysis such as those contained in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1.

API 580 Sec 6.6.3 questions on Risk Mgmt. (Evaluation & Fitness for Service Analysis)
59. Evaluation of the results of the inspection and examination activities and conducting an
assessment of fitness for continued service are key parts of what process?
A) Mitigation B) Risk Analysis
C) Engineering Analysis D) RBI
Answer: D Risk Management (Evaluation & Fitness for Service Analysis)
60. Without evaluation of insp. results and assessment of equipment Fitness-For-Service
after the inspection, what important risk management goal may not be accomplished?
A) Effective risk assessment B) Effective risk reduction
C) Effective risk analysis D) None of these are correct
Answer: B Risk Management (Evaluation & Fitness for Service Analysis)
61. When deterioration is within known acceptable limits, Fitness-For-Service assessment is
most often accomplished through:
A) Knowledge/expertise of both inspector & engineers involved
B) Knowledge/expertise of inspector involved only
C) Knowledge/expertise of engineers involved only
D) None of these are correct
Answer: A Risk Management (Evaluation & Fitness for Service Analysis)
62. When deterioration is within known acceptable limits, Fitness-For-Service assessment
may on occasion require whose knowledge/expertise in accordance with what requirement?
A) Knowledge/expertise of both inspector & engineers involved as per API 579-1/ASME FFS-1
B) Knowledge/expertise of engineers involved only in accordance with the Quality Plan
C) Knowledge/expertise of engineers involved as per API 579-1/ASME FFS-1
D) None of these are correct
Answer: C Risk Management (Evaluation & Fitness for Service Analysis)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)

6.6 Management of Risks


6.6.4 Other Risk Management

Some risks cannot be adequately managed by inspection alone.

Examples where inspection may not be sufficient to manage risks to acceptable levels are:

a) Equipment nearing retirement

b) Failure mechanisms (such as brittle fracture, fatigue) where avoidance of failure primarily
depends on design and operating within a defined pressure/temperature envelope

c) Consequence-dominated risks

In such cases, noninspection mitigation actions (such as equipment repair, replacement or


upgrade, equipment redesign or maintenance of strict controls on operating conditions) may be
the only appropriate measures that can be taken to reduce risk to acceptable levels.

See Section 14 for methods of risk mitigation other than inspection.

API 580 Sec 6.6.4 questions on Risk Mgmt. (Other Risk Management)

63. Regarding Examples where inspection may not be sufficient to manage risks to
acceptable levels include all of the following except:

A) Equipment highly susceptible to failure mechanisms such as brittle fracture and fatigue
B) Probability-dominated or residual risks
C) Equipment nearing retirement
D) Consequence-dominated risks

Answer: B Risk Management (Other Risk Management)

64. Whenever inspection alone may not be sufficient to manage risks to acceptable levels,
non-inspection mitigation actions may be the only appropriate measures to reduce the risk
acceptably & these non-inspection mitigation actions may include all of these except:

A) Maintenance of strict controls on operating conditions


B) Equipment repair or replacement or upgrade
C) Equipment reassessment
D) Equipment redesign

Answer: C Risk Management (Other Risk Management)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.7 Relationship between RBI and Other Risk-Based and Safety Initiatives
6.7.1 General
The risk-based inspection methodology is intended to complement other risk-based and
safety initiatives.
Output from several of these initiatives can provide input to the RBI effort & RBI outputs may
be used to improve safety and risk-based initiatives already implemented by organizations.
Examples of some of these other initiatives are:
a) OSHA PSM programs
b) EPA risk management programs
c) ACC responsible care
d) ASME risk assessment publications
e) CCPS risk assessment techniques
f) RCM
g) PHA
h) Safeguarding analysis
i) SIL
j) LOPA
The relationship between RBI and several initiatives is described in 6.7.2 through 6.7.4.

API 580 Sec 6.7.1 Exam Questions on Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other
Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives General Section)
65. Which of these statements are False regarding the relationship between RBI and Other
Risk-Based and Safety Initiatives?

A) Output from several of the risk-based and safety initiatives can provide input to RBI efforts
B) RBI methodology is intended to complement other risk-based and safety initiatives
C) RBI outputs can be substituted for several safety and risk-based initiatives
D) RBI outputs may be used to improve safety and risk-based initiatives

Ans: C Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives)

66. API 580 recognized Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives may include all of these EXCEPT:

A) OSHA PSM programs, EPA risk management programs, ACC responsible care
B) ASME risk assessment publications, CCPS risk assessment techniques
C) RCM, SIL, LOPA, PHA, and Safeguarding analysis
D) ALARP, FMEA, OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119

Ans: D Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.7 Relationship between RBI and Other Risk-Based and Safety Initiatives
6.7.2 PHA

A PHA uses a systemized approach to IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE HAZARDS IN A


PROCESS UNIT.

The RBI study can include a review of the output from any PHA that has been conducted on the
unit being evaluated.

Hazards associated with potential equipment failure due to in-service degradation identified in
the PHA can be specifically addressed in the RBI analysis.

Potential hazards identified in a PHA will often affect the POF side of the risk equation. The
hazard may result from a series of events that could cause a process upset, or it could be the
result of process design or instrumentation deficiencies. In either case, the hazard may increase
the POF, in which case the RBI assessment could reflect the same.

Some hazards identified affect the consequence side of the risk equation. For example, the
potential failure of an isolation valve could increase the inventory of material available for
release in the event of a leak. The consequence calculation in the RBI procedure could be
modified to reflect this added hazard.

Likewise, the results of an RBI assessment can significantly enhance the overall value of a PHA
and help to avoid duplicate effort by two separate teams looking at the risk of failure.

API 580 Sec 6.7.2 Exam Questions on Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other
Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives PHA = Process Hazards Analysis)

67. A PHA uses a systemized approach to identify and analyze:

A) Process Safety Management Hazards


B) Process Operability Hazards
C) Process Unit Hazards
C) None of these

Ans: C Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives - PHA)

68. Which of these statements are false regarding the relationship between RBI and PHA?

A) RBI study can include a review of output from any PHA conducted on a unit being evaluated
B) PHA-identified hazards that can cause degradation/failure can be addressed in RBI analysis
C) Potential hazards identified in a PHA will often affect the POF side of the risk equation
D) RBI assessment results do not enhance the overall value of the PHA

Ans: D Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives - PHA)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.7 Relationship between RBI and Other Risk-Based and Safety Initiatives

6.7.3 PSM

An effective PSM system can significantly reduce risk levels in a process plant (refer to
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 and API 750).

RBI may include methodologies to assess the effectiveness of the management systems in
maintaining mechanical integrity.

The results of such a management systems evaluation are factored into the risk determinations.

Several of the features of an effective PSM program provide input for an RBI study. Extensive
data on the equipment and the process are required in the RBI analysis, and output from PHA
and incident investigation reports increases the validity of the study. In turn, the RBI program
can improve the mechanical integrity aspect of the PSM program.

An effective PSM program includes a well-structured and effective pressure equipment


inspection program.

The RBI system will improve the focus of the inspection plan, resulting in a strengthened PSM
program.

Operating with a comprehensive inspection program should reduce the risks of releases from a
facility and should provide benefits in complying with safety-related initiatives.

API 580 Sec 6.7.3 Exam Questions on Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other
Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives PSM = Process Safety Management)

69. Which of these statements are false regarding the relationship between RBI and PSM?

A) An effective PSM system can significantly reduce risk levels in a process plant
B) Several of the features of an effective PSM program provide input for an RBI study
C) The RBI program cannot improve the mechanical integrity aspect of the PSM program
D) RBI system will improve inspection plan focus, resulting in a strengthened PSM program

Ans: C Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives - PSM)

70. An effective PSM program includes a well-structured and effective:

A) Pressure equipment inspection program


B) Hazard and Operability assessment
C) Process hazards control system
D) None of these

Ans: A Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives - PSM)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.7 Relationship between RBI and Other Risk-Based and Safety Initiatives

6.7.4 Equipment Reliability

Equipment reliability programs can provide input to the probability analysis portion of an
RBI program.

Specifically, reliability records can be used to develop equipment failure probabilities and leak
frequencies.

Equipment reliability is especially important if leaks can be caused by secondary failures, such
as loss of utilities.

Reliability efforts, such as RCM, can be linked with RBI, resulting in an integrated program to
reduce downtime in an operating unit.

At facilities with an effective RBI program, the RCM program can typically focus on the
reliability aspects of equipment other than pressure equipment, and perhaps just focus on the
reliability aspects of pressure equipment that do not pertain to loss of containment (e.g. tray
damage and valve reliability).

API 580 Sec 6.7.4 Exam Questions on Risk Mgmt. (Relationship between RBI & other
Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives Equipment Reliability)

71. Which of these statements is true regarding the relationship between RBI and
Equipment Reliability (ER)?

A) ER programs can provide output to the probability analysis portion of an RBI program
B) Reliability records can be used to develop equipment failure probabilities & leak frequencies
C) RCM cannot supplement RBI nor achieve an integrated program to reduce Op Unit downtime
D) At facilities with effective RBI, RCM programs can focus on equipment reliability aspects
outside of loss of containment

Ans: D/B (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives Equipment
Reliability)

72. Reliability records can be used to develop:

A) POF/COF for Unit Equipment


B) An effective RBI Program for Unit Equipment
C) Equipment failure probabilities and leak frequencies
D) None of these are correct

Ans: C (Relationship between RBI & other Risk-Based & Safety Initiatives Equipment
Reliability)

Top Priority Possible Exam Questions (API 580 Ch. 6 Introduction to RBI)
6.8 Relationship with Jurisdictional Requirements
Codes & legal requirements vary from one jurisdiction to another. In some cases, jurisdictional
requirements mandate specific actions such as the type of inspections and intervals between
inspections.
In jurisdictions that permit the application of the API inspection codes and standards, RBI should
be an acceptable method for establishing inspection plans and setting inspection due dates.
All users should review their jurisdictional code and legal requirements for acceptability of
using RBI for inspection planning purposes.
The fact that some jurisdictions may have some prescriptive time-based rules on inspection
intervals do not preclude the user from gaining significant benefits from the application of RBI,
as long as jurisdictional requirements are met and as long as the local regulations do not
specifically prohibit the use of RBI planning. Those benefits can include:
a) Application of RBI can provide evidence of sound risk management and integrity monitoring
programs that can be used as a basis for advocating adoption of RBI by jurisdictions
b) Application of RBI can provide evidence of fulfilling requirements of meeting specific
industry standards as well as other types of asset integrity programs
c) Application of RBI can provide a basis for reducing risk further than what may be achieved
through time-based inspection rules.
API 580 Section 6.8 Exam Qs (Relationship of RBI with Jurisdictional Requirements)
73. Which of these statements is true regarding the relationship of RBI with Jurisdictional
Requirements?
A) Codes and legal requirements do not vary from one jurisdiction to another.
B) Jurisdictional requirements never mandate specific actions such as the type of inspection
C) Jurisdictional requirements never mandate actions such as the intervals between inspections
D) In jurisdictions allowing API code/Std use, RBI should be ok for establishing inspection plans
Ans: D (Relationship between RBI & Jurisdictional Requirements)
74. In jurisdictions allowing API code/Std use, RBI should be an acceptable method for:
A) Meeting all jurisdictional code and legal requirements
B) Exceeding all jurisdictional code and legal requirements
C) Establishing Inspection plans and setting Inspection due dates
D) None of these is correct
Ans: C (Relationship between RBI & Jurisdictional Requirements)
75. Before using RBI for inspection planning purposes, all users should review what
requirements in a given jurisdiction?
A) Jurisdictional code and legal requirements
B) Jurisdictional guidelines and legal points
C) Jurisdictional rules and guidelines
D) None of these are correct
Ans: A (Relationship between RBI & Jurisdictional Requirements)