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pelaksanaan dan keberlanjutan sumber kerangka needs for various purposes.

This is in sharp contrast


bioteknologi pertanian terbuka ini. to proprietary vendors that are globally profit-
5.2.2. Implikasi kebijakan untuk open source oriented with little connection to local needs [94].
Therefore, the government's policy should
bioteknologi
recognise the importance of FOSS and address the
5.2.2.1. Penyediaan pelatihan yang memadai. issues concerning the provision of right resources
Pelatihan adalah tanda hall manajemen yang efektif and allocation of budget for the development of
dan baik. Pengembangan open source open source project.
membutuhkan pelatihan yang memadai dalam
5.2.2.3. Collaboration and network expansion.
berbagai aspek FOSS untuk memfasilitasi
Collaborative data sharing should be encouraged
pengenalan dan pertumbuhan bioteknologi open
among the academic communities particularly in
source di negara berkembang. Hal ini diperlukan
untuk membangun dukungan dan pelatihan teknis developed countries, as this will provide
kebijakan untuk pengembangan open source, opportunities for researchers in developing
countries to benefit. Most researchers in developing
khususnya di informasi, dan teknologi komunikasi
countries depend on scientific data and publication
(ICT). Kebijakan TIK harus menjadi bagian dari
from developed countries to advance research in
proses dan bagian dari apa yang dibutuhkan di
their areas. For example, developing countries have
negara-negara berkembang untuk mempromosikan
dan mendukung open source. Kebijakan yang created successful science policies through a two-
dijalankan harus mendukung pendidikan dan way contribution of international scientific
exchange [95]. Therefore, collaborative data
pelatihan pada tingkat yang berbeda. Karena
sharing, through open source is one approach to
rendahnya tingkat melek ICT di negara-negara
encourage scientific networking between scientists
berkembang, strategi atau kebijakan yang
dirancang untuk pelatihan harus mencerminkan in developed and developing countries. Moreover,
kemampuan dasar (misalnya pemahaman dasar collaboration based on common tools where
individual sharing of discoveries in biological
dalam IT) dan metodologi user-friendly dalam
innovation could be encouraged between
bahasa komunikasi bagi masyarakat miskin
universities and multina- tionals, paving the way
pedesaan. Misalnya, perangkat lunak FOSS
for open source biotechnology.
digunakan untuk AgriBazaar dalam
menghubungkan petani dan pembeli di Malaysia 5.2.2.4. Effective policy and legislation. The
dirancang untuk melayani success of open source development requires that
effective policy and legislation be developed and
Gambar. 2. Open source bioteknologi pertanian R
implemented in developing countries. Given the
& D kerangka.
importance of political support, it can facilitate
Masyarakat dalam berbagai bahasa daerah [10]. processes and increase the adoption rate if there is a
Hal ini dapat memfasilitasi penerimaan dan high level of commitment. Therefore, government
partisipasi antara kelompok geted tar- di tingkat should formulate policies that encourage open
akar rumput. Selain itu, pelatihan harus diberikan source development and the policy should focus on
secara teratur dalam perjalanan proses evaluasi dan the following areas:
adaptasi. Jika diperlukan, pelatihan kembali harus
Support of ICT in education and the government
disediakan untuk keberlanjutan dan
sector
kesinambungan.
5.2.2.2. Penyediaan sumber daya yang memadai at all levels; Enabling an environment for the
accessibility of ICT by
dan fasilitas. Mengingat pentingnya bioteknologi
open source untuk kepentingan masyarakat, sumber citizens, business and the government;
daya yang memadai akan harus berkomitmen untuk AA Adenle et al. / Technology in Society 34 (2012)
mendukung pengembangan open source di negara 256269 266
berkembang. Terlepas dari pendidikan dan
pelatihan, fasilitas dasar seperti telekomunikasi dan Providing local professionals with adequate
listrik yang akan memfasilitasi penerapan open training and acquiring skills in relevant software
source di negara-negara berkembang harus development to remain viable in a competitive
disediakan. Dalam semua ini, open source akan market; Identifying and prioritization areas of need
memerlukan investasi keuangan yang besar dari such as local
para pemerintah. Meskipun demikian, biaya software development and IT industries;
penyediaan open source bisa relatif murah untuk Adopting open standards for storage and
software proprietary. For example, the migration of preservation of
Ugandan University to open source resulted in
significant cost reduction [91]. Other examples data.
[92,93] similarly show that open source is In addition, governments should work in
relatively inex- pensive and easily adapted to local conjunction with international agencies such as
CBD, TRIPS and UPOV to create a friendly IPRs recommendations to foster open source
system that will encourage open source development in agriculture.
development for innovative technologies in devel- The adequate provision of basic infrastructure
oping countries. This can decentralize patented
and financial resources will play a vital role in the
technologies and make them freely accessible to
adoption of open source biotechnology. Education
researchers in devel- oping countries, particularly
forms the basis through which open source
in agriculture biotechnology.
development can be promoted among the citizens,
5.2.2.5. Flexible licencing policies. Open source therefore quality education on ICT programs
licencing policy should be flexible enough to allow should be provided to encourage wide participa-
interested party to use innovation under the tion from the grass-root levels. The lack of political
freedom of choice. For example, it should be support due to a low level of awareness among the
practiced under the four freedoms of choice: 1) government officials on open source in developing
Access without restriction; 2) Availability of source countries can slow down open source development.
code; 3) Improve and add to the source code; 4) Therefore, a concerted effort should be made to
Redistribute the source code and software. The educate and encourage govern- ment officials in all
availability of genomic data- bases through relevant institutions. Given the impact of IPRs in
bioinformatics provides flexibility for the terms creating a research environment for biotechnology,
chosen by the users. By contrast, biotechnology the IPRs system must be designed in a research-
research does not usually provide an avenue for friendly way, particularly with regards to protection
freedom of choice. Also, the current licencing under law that will facilitate commercialization and
policy of BiOS does not encourage freedom of technology transfer to developing countries. Added
choice due to the grant back mecha- nism [89]. to this, institutional and legal frameworks must be
BiOs allows users to refrain from the grant back established and encouraged to protect IPRs in
improvement if kept as trade secrets where it developing countries so as to enhance the economic
prevents their improvement from being disclosed to benefit of open source biotechnology products.
another users. A recent report emphasises the fact
While this article has reviewed the existing
that an enhanced open source model through a
literature with relevant information about the
trade secret could offer a flexible policy agreement
adoption of open source biotechnology in
as proposed for the HapMap project [96]. In agricultural practices, not many initiatives or
addition, a business-friendly licencing policy that organisations are advocating for open source
will maxi- mize the growth potential of open source
development for innovations that can enhance
biotechnology should be encouraged among the
sustainable agricultural development. More effort is
users. Encouraging flexible licencing policies under
required from a variety of actors including the
the open source approach could lead to the rapid
private sector, individuals, national governments
development of research tools and increased and international agencies to support and promote
economic benefits for users in developing open source biotechnology for sustainable
countries.
agricultural development in developing coun- tries.
6. Conclusion Moreover, a lot of work needs to be done in terms
The open source paradigm as applied to of further case study analysis to more fully assess
agricultural practices has the potential to the major areas where open source is being
adopted, as well as the benefits and the constraints
compensate farmers for contributing to the growth
that are associated in open source adoption in
of plant resources, and may serve as information
developing countries.
resources for farming communities [87]. While this
article discusses the complexity of IPRs in Finally, if the introduction of open source
agricultural biotechnology, it also mentions the biotech- nology is to contribute to sustainable
potential benefit and impact of open source in agriculture in developing countries, enabling
agricultural and biotechnology development. environments must be put in place that include
Addressing the three research questions posed in a policy formulation and imple- mentation for
systematic way provided insight into the establishing, supporting and providing the capacity
development of open source biotechnology in building and resources required to develop open
devel- oping countries. Most importantly, the source. Moreover, the attention and focus of open
analysis of specific case studies and initiatives led source development should not be restricted to one
to the proposal of an Open Source Biotechnology area but it should address other needs such as
Framework (OSBF) that can facilitate development health and the envi- ronment. The opportunities
of biotechnology R&D, exchange of skills and offered by open source biotechnology can make a
ideas and collaboration among agricultural research significant impact on sustain- able agricultural
insti- tutes between different countries as well as development through free access to modern
policy biotechnology techniques. Open source biotech-
nology is making slow but steady progress in
agriculture, but many issues will have to be research methods series. 3rd ed., vol. 5. Sage
addressed to enjoy the benefits of this new Publications; 2003. [12] Denzin N. Sociological
innovation in developing countries. This article has methods: a sourcebook. Aldine Transaction;
raised important concerns that will lead to further
2006. [13] Stallman R. Free software, free
debates among stakeholders including scientists
society. Boston, MA: GNU Press;
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Acknowledgement and open source software. IT
The first two authors would like to acknowledge
Professional 2010;12(6):146. [15] Raymond
the support of Japan Society for the Promotion of
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AA Adenle et al. / Technology in Society 34 (2012) American University (USA), and a Ph.D. in
256269 269 Science and Technology Studies from Virginia
Dr. Ademola A. Adenle holds a M.Sc in Genetic Polytechnic Institute and State University (USA).
Manipulation from University of Sussex, UK and a He authored Conceptualizing Tech- nological
Ph.D. from University of Nottingham, UK. Dr. Change (1999) and edited Kerala: The
Adenle has published in several peer-reviewed Development Experience (2000) and Political
international journals including book chapters. He Economy and Information Capitalism in India
has won prestigious awards including the best (2006), and has written numerous book chapters
student prize for his PhD research presentation at and articles in international journals. His newest
the British Toxi- cology Society's Annual Congress book (co-edited with AP D'Costa) on The New
in Surrey, UK. He first authored a reviewed paper Asian Innovation Dynamics: China and India in
on spaceflight which attracted interest from UK Perspective was published in January 2009. He is
and US media respectively. His current research at active in research and advocacy work in science,
the United Nations University- Institute of technology and innovation for sustainable societies
Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) is based on the role
Dr. Obijiofor Aginam was educated in Nigeria and
Canada. He holds a Bachelor of Laws (magna cum
laude) from University of Nigeria; Master of Laws
from Queen's University at Kingston, Canada, and
a Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia,
Canada. Before joining United Nations University
(UNU), he held a tenured academic position as
Associate Professor of Law at Carleton University,
Ottawa, Canada where he taught and researched
emerging global issues that cut across
globalization, global governance of health and
environmental issues, SouthNorth relations,
international organizations, and Third World
Approaches to International Law (TWAIL).