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INSOCIO Reviewer 2.

2. RITUALISTS- those who give up the cultural goals but curriculum, less rigid admission procedures & more
follow the prescribed norms, even if they get only a little in participative learning methods. It is usually
1. Deviant Behavior return. administered by social organizations, private
Ex. Religious fanatics, Bureaucratic robots companies. Ex: TESDA
Is a behavior NOT IN CONFORMITY with the USUAL or
NORMAL behavior. It may be tolerated, approved or 3. RETREATISTS those who abandon both the cultural
disapproved. goals & prescribed means to achieve them & try to set up 3. Ethnic Groups & Ethnic Relations
new norms
EXAMPLES: Scientists, genius, inventors Ex. Alcoholic, drug addicts Race - is a biological category of people that have the same
Criminals. Drug dependents, physical characteristics like skin color, hair texture, eye
alcoholics, gamblers, prostitutes, LUDOMANIA- are compulsive gambling, a shape & height.
juvenile delinquents gambling disorder, pathological& gambling 1. CAUCASOID
addiction. Gambling becomes a disorder when it 2. NEGROID
THEORIES FOR DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: becomes persistent & maladaptive behavior 3. MONGOLOID
leading to economic, relational, occupational &
1. BIOLOGICAL- that it is a result of abnormal genetic social dysfunction. Ethnic groups are divided into:
Examples: Mental illness, homosexuality ETHNIC MAJORITY- is the dominant group that shares
2. Education common biological & cultural characteristics distinct from
2. PSYCHOLOGICAL- that it is brought about by inner other ethnic groups. They occupy the upper class either
conflicts or by the inability to control ones inner impulses Is a systematic & formal process of inculcating knowledge, because of their position of importance or privilege or by
or failure to structure ones behavior in an orderly way or skills, habits, values & morale in students by skilled their population number.
it s a form of aggression against society because of specialized teachers in a formal institution called the Examples of ethnic majority of the Philippines
frustrations. school. are the Tagalogs, Cebuanos, Ilocanos, Visayas,
Examples: Rebels, radicals, terrorists and Hiligaynon/Ilongo & Bicolanos.
3. ANOMIE or normlessness (according to Emile 1. It can bring about unity or disunity in society & can 2. ETHNIC MINORITY- is a small collection of people
Durkheim) This comes not as a result of the absence of spell the development or underdevelopment of a occupying a subordinate status in the society because of
norms but because of the existence of many sets of norms, society. perceived inferior cultural & social characteristics. They
that none of which is binding upon everybody. 2. It can bring about adaptation, goal attainment are indigenous people who inhabited the Philippines prior
integration & pattern maintenance. to the coming of colonizers.
4. LABELLING THEORY- which emphasizes the important 3. To prepare the individual for effective participation 1. They occupy subordinate position in the
consequences for individuals who have been labeled by in social relations. society & have special cultural traits considered
official agencies & by other persons because of their 4. It gives the individual more opportunities for inferior by the society;
deviant behavior. advancement; 2. They are self-conscious of their cultural traits
Ex. Prostitutes, call boys 5. It adds prestige, honor & dignity to the individual; that tie them to their fellow members giving
6. It helps in refining character. them the feeling of solidarity;
5.CONFLICT THEORY- Deviant occurs as a result of conflict 3. They tend to marry among themselves by
between the powerful & the weak. A struggle between Levels of Education choice or by necessity;
social classes. Groups, which have vested interests & 1. Pre-school 4. They persist even when the racial & cultural
possess power work for rules or laws, particularly those 2. Elementary characteristics are no longer apparent to the
that serve their own interests to be passed to the exclusion 3. Secondary individual.
of others. Strong sanctions are imposed against suicide, 4. Tertiary
abortion & pornography Example: the hill tribes in the Philippines are
FORMAL EDUCATION is synonymous with school. It the Tirurays, the Bajaos, The Manobo, the
TYPES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: sets definite objectives & goals reached through Tagbanua, The Ifugao, the Bontoks and the
1. CONFORMISTS are those who accept both the culturally systematized, formal instruction & methods. It is Aetas.
approved goals but disregard the institutionalized means divided into pre-school level such as nursery, kinder
to achieve them. & prep. PREJUDICE is a prejudgment that generates negative
Ex. Criminals who wish to have wealth & those who feelings, attitudes, beliefs toward a particular group of
commit graft & corruption to have a high standard of Non-formal Education- consists of definite learning people on account of their distinct biological & cultural
living. goals & objectives, generally making use of flexible characteristics, which are so unique & distinct that these
can generate adverse sensory perception, ethnocentrism & recreation. Interaction is allowed only if it will 4. Human Sexuality
prejudice. Prejudice performs these functions for the be beneficial to the dominant group; otherwise
dominant group. It provides justification for status the minority group is not allowed to stay in
inequalities for differential treatments for special groups places where the dominant group are. Kinds of Human Sexuality:
dominant groups. When prejudice is manifested physically,
it is in the form of DISCRIMINATION. 2. ETHNOCIDE- is the systematic, deliberate destruction of 1. Heterosexuality sexual relationships between two
persons of opposite sex
the ethnic culture because it is believed to be inferior, a
2. Homosexuality copulation between two persons
DISCRIMINATION- is the differential treatment given to a nuisance to the dominant group & barrier to economic
of the same sex
group of people on account of their perceived physical & growth & national integration.
cultural traits that can either be attitudinal and/or Ethnic groups are required to attend schools of
institutional. the dominant group where they are trained to
accept & practice the dominant culture & reject
1. PRE-MARITAL - copulation before marriage between two
1. ATTITUDINAL discrimination- is the direct, the ethnic culture which is considered a barrier persons of opposite sex who are both unmarried
blatant and conscious personal prejudice to eco. Devt. & national integration. 2. MARITAL - copulation between husband and wife. It is the
against a person who looks different because of most legitimate form of sexual relations.
his skin color or cultural characteristics 3. CONTINUED SUBJUGATION the dominant group creates 3. EXTRA MARITAL or ADULTERY - copulation between
(individual taste or certain haircut or clothing). racist or religious ideology & uses force to maintain its two persons who may be both married or one is married & the
dominance in the society. other is unmarried.
neutral or subtle way of preventing the During the Spanish period, the Filipinos were not widow, widower, separated, annulled or divorced.
minorities from further advancement & allowed to hold high positions in the government &
exercising of their basic rights by passing rules, the church because they were made to believe that PROSTITUTION is sex for gain or profit.
policies, practices & laws. they were Indios who were not intelligent enough CAUSES:
to hold powerful positions. 1. It is an easier way of earning a living.
KINDS OF DISCRIMINATION: 2. The desire on the part of some men for sexual experience
POLICIES OF ACCEPTANCE: that only prostitutes can provide
1. RACISM- discriminating people by reason of their color. 3. The desire for non-commitment & non-binding sexual
2. SEXISM OR GENDER STEREOTYPE-is the assumption 1. LEGAL PROTECTION consists of laws that give special experience.
that one sex(male) is more superior than the treatment & protection to ethnic minorities. Example:
other(female) Tribal Law- recognizes the rights of the Effects of Prostitution
3. AGEISM- discriminating people by reason of age. minorities to ancestral lands 1. Unwanted pregnancy
4. LOOKSISM- discriminating people by reason of their Republic Act No. 6734 (Organic Act of 1996) 2. Being afflicted with sexually transmitted
physical appearance. gave autonomy to 13 provinces & 9 cities in the diseases
5.CLASSISM- discriminating people by reason of their Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. 3. Lack of self-esteem
social or economic status. 4. Ridicule or condemnation from the society
2.CULTURAL PLURALISM- policy of respect & acceptance
POLICIES OF REJECTION: that encourages the ethnic minorities to maintain &
practice their own culture while seeking economic & 5. Family
1. GENOCIDE- policy that pursues total annihilation (to put political unity.
completely out of existence) of the ethnic groups by The Philippines is a pluralist society that allows FAMILY is a social group characterized by common
depriving them to live or from the supply of food. & encourages cultural diversity by allowing residence, economic cooperation & reproduction; group of
The racists believe that ethnic minorities are sub-humans different ethnic groups to practice their own persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption,
that they are threats to the purity of the superior Aryan cultural laws & traditions. constituting a single household, interacting and
race. communicating with each in their respective roles of husband
3.INTEGRATION- is the policy of assimilating the ethnic & wife, father & mother, son & daughter, brother & sister and
ETHNIC CLEANSING is the war between ethnic minorities to the mainstream of the society to minimize creating & maintaining a common culture.
groups, which attempts to annihilate each other, cont & guarantees various ethnic groups of equal rights &
so that only one group survives. opportunities & responsibilities. Functions:
POPULATION EXCLUSION- is the placement of The Phil. Govt. established government agencies
the ethnic groups in detention camps or the like Commission of National Integration & the 1. Family regulates sex & reproduction- it defines how sex
physical separation of two or more ethnic Mindanao State University will be expressed, to whom & when it will be done & whether
groups in their places of residence, work &
such expression of sexual behavior could ultimately end to 1. PATRIARCHAL - the dominant figure in the family is the
reproduction. father. Functions of Marriage:
Family enculturates the new members of the society- Newborn 2. MATRIARCHAL- the mother is the dominant figure in the 1.Marriage develops social bonds that provide material needs,
babies learn the culture of their society through family. social support and socialization of children.
ENCULTURATION. It is the process of learning the norms, 3. EGALITARIAN- the father & the mother exercise equal 2. Marriage defines the rights & obligations of the members of
attitudes, values, knowledge & language of the society. authority in the family. the contracting parties.
4. MATRICENTRIC- the mother becomes the dominant 3. Marriage creates new relationships between families & kin
3. The family designates status & Roles-Upon birth; the child figure due to the prolonged absence of the father. groups that can establish trade relationship & political
is given status & roles according to his family designation in alliances.
the society. The race, religion, class standing, reputation & EMPTY SHELL FAMILY is one wherein the members no 4. It legitimizes the sexual union of men & women & to
status of the family determine the role & status conferred on longer feel satisfying emotional relations with each other but legitimize the statuses of the children.
the child & will determine the kind of life style & life chances for some reason the husband & wife do not separate or
the child will experience in the society where he is born. divorce. FORMS OF MARRIAGE:
1. MONOGAMY- permits a man to take only ONE spouse at
4. The family provides security & protection. CLASSIFICATION OF MARITAL CONFLICTS: a time.
1. SITUATIONAL- the usual day-to-day bickering of husband 2. BIGAMY- TWO spouses at a time
CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILY ACCORDING TO SIZE and wife on trivial or petty matters. 3. POLYGAMY- is plural marriage of a man or a woman.
OR INTERNAL ORGANIZATION: 2. PERSONALITY- arise because of some psychological
characteristics of one of the mates; having difficulty adjusting FORMS OF PLURAL MARRIAGE:
1. NUCLEAR- is composed of the husband & his wife & their with one another. 1. POLYGYNY- - plural marriage of a man to several women.
children. 2. POLYANDRY- plural marriage of a woman to several men.
Examples of Psychological conflicts: a) FRATERNAL if a woman is married to a group
2. EXTENDED- composed of 2 or more nuclear families, Nagging wife of brothers.
economically & socially related to each other. Meticulous husband b) NON-FRATERNAL- if a woman is married to a
CONJUGAL- considers the spouses & their Being ill-tempered or irritable of either of them group of men who are not related to one another.
children as of prime importance.
CONSANGUINEAL - considers the nucleus of 3. STRUCTURAL- husband & wife may agree to the roles NORMS FOR MARRIAGE:
blood relatives as more important than the spouses. they will play in marriage but society may frustrate their being 1. ENDOGAMY- rule that requires a person to select his mate
performed. Also role conflicts in values or the pattern played from his own group or social category (race, social class or
BASED ON DESCENT: by marriage partners in the marital & familial responsibilities religion).
2. EXOGAMY- requires a person to select his mate outside
1. PATRILINEAL- affiliates a person with a group of Examples of Structural conflicts: his own group or social category.
relatives through his/her father. Decision-making functions such as family
2. MATRILINEAL- affiliates a person with a group of expenses and in the disciplining of children INCEST TABOO- is a universal prohibition against marriage
relatives through his/her mother. within the nuclear members of the family or kin members
3. BILATERAL- affiliates a person with a group of relatives MOST COMMON CAUSES OF MARITAL CONFLICTS: because it is disruptive to the family structure.
related through both his parents. 1. Disagreement over management of family finances;
2. Lack of proper communication RULES ON SECONDARY MARRIAGE:
BASED ON RESIDENCE: 3. Interference of in-laws 1. SORORATE- compels the widower to marry the sister or
4. Lack of husbands involvement in running the family affairs nearest kin of the deceased wife.
1. PATRILOCAL- requires the newly married couple to live 5. Sexual maladjustment 2. LEVIRATE- prescribes that a widow marry the brother or
with or near the domicile of the parents of the groom. 6. Rearing of children nearest kin of the deceased husband.
2. MATRILOCAL- requires the newly married couple to live 7. Infidelity
with or near the domicile of the parents of the bride. 8. Drunkenness or alcoholism of the husband ACCORDING to the FAMILY CODE of the Philippines the
3. BILOCAL- gives the couple a choice of staying with either 8. Wife jealousies & nagging following are the grounds for SUBSEQUENT marriage:
the grooms parents or the brides parents. 1. Upon the death of the spouse;
4. NEOLOCAL- permits the newly married couple to live 2. Upon annulment of marriage
independently of the parents of either groom or bride. 6. Marriage
5. AVUNCULOCAL- prescribes that the newly married REQUISITES OF VALID MARRIAGE:
couple reside with or near the maternal uncle of the groom. Marriage according to the Family Code of the Philippines is a 1. A valid marriage license
special contract of permanent union between a man & a 2. Legal capacity of the contracting parties who
BASED ON AUTHORITY: woman entered into in accordance with law for the must be a MALE & a FEMALE;
establishment of conjugal or family life. 3. Consent freely given
4. Authority of the solemnizing officer
5. Physical appearance of the contracting parties.
The Family Code contains provisions on LEGAL 8. Population


1. Repeated physical violence or grossly abusive conduct POPULATION is the number of people or inhabitants STRATIFICATION is the arrangement of people into a
directed against the petitioner, a common child or child of the occupying a certain geographical habitat. hierarchy of positions that define access to wealth, power,
petitioner prestige & property.
2. Physical violence or moral pressure to compel the petitioner PRESENT POPULATION: 104,404,269
to change religious or political affiliation; Male population- 52, 356,976 Theories of Stratification:
3. Attempt of respondent to corrupt or induce the petitioner or Female population- 52,047,295
any of their children to engage in prostitution; Births- 1,970, 556 1. Functionalist Theory believes that stratification
4. Final judgment sentencing the respondent to imprisonment Deaths- 550,439 encourages the efficient and effective functioning of the
of more than 6 years, even if pardoned; society that only those qualified because of their talents and
5. Drug addiction or habitual alcoholism on the part of the COMPOSITION OF POPULATION: capabilities will fill up the various positions needed for a fully
respondent; 1. AGE- refers to the relative proportion of people at various functioning society.
6. Homosexuality or lesbianism on the part of the respondent; age levels.
7. Sexual infidelity 2. SEX-refers to the proportion of males over female 2. CONFLICT THEORY - that stratification is brought about
8. Attempt by the respondent on the life of the petitioner; population. by conflicts because of the desire of the elites to preserve the
9. Contracting by the respondent of a subsequent marriage, 3. SOCIAL CATEGORIES- includes religion& place of status quo wherein they control wealth, power & authority in
whether in the Philippines or elsewhere; residence the society. Conflicts will lead to social instability & eventual
10. Abandonment of the petitioner by the respondent w/o just change of the stratification system.
cause for more than a year VARIABLES OF POPULATION:
1. FERTILITY- refers to the actual birth rate 3. SOCIAL INTERACTION THEORY - It holds that at birth,
2. MORTALITY- refers to actual death rate people are born in a hierarchy of position & socialized to
7. Religion 3. MIGRATION- the movement of people from one area to accept it because their culture made that system of
another for permanent residence. arrangement most acceptable & most beneficial to the society.
LIFE SPAN- the number of years a man is expected to live if
FUNCTIONS: he is protected as much as possible from disease & injury. 4. EVOLUTIONIST THEORY It holds that stratification is
1. Greatest source of human consolation; the result of social growth or process of evolution from a
2. It gives one a peace of mind & serves as a soothing balm to KINDS OF MIGRATION: simple to a more complex advanced society due to
him in times of crises, frustrations & miseries. 1. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION- is the movement of discoveries, inventions & modernization that will improve the
3. It reinforces support for the moral codes & gives people from one country to another. quality of life thereby eliminating the marked inequality
justification for ones behavior. Christianity considers 2. INTERNAL migration- movement of people from one part among peoples style of life, chances & social mobility.
marriage a sacrament & an inviolable institution; of the country to another for permanent residence.
4. It delineates what is right & what is wrong & prescribe a CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATIFICATION:
system of reward & punishment KINDS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: 1. It is SOCIAL because it involves relationships among 2 or
1. IMMIGRATION- the coming into a country of which the more people.
TECHNIQUES OF RELIGION: person is not a citizen for permanent residence. 2. It is UNIVERSAL- because it is found in all societies at all
1. Prayers 2. EMIGRATION- the going out from ones native country times.
2. Sacrifice for residence in another country. 3. It has COMPONENTS.
3. Divination- control by knowledge of the supernatural power 4. It has CONSEQUENCES.
4. Reverence- awe coupled with admiration which one offers FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MIGRATION: 5. It is DIVERSE in form & AMOUNT.
to the supernatural power. 1. PULL- favorable conditions that make people move in a
5. Taboo- people abstain from certain acts which are inimical given place. COMPONENTS OF STRATIFICATION:
to the desires of the God/gods. Examples: job opportunities, low crime rate 1. SOCIAL CLASS- CATEGORY OF PEOPLE WHO
6. RITUALS- prescribed ways of performing religion like 2. PUSH- unfavorable conditions that force people to move SHARE THE SAME STYLE OF LIFE, LIFE CHANCES,
singing, dancing, fasting & sacrifices. out in a given place. POWER, PRESTIGE & CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS.
7. DEITY- opposite of taboo; it attempts to please the Examples: pollution, congestion, high rate of criminality, Class consciousness- is the awareness of ones
supernatural by positive acts like good deeds, religious unemployment social class.
8. CEREMONY- body of formal sanctioned observances. KINDS OF SOCIAL CLASS:
1. UPPER CLASS- is the smallest in size
9. Political Institutions
- members uphold the highest standard of living
-satisfying their self-respect by resorting to luxurious ASCRIBED STATUS- status that a person gets as
consumption. a result of birth, sex & position like being born of a
Indulge in conspicuous giving, such as giving noble parentage.
money or donations to scholarships, local
community projects, hospitals, art centers, erecting ACHIEVED STATUS- is the position that a person
buildings & memorials with their names on it acquires because of his accomplishments, merits or
rather than pay similar amount of efforts,
Taxes & receives no credit at all. Examples: Doctors, professors, Engineers
Support good works out of a desire to square their
reputation with future generation.
Send their children to carefully selected exclusive
private schools. What matters more to them is the
prestige of the educational institution.

Are small business & industry owners & managers,
professionals, office workers & farm owners with
incomes that provide a comfortable lifestyle.
To them education is the main indicator of social
status since majority of them have less personal
Strong preference for less- paying white-collar jobs
to higher paying but less honored manual jobs.
Child- rearing practices generally revolve around
the consistent inculcation of orderliness, self-
reliance, responsibility, citizenship rights &
obligations, religious virtues & sex morality.
They provide much leadership in the organization,
management & operations.
They view education as the primary channel for
achieving a higher social status.

They are the farm employees, unskilled & skilled
workers, service workers & the underemployed,
indigent families.
They are the largest in number.
They lack income, education or training, ethnic &
family background, acquaintanceship &
communication & personal qualifications, which
are necessary for upward mobility.
They generally acquire their education from public
There is greater laxity in se morality, a tendency to
become easily prejudiced, an inclination for
authoritarian & corporal punishment in disciplining

2. SOCIAL STATUS- is the position of the individual in the

society , and it could either be ASCRIBED or ACHIEVED