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Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't.
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1977. Other requests shall be referred to
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Per USAARDEC ltr 23 Jun 1989.

THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED


,%r

F COPY NO.
-
TECHNICAL REPORT 49f1

a COPY AVAILABLE TO COG DOES NOT


PERMIT FULLY LEHILE IIC,
'U
AERODYNAMICS, DIMENSIONS, INERTIAL
PROPERTIES, AND PERFORMANCE OF

ARTILLERY PROJECTILES

HENRY E. HUDGINS, JR.

!ANUARY 1977

~~ ~.:_~ ~ ^ T:.:_
to 'Gv.. .
-m,.n . A~ge.n1cie. offly (fes n!. l.
ation; January 1977). Other requests for this document must be re.
ferred to I1
Q_ LS Army Arni.merit Peso &" l)cv Couid.
Attri: I)[DAR-T-iS
S.[ov,r,
N. J. 07801
LQJ
.___j

PICATINNY ARSENAL A
DOVER. NEW JERSEY

. .~ . ~ .. , ... -,..,.
..,. . - ,:-,.. ... a l'
The findings in this report are not to be construed
as an official Department of the Army position.

DISPOSITION

Destroy thi.s report when no longer needed. Do not


rvi.uit tv thte urigIinator.
C

/
a,

2'.
SECURITY~ CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wh-~ bet. Ent*1.d)

REPORT DOCU92NTATION PAGE aEFORE COMPLET1ING FORM


I. RLPORT NISE 2 GC.VT ACCESSION No, 3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOC NUMBER

Technical Report '4911 -

_AERODYNA S _DIMENSIONS, IjNERTIAL,)________


9 4-ROPERTIES, AND PERFORMANCE OF S, 1EF
MayR NUMBERobc
,ARTILLE RY PRO.JECTILES
7. LIHOR( a aeGRN UBR.

/ D ----- AMG~C4oS(qe
VHenry E. udgins, J7 672701.4'2.H-93H1-8.01
P-ERFORMING ORGSANIZATION NAME AND ADORIESS 10. PROGRAM CLEMENT. PROJEFCT, TASK
Feitrman Research Laboratory
Picatinny Arsenal
Dover, NJ 07801
11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS I' EPOR L.AL_

Massachusetts Institute of Technology JanM E77


Lincoln Laboratory. PO Box 73 04 .NM

ITM-NiZTVRIf0AGEN"CY NAME A AODRESS(lf diI.f1-.tI frm Cmt-CMI1og0111c.) I5. SECURITY CLLi.SS. (.f ttle 1.pfto)

- Unclassified

1S. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of MS. RopoI)


Distribution limited to US Government agencies only (test and evaluatiur;
January- 1977) Other requests for this document must b5e
-reTerredto P
US ARMY AaRMAM8,NT 11"S. DEVO COMIJ.
Attn: LURUAA-*ThS 4
I- flISTRIOUTlONS4 f~jkvT re. Dover, J~. 07801

DimnsinsDispersion Firing tables Guidance


Inertial properties Sensitivity Lethality Projectiles
Performance Zoning Vulnerability Artillery
At WO.- .d 1 1 St~ybr b.-k,WFWJ)
NANIT'AACT (r-Wllo
-'he best available aeroballistic information on currently fielded and in-dlevelopmen
US Army artillery projectiles (105mm and up) for indirect fire has been collected or
generated and is discussed in the main report. The aeroballistic data includes:
dimensions and inertial properties, zoning, compacted firing tables, dispersion, sen-
sitivity coefficients, aerodynamic coefficients estimates, and a bibliography of lethal-
ity and vulnerability. A bibliography and available data on guided lrjcie

DD " 0 "~T umQ


-nown or 9 or.S
i~so e wL~ vi
U73 UNCLA .,FIlED
%LhCEJN'TY CLAMSFVCATJt M4IU TtlS PA12 (U11.-.DIN. Entm~d)
I IN A--1 = F--
I- - - --

SSECURITY
CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOE(Whhm Does 19PEW040

,": /20. ABSTRACT (contd) vie,

- aerodytiamics is also presented. A similar effort for Soviet munitions is reported


in the addendum to this report also includes classified data on US weapon
systems.

UNCLASSIFIED
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAQ9g(u1. 0.1.
DOM

!)
I,,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Many people coopera in


ted prc ,:ding tne ir ,f'-mation collc in
rted
this report and its addendum. major
"he contribL:tors by o-gi.nization
were: Aeroballistics Bra,-:h of the Feltman Re' t.arch
Lab, ,ratory,
Ammuntion Development and Engineering Dire ,-to-ate,
Nuclear Develop-
ment and Engineering Virectorate and the Foreign Intellgence Offce,
all at Picatinny Arsenal, and the Exterior Ballistics Laboratcry of the
Ballistic Research Lanorztories, AMC Foreign Science and Technology
Center, Yuma Froviny Grounr's, the US Army Field Artillery School,
and Edgewood A.senal.

.. .. ..JJ..
. ......

III
NO MENCLATURE

A projectile reference area, n d2/4


a speed of sound
CG SPIN73 label - center of gravity. calibers from nose
C2 rolling moment coefficient, Q/1/2pV 2 Ad
CLP SPIN73 label - see Lquation 6
C pitchin. moment coefficient, m/ (1/2pV 2 Ad)
m
CMA SPIN73 label - see Equation 3
CMQ SPIN73 label - see Equation 3
CN normal force coefficient, N/(I/2pV2A)
Cn yawing moment coefficient, n/ (I/ 2pV 2 Ad)
C' Magnus contribution to C
nS n
CNA SPIN73 label - see Equation 2
CNPA SPIN73 label - see Equation 5
CNPA3 SPIN73 label - see Equation 5
CNPA5 SPIN73 labei - see Equation 5

CNPA[5] SPIN73 label - Magnus moment secant slope per radian


at 50 total angle of attack
CPF [11] SPIN73 label - center of pressure of Magnus force,
calibers from nose at 10 total angle of attack
CPF[bj SPIN73 label - center of pressure of Magnus force,
calibers from nose at 50 angle of attack
CPN SPIN73 label - center of pressure of normal force,
calibers from nose
CX SPIN73 label - zero total angle of attack axial force
coefficient, see Equation 1

C axial force coefficient, X/ (1/2PV 2 A)


x
CX2 SPIN73 label - see Equation 1
CYPA SPIN73 label - see Equation 4

C Side force coefficient, Y/ (1I/2pV 2 A)


Y
C" Magnus contribution to C
v y
At."

d projectile referenCe d&ameter


IA axial moment of inertia of p-nje'Atile about Fxis of
sym'.etr'y
transverse moment of inertia of projectile anout c.g.
IX SPIN73 iabe' - IA

IY SPN73 labe -
L projectile over-all length
2. rohling moment
m pitching momert about c.g
M Mach number, V/a
N normal force
n yawing moment about z.g.
p zipin rate
P r,on-dimensionel spin rate, pd/2V
q pitch rate

Q non-dimensional pitch rate, qd/2V


r yaw rate
R non-dimensional yaw rate rd/2V, or range
V flight velocity
W projectile weght
X axial force

Xcg axial distance from projectile nose to center of gravity,


calibers
Y side force
( total angle of attack
p air density
TABLE OF CGNTENTS

;-l U-O,.jUCtio F,
Page No .

D;scjssion

AerobdIlistic Charactcristics
1
Weapon-: and Projectiles

Projcclile Dimcnsions and Inertial


Properties 5
Zoning
5
Di.zpersion
20
Aerncynamic Coe~ficients
24
Trujectories nnd Firing "les-25

Contrcl Ae,'ooallistic 3
26
T er rm
ii al Ballistics
27
Lethality and Vqllnerabiiity
27
Sensitivity Coefficients
28
Conclusions and Recommendations
31
References
32
Bibliographies

1. Control Aerodynamics Analytical


Bibliography 35
2. Control Aerodynamics Experimental
Bibliograp' y 36
3. LetChality and Vulnerability
Bibliography 38

Kt
j
Append ixes

A Compacted Firing Tables or Simulations 55

Tables .

A-1 M30 mortar, 4.2-inch, firing M329A1 57

A-2 M30 mortar, L4.2-inch, firing M329A2 (M329AIE1) 60

A-3 MI01, M101A1 howitzer, 105mm, firing MI 63

A-4 M102 howitzer, 105mm, firing M1 70

A-5 M102 howitzer, 105rmim, firing M548 77

A-6 XM204 howitzer, 165mm, firing MI 83

A-7 M109 howitzer, 155mm, firing M107 85

A-8 Ml090 ,o.itz.r, 55mn-, fi;r:, ,,,

A-9 M109 howitzer, 155mm, firing M454 105

A-10 M109 howitzer, 155mm, firing XM718 108

A-11 M109A1 howitzer, 155mm, firing M107 11II

A-12 M109A1, XM198 howitzers, 155mm, firing M483AI 121

A-13 M1I9A1, XM198 howitzers, 155mm, firing XM715-2 129

A-14 M109A1, XrAi.;8 howitzers, 155mm, f;rirg XM708E3 131

A-15 M107 self-propelled gun, 17Smm, firing 133


M437A1, M437A2

A-16 Ml10 self-propelled how!zer, 8-inch, 136


fir. ig M106

A-17 Ml10 self-propelled h-,vitzcr, 8-inch, 143


firing M424

kI
-., ......->.
,:_
.. ,=, .......
A-18 M110 self-p-opelled hkuwi~zer, 8-jt.czh, 146
firing XM711

A-1 9 M110 self- .-)ropeIled hovvt-'er. 3-inch, 147


firina XM6SuE4

A-20~ M110 self-propelled hc~witzer, 8-inch, 149


firing 'IM75.3

A-21 Ml110F2 self-propcli -d howitzer. &-.incl. . 5:


firing~ XM7'I

A,-?2 M1 1 OE2 :,elf-propellkd itowitzer, 8-inch, 158


1i ino' (M 61. 3E4

A-2? M1iOE. seil-propelleJ ho-vitzer, 8-inch, 159


f>,ryj XM753
B SPIN7.1 `retV,;ted A,2rodynariic Coefficients 169

t. 4.-'- .nch M329AI without extension- 171,

` -2 4.2-inch M'Z9A1 wiz,- eAtension 172

E,- 3 4.2-ir.cn M328AI wichout xtensicn 173

B.-,: .2-i.-ich Mi28AI with uxtension 174

3-5 4.2-inch M3.10.i wit;hu.41 excension 1-5

E-C 4.2- 11ch~ M335A1 w,i, extensioi, 176

6-7 ~4. 2-inch M32f'A2 'A32,,A~r.1) 17,7

Li-G 105mmr Mi (VI!E) 178

F,-9 1O5mry %,60tWP;j 179

13-10 1Q&,nm M60 (96% or sw~oke) 180

3-11 3.5mm MC4, 131 BE 1{,rnok2)j 181


4.

B-12 105mm M314A1EI (ilium) 182

B-13 105mm M444 (ICM) 183

B-IP '05mm XM710 (ICM) 184

B-15 105mm M548EI (RA off) 185

B-16 105mm M548E1 (RA on, launch) 186

B-17 105mm M548E1 (RA after burn-out) 187

B-18 155mm M107 (HE) 188

B-19 1 55min Ml10 (WP) 189

B-2i) 155mm MI10 (Gas) 190

B 21 155min M116 (wht smoke) 191

B-22 155mm MI16 (cird smoke) 192

B-23 155rm t.121, M121AI (chemical) 193

B-24 155mm M485E1, M485E2 (ilium) 194

'3-25 155mm M449FFI ICM) 195

B-26 155mm M449E2 (ICM) 196

B-27 155mm M482EI (ICM) 197

B-28 1 55mm XM703E2 (HE) 198

B-29 155mm XM70BE3 (h:) 199

B-30 155mm XM549 (RA, iaunch) 200

B-31 15Smm XM549 (RA, after burn-outj 201

B-32 155mnr, XM454 (atomic) 202


B-33 155mm XM718/XM7'41 (AV) 203

B-3'1 155mm XiA692/XM731 (AP) 204

B-35 155mm XM687 (blk can) 205

1-36 175mm M437A1, M437A2 (HE) 206

B-37 8- Inch M106 (HE) 207

B-38 8-Inch M426 (chemical. 208

13-31 8-Inch M422 (atomic) 209

B-40 8-Inch M424 (atomic spt) 210

B-41 8-Inch M404 (1CM) 211

III,,.C It ,, L I ,..~
LI- ",L U go~1 l~Jv3LI I I-l
%_ot )

B-43 8-Inch XM650E4 (RA, lau:;ch) 213

B-44 3-Inch XM65OE4 (RA, after burn-out) 214

B-45 8-Inch XM711 (HE) 215

B-46 8-;nch XM753 (atomic RA, launch) 216

B-47' 8-Inch XM753 (atomic RA, after burn-out) 217

B-48 8-Inch XM736 (blk can) 218

C Cannon--Launched Guided Projectile Aerodynamic Data 219

XM712 AD configuration 219

Figures

I (Not used in this excerpt from another report) 225

2 Pitching moment and yawing moment due 226


to roll commanco
4k

3 Pitching moment and yawing moment due 227


to roll command

4 Pitching moment and yawing moment due 228


to roll command

5 Pitching mome-nt and yawing momer.t due 229


to roll command

6 Roll power 230

7 Axis system and sign convention 231

8 Longitudinal stability, M = 0.4, = 000 232

9 Longitudinal stability, M = 0.4, I = 450 233

10 Longitudinal stability, M = 0.8, 4 = 0P 234

11 Loncgitudinal stability, M = 0.8, s = 45' 235

12 Longitudinal stability, M = 1.0, 0 = 00 236

13 Longitudinal stability, M = 1.0, = 450 237

14 Longitudinal stability, M = 1.3, 0 = 0 238

15 Longitudinal stability, M = 1.3, 0 = 450 239

16 1'F:ching moment due to strake S5, 4 = 00 240

17 Pitching moment due to strake S5, 4 = 450 241

18 Longitudinal stability, M = 1.8 242

19 Axial forc_, 4 450, a = 0, 62 4 = 00, altitud& 243


-4000 ft

20 Axial force M = 0.4, 4 = 00, altitude 244


S"1000 ft

21 Axial force M 0.4, 4 = 45, altitude 245


- 4000 ft
:3

S. .... ,,, =,
.._,.-.
,-,. <,i, . . . ...
il~ i,<l
22 Axial force M = 0.8, - 00,
P 246
altitude = 4000 ft

23 Axial force M = 0.8, 0 =450, 247


altitude = 4000 ft

24 Axial force M = 1.0, @ = 00, 248


altitude = 4000 ft

25 Axial force M = 1.0, @ = 45J, 249


altitude = 4000 ft

26 Axial force M = 1.3 & 1.8, = 0", altitude 250


=4000 ft, 8 1 3 = 82 4 = 0
I I

27 Axial force M = 1.3 & 1 .8, * = 450, altitude 251


= 4000 ft, 8 1 3 -82 4 = 0
1 1

28 Roll power, C , 4 = 00 252

29 Roll power, Cj, @ = 450 253

30 Induced roll coefficient, Moo 0.4 254

31 Induced roll coefficient. Moo- 0.8 255

32 Induced roll coefficient, M-o = 1.0 256

33 Pitch dampinng A 0= 257

34 Roll damping, C , a = 00 258


P
p

C Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Aerodynamic Data 259

XM712 ED configuration 259

Geometry and Mass Properties 261

Aerodynamic Properties 261


1i

pI
Figures

35 Geometry and mass properties 263

36 Normal force coefficient slope versus Mach number 264

37 Pitching moment coefficient slope versus Mach number 265

38 Center of pressure versus Mach number 265

39 Axial force coefficient versus Mach number 266

40 Axial force coefficient breakdown 266

41 Incremental axial force coefficient versus 267


fin deflection, M = 0.5

42 Incremental axial force coefficient versus 267


fin deflection, M = 0.8

43 Incremental axial force coefficient versus 267


fin deflection, M = 1.0

44 Pitch and yaw damping deri,/atives versus 268


Mach number

45 Roll damping derivative 268

46 Fin power in pitch and yaw versus Mach number 269

47 Normal force and side force coefficient slope 269


with fin deflection versus Mach number

L'8 Roll power versus Mach nuL-iber 270

49 Trimmed load factor and CNtrim versus 270


pitch fin deflection

D Cannon-Launched Guided Projectiles Recommended


Wind-Tunnel Test Programs

Canard-controlled fixed-tail design 271

;. i
Fixed-wing tail-controlled design 285

Distribution List 301

Tables

1 Currently active fielded projectiles (US) 3

2 Projectiles in development (US) 4

3 Dimensions and inertial properties of 6


4.2 inch projectiles

4 Dimensions and inertial properties of 7


105mm p'ojectiles

5 Dimensions and inertial properties of 8


155mm projectiles

6 Dimensions and inertial properties of 175mm 10


projectiles, M437AI, M437A2

7 Dimensions and inertial properties of 11


0 inch projectiles

8 Zoning solutions - muzzle velocity (m/s), 12


4.2-inch mortar, M30

9 Zoning solutions - muzzle velocity (m/s), 13


1751 mmn gun, MI07

10 Zoning solutions - muzzle velocity (m/s), 14


155mm systems

11 Zoning solution, muzzle velocities, 175mm system 16


(self-propelled gun, M107, projectile M437A1, A2)

12 Zoning solutions, mu7zle velocity (m/s), 17


8-inch systems

13 Rocket assisted projectile thrust data 19

$~
14 Field artillery cannon-type weapon systems 22

15 Approximate relationship between squares 30


and weight

Figures

1 Definition of quantities describing projectile 41


geometry and inertial properties

2 M101A1 (105mm) MPI probable error firing 42


MI HE projectile

3 M109 (155mm) MPI probable error firing 43


M107 HE projectile

4 M109 (155mm) MPI probable error firing 44


M549 RA projectile

5 M109A1 (155mm) MPI probable error firina 45


M107 HE projectile

6 M11 0 (203mm) MPI probable error firing 46


M106 HE projectile

7 M107 (175mm) MPI probable error firing M437E2 47


HE projectile

8 XM712 ballistic and FUFO trajectory option, 48


XMI98 howitzer

9 Shallower approach angle of FUFO compared to 48


ballistic trajectory of same range

10 Ballistic trajectory maneuver bounds, 49


12km nominal range

11 FUFO trajectory maneuver bounds, 49


12km nominal range

12 FUFO range extension for XM198 howitzer 50

t
II
13 Maximum FUFO guided range, XM198 howitzer 51

14 Minimum range trajectories with M109A1 52


howitzer, charge 4

15 Minimum range trajectories with XM198 53


howitzer, charge 4

16 Trajectory flexibility due to FUFO and 54


high/low QE options

17 Engagement probability, ballistic and FUFO 54

t.t
4~~*
INTRODUCTION

This study was undertaken to provide an aeroballistic data base for


Project HOWLS (Hostile Weapons Location System) , an ARPA initiated task
administered by the Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute o0'
Technology. The term aeroballistic here is used in a very broad sense as
the study was initially intended to cove- both US and USSR projectile
characteristics: dimensions and inertial properties, trajectories, zoning,
dispersion, and aerodynamic coefficients; control aerobal I istics: experi-
mental and analytical statusof spinning projectiles with aerodvnami,: con-
trel ";:irftce' (especially canards); present and orojected fuze d.:mions;
qun launch environments and hardenina capabilities (especially sensors);
and terminal ballistics and effects: lethality, vulnerability, and sensi-
tivity coefficients.

The tasks discussed above were to have been completed by the end
of January 1976 (nine months from the starting date of 1 May) . Changes
in FY 1976 funding for the entire HOWLS program resulted in Lincoln
Laboratory requesting in September that work be halted at that point and
t11di Wn1diever had been accomplished tip to that point be reported.

In order to make this rep,'),-, more widely useable, it has been divided
into a main report and an addendum. The main report contains no classified
information. All of the classified information is in th,: addendum; this in-
cludes some range information on US rounds currently being developed
and all of the information on Soviet munitions.

The reprogramming of funds by the HOWLS Proj ec, sponsor resulted in


funding being dire'ted to other tasks than this one. 'The cffect of this is dis-
cussed where appropriate in this report. A useful data base has been created
which can be extended to its tull capability at a later time.

DISCUSSION

Aeroal listic Characteristics

Weapons and Projectiles

The main published sources of information on US Army weapons in


use at the present time and the plans for the future are References 1 and
2. These references should certainly be obtained as part of the overall
program.

I1
The indirect fire weapons currently considered to be active (some
reserve units and US allies may still be using others) are:

1. 4.2 inch: M30 Mortar,

2. 105mm: MI01A1 Towed Howitzer, M102 Towed Howitzer


(air mobile); M108 Self-Propelled Howitzer (only in some active National
Guard and US Army Reserve units)

3. 155mm: M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer (conversion to M109A!


expected to be completed by FY 1976, one-half had been converted as of
October 1974), M109A1 Self-Propelled Howitzer, Ml14A1 r'owed Howitzer;

4. 175mm: M107 Self-Propelled Gun (wiil be phased out when


M110E2 is available)

5. 8-inch: Ml10 Self-Propelled Howitzer.

The future mix of weapons is expected to be:

1. 4.2 inch: M30 Mortar

2. 105mm: XM204 Towed Howitzer

3. 155mm: XM198 Towed Howitzer, M109A1 Self-Propelled


Howitzer

4. 8-inch: M110E2 Self-Propelled Howitzer

The various types of indirect fire projectiles currently being used


in and supplied to the field for these different weapons systems were
determined from a variety of sources. Among these souwces were:
Department of the Army publications (Ref 3-17), Ammunition Dev3lopment
and Engineering Directorate (ADED) at Picatinny Arsenal, Ballistic
Research Laboratories, Edgewood Arsenal, and the US Army Field Artillery
School. The results are shown in Table 1.

2
Table I
Currently active fielded projectiles (US)"

Bore size Projectile designation Type


M329AI High Explosive (HE)
4.2 Inch M329AIE1 HE
(Mortar) M328,6,1 White Phosphorus (WP)
M335A1 Illuminator (Ilium)

M1 HE
M60 Gas
MGO Smoke
105mm M60 WP
M314A2E1 Ilium
M444 Improved Conventional Munition
01CM)
M548 HE, Rocket Assisted (RA)

M107 HE
Milo Gas
Milo WP
M1 21A1 Chemical
155mm M485EI, E2 Ilium
M449, El, E2 1CM
M549 HE, RA
M454 Atomic
M483A1 ICM

175mm M437A1, A2 HE

M106 HE
ML426 Chemical
8-Inch M404 ICM
M422 Atomic
M424 HES

aThe corresponding available data for Soviet weapons and projectiles is


in Table IA of the Addendum.
US projectiles not yet released or still under development are listed
in Table ,

9 K
3
Io
Table 2
Projectiles in development (US)

Bore size Projectile designation Type


105mm XM710 ICM

XM70SE2, E3 HE
XM718/741 AT (antitank)
155mm XM692/731 AP (antipersonnel)
XM687 Bulk Cannister
XM712 Cannon Launched Guided Projectile
(CLGP)

XM650E4 HE, RA
XM711 HE
8-Inch XM509 1CM
XM736 Bulk Cannister
XM753 Atomic, RA

4 3
Projectile Dimensions and !nevtioi Ptec-perties

This section prcser-ts thr. best dat.7 c~irrently av..ailrile. Thley


represent cont.-ibutions fromn many sect"Jll, of Picalinny Arsena!, Ballistic
Research Laboratorics, Yuma Provinci (roura ., ani 1-dg,:--wocd Arsenal.
It must be realized that bct.,i production ano d.ieliapmnefal projoctiles,
change in these charactt~ristics. Maniy o thc. tielsed ar,6 stoclk-piled pro-
jectiles were ae'ieloped at a trrna whe,) close atte.ntk-ti 110 shzp~- and incrtial
properties was not considered n~ecessary anci tnerefore the ireaseremernts
available are both la~w in number and old (Ref 18l and 19) , rodL'C-tiotl
lots also vary in '*ese characteristics due both'o 1
ru-mn-inv chancies r-ade
over the years and! changes in the method of r 1a71_1faCtL rf- and of maoufacturer.
The developmental projectiles are exactly that and, hence-, a! e suibJect to
changes in properties during the devLiopment cycle. iAt Of thl!F is iri
addition, in both the above cases, to t~ie normal dlevia~inns to be e~xper.ted
from round to round. All values given re th nomninal values
Wilh these caveats in mind, the p-. ojectile dimensions and inertiEJ
properties are given in Table 3 to 7. The proper-ties listed are :is d-f-ned
in Figure 1. The tabulated dimensions are ail given in caliber!s ((ccflteC of
gravity is from the nose, where nose means the tip of the fuze and an
exterior length of :3. 'S inches; wdt used four thec fuzP1 except for thp. shell
diameter (DIA) which is given in inches. Weight is liabulated in pounds
and the moments of inertia are in pounds-inches squared. A faw. Shell
which are being or have been deleted from the inventory and, their eore,
do not appear in Table 1 are included in these tables to prov-de a mot e
complete data bank.

The data for Soviet projectiles are presented in Table 2A which is in


the classified Addendum to this report.

OhngeabTofe
hears the nomenclature in this area used loosely and inter-
chaneabl. Tobe exact, a "Charge" is a standardized amnount of a par-
tclrpropellant which produces a desired muzzle velocity for the pro-
jecileandweapon under consideration. A "Zone" is the distarce on the
grond etwenthe range at maximum range quadrant elevation aod the
rag tmaximum quadrant elevation for a given charge, proj-ctile, and

weapo5
0 In '. N ~ a -

(N'T 4N C-'o I C)m0a(-j O-

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CL r- -4 1,- - ) 0

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X 0'o -. r -D

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"co
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O
NO' .
'-N
0)4
e
N>o.

.04w C0 0nN a

00 o

enc r N- m

0* r Iq 0 (4 -

0 )
u)

t co "rN.(

e. 0 n co4

o~c e m. 0n

N 10 0-

enn

I p- 7 ~ ~ ~ 0 (
a'
:L '-
I--

--- C) C3 in n.
ei IV
'-- -
N.0Z; ~~ ~
- 0 ~ . ' -'

(' "V UV 0 'n 0

CPC

0) ~mI ur-
IN o'CO
c-
I
'Ca 1t II 'in 0- I

a-
1' n'-.r c-

ia C II j -0 in' I
a'
II a' -

ttH
II C, a'

S -'--'- - Q'
(
__________
a'
I
CC '7i'. a'i'n I

f-I Ia' .2
inc
K
cC-
i

dcv

-t-o

U a'
cOO inn '7'.

- Ii
7 V' .2
-

U0
In
*,c
H
(U
0- nr "cC

I-'

<I
li
_TilL_.r' I 0 ''0 0

'7 ? in 0' - a' 0 C iCin 'in C"

a' a' a' cc. a' 0 a v o a' a a-" c-a icr i-ca'
a' in i-i a -r in 'a 3' (, Q 0 iDa no iic.'i 't

in Ci
Ci in in 'V
' CL

_________________ iic -'a- -"-'

9 A

I'
AI

Table 6
Dimensionz and inertial propertieeof 175mm
projectiles, M437A1, M437A2

LOA, cal 5.48

OGL 2.93

BTL 1.00

XCG (nose) 3.50

DMP 0.080

DRB 1.032

OGR 25.0

BML 0.00

DBA 0.713

DBM, cal 0.00

DIA, inches 6.885


(meters) (0. 1749)

2 954.
IA, lb-in
(kg-m ) (0.279)

IT, lb-in2 11800.


(kg-m ) (3.45)

WGT, lb 147.8
(N) (657.4)

*See Fig 1 far definitions.

10
o T3 04 0'

0 NO 040 c I-.n o

77T ~iY0 C' 1:'3

".04~ 0 03 *

o CD 0 0 o * 44 C0

'M'x 043 0
Table 8

Zoning !olutions - muzzle velocity (m/s),


4.2-inch mortar, M30

CHARGE EXTENSION M328A1 r4335AI M329A1 M329A2


(INCREMENTS) (M329AIE1)

5 No 109 110 108 NA


10 145 145 144
151 181 ].81 180
20 217 217 216
254/8 No 255 253 256

25 4/8 Yes 229 230 227


30 250 251 248
35 273 274 271

41 Yes 298 297 299 NA

0 NA NA A NA.9
5
I, A 1 1I40.6-, I
10 178.5
15 21l., G
20 241.3
25 268.5
30 294.4
34 NA NA NA NA 314.9

M329A2 uses a different set than the others. Not all


increments are shown for both sets.

12
"p~
'-4T

CD
IT z
0c '
z
0000
ZZq
m ti) e Cu0 0 oo (,I; r u'W
)Ma'. I O
c C ('Lf *0~ ON (or OC4 L( `-4 w N I, z
In H C,4 (NCl' ,4cq (- m m cr tnLk LnO

0 4
r-~ kC'D
,r-~ c 0a t- o t-mNI Q a,.H m4 C~(ID I1
1 1 c
O' ~~~~~~c
~ N ar-
N-~r Oo- c0o o

kD r DC-1
4 -N0-4NCNN
4Mo MV%-It I Nnm-Iv 1
MM I

x I

cnmI

iu'~' jm frI-U- LH -~~r 'mj I 1-- ILlC I

'I-C14(4 (1 N N C'(

OO(4 OO N OO 4 OQ" C14 ' OCA ' c!Ct "

1 C-.4 HH (N C., o

-' W- I -4 ;r 0

' -. I'-

13
I

4)

04 04 10
V 0 '0 0
04 04 .4,

04 OlIn 04 0404 0 0404 04

04 0 0 ('
0 04 04 04 lfl 1.-I V 0410 V
1< 004 N 0.-I 13 0410 In

10
040 04 NV V 04V In In N04U10 In
10 04 VV N 0404 04 0104 10 0404 N
In 0401 04 0404 0401 V

04

04.-I
'004

42E 'C 0404 04 V04

EU,>1.
LI*
in
04
- 0404 0InC'CNOOInInIP .- - o' 043' -

-Y---'f-t----t
0, N1 N 0404 0404V00431 04

-04
K 2 0 0404 040404

IT
0404 0404 V

I .1%

04
c -, 04

N 10
- 0404 V 04N .0404 In 10Q040404 V
0404 04 ON 04 VIP 0 InN 04 00 0
04 01.-I *1 0404 In NI 04 Il '0 r I IC
V 0404 04 0404 04 0401 04 0404 04 0404 V
0

LL ' II I
0U, o
C --

C N 0404 04 NP N 04V V 010 0 0404 In


0 -4 N" 04 OP N InN 04 N04 In
N 0 Q1'01I0.0..INNN 0

- 1
04 10 04 .0 04 .0 1004 04 0404
10 0404 0404 0404 0404 0404 0404 0404 0404 0404 0404
'.. 00 0-4 00 0.-I 00 i-I 00 0.-I 00 0-4

01

.4 0 404 04
04 -I 04
fl,.
-
I*
a t4
13.0 .0 II.

________________ ____________ I.
0?

114

5.

-* - -... .. .- - -
V 'IRVI'IddV JflN

02 20.fl V(N 4)0 (04) N 212(12 02 20


.0.0
V(N 2002 0202 02 02 02.4 U) Za 2
NO) .- 2(N NO) (fl(N 02 1220 N 02
(N(N mM (Nfl 002 In 112(12 '0 20

0202 .1202 0' V(N 0 020


0 .r- QO)

212 NO) 2NV NO) NO .4 2-2-- 0 Z02


02 (N (N ((2212 20.0 0202 20 12212 N V

'I
(N
'1' I
.2
.4 I

'0(N I

02
N V
I
I

P 7K'
.--i9201IJL.
U)(N 0 U) 20

02m
0)20 020 1202 N 0.-2(N212N 002.4
'0o' 020 '002 0202 02 0202 20 7.20
(N (N fir) fit') 0202 12 U)U) 20 V 02

02

t -

(V
0
* (N '0 (N (N2 022, N 020 112
'00) 2112 00 -412) 0.4 V '0
22- '002 .4(N' NO. .020 0 '0N 02 (N
02 (N(N (NI') (N(N 0202 20 flU) 20 '0 02

111
7.

7. 2.3

(N r-'0

12202
(N(N
O'O.

.. 4(N
(NM
V(N

NO)
(Nfl
0212)

'ON
02
02
0
'0
____

002
(Nfl
'020
4)212
-
(N
02
'0
002
7.0)
--I-.
fi

'0
0
7.

N
.4 -2 .4 - 4 .' a -4

0202 0222- 0202 .3202 0202 0)02 021) 0202


00 00 00 .4.4 00 04 00 04

7.7. 7.7. Zk 7.7. 7. 7.7.

1.2 -. - - .-. -.
0 (N (N (N (N 0 (N 0 0' 0
'0 '( 7. .C (N 7.* (N -' (N
'C (NV 402 4)02 WV 204' f-V N7. 02.-I 027
7. 7. _ 7. 2.2 7.

I 2.1 - .- - - _ -.- -

15 4
Table 11
Zoning solution, muzzle velocities, 175mm system
(self-propelled gun, M107, projectile M437A1, A2)

CHARGE MUZZLE VELOCITY


(mls)

IG 510.5
(XM124)

1w 510.5
(M86A1, A2)

2W 704.1
(M86AI, A21%

3W 914.4
(M86A1, A2)

16
A lo

r
X0

0 r: - OCo
a'1
o" t' 0oi (CJ 0 a~W
0-c )
in :v -: Nr ONJ ''l 0 r4 (N~IT M fl
0'z Z't3u 27
NJC\IN (11 N)
4CN mC'M '.',1 Ln Lr)kD '0 '

in N- -4

7 J NN N0 M oi
( N

e~n

(Ne ,-r- O L

I.- an 1 inin
1'i M C-)'T 0 0)4if 0I COl
OO z m Z fl)
N Lri C1 (N CN 04 (N N Inr' ~Ln
T A LnL in

0 (7) n 0 a--I r- N -1 oNr ijC


NY r n
'IT 0
cO0 4 ~ 1 Ln4 C
-4 CN
4''
O 00
--4 'I m CoN
~Ln
-I
mo
Lin
zZO0
Nto
0C~(mNr~

o ~ Coi ~ C mM n n n v~rC~ oO ~ a

on
L V 0 Cr 0) 0' v 0f ~ Cin Cod
0 N 00 0
1(C C'0 l' LA
Ln Nni N N
CC7 r
C'Jn (N(-

(Nc N (N ( -T (N (NT (N r(N (N

r4 0
0

C14~( N-4C1 l (N4


C4

00 00 . 00 00 00 00co0) Co
14 1'
- - 1 -1 rf -4
1-4 (N1 (N q (N -1 H 4

r-4 (N

I(34
~ rln LAn mE inD N- Co-4 (3 0

17
A Cha,-ge is usualiy also identified by a one or two character alpha-
numeric code tor ease of referencing (firing tables, etc.) . Quite often there
is more than one type of propellant (the difference can be in either compo-
sition or shape or both) used in the same weapon system. These types
have an official designation also. For example, the 155mm M109A1 Howitzer
currently uses three such propellant types designated as: M3AI, M4A4,
and M119. There are five different amounts of the M3A1 propellant used
and identified as Charges IG through 5G; five different amounts of the
M4A2 propellant identified as Charges 3W to 7W; and the M119 propellant
has one charge, Charge 8.

A zoning solution for a weapon system has as its main goal the
assurance of a range over-lap between the zones of adjacent charges or,
at the very least, the avoidance of a gap. Quite often practical aeroballistics
will also affect these solutions since all shell have some Mach number and
quadrant elevation regions where they exhibit lower performance than
over most other regions. A judicious selection of launch velocities can
often help alleviate the effect of such flight regimes and therefore decrease
dispersion and increase effective range.

It can be seen that a zoning solution consists of a set of muzzle


velocit~es which, in turn, determines the charge (type and amount) for a
specific weapon and projectile.

These zoning solutions have been tabulated for US weapon systems


from the 4.2 inch Mortar to the 8-inch Howitzers in Tables 8 to 12. These
are based on References 3 to 17 and data provided by Firing Tables Branch,
BRL; Yuma Proving Ground; numerous sections of the Ammunition Develop-
ment and Engineering Division, Picatinny Arsenal, and Edgewood Arsenal.
Note that the 4.2 inch Mortar difters from regular artillery weapons in hav-
ing only three quadrant elevations and many muzzle velocities (charge
increments) . Thus, Table 8 has only selected charge increments. If a
complete tabulation is needed, they can be found in References 3 and 4.
The zoning solutions that are available for Soviet weapon systems are in
Table 3A in the classified addendum to this report and so is classified
data on US projectiles.

Rocket assisted projectiles (RAPs) require more than their launch


velocity to be specified in order to predict their range and, hence, their
zones. Therefore, the necessary remaining information beyond that in
the inertial properties tables for before and after burning and the aero-
dynamic coefficients in Appendix 13 are presented here in Table 13 for US
RAPs (insufficient data is available on Soviet RAPs).
41

18
*

Table 13
Rocket assisted projectilc thrust data

Delay timea Burn time Thrust Drag form factor


Projectile (sec) (sec) (Ib) (during burning)

M548 14. 2.3 92.5 1.00


M549 7. 2.5 558.0 1.00
XM650E4 7. 3.0 786.5 0.96
XM753 7. 3.0 786.5 0.96

aTime from launch to motor ignition

19

O II
Zoning information for the XM712 is also available from the trajectory
data in that section of this report and in the zoning section of the Addendum.

Dispersion

The US Army has standardized upon the probable error as the


measure of dispersion. Range and deflection dispersion are treated as
separate one-dimensional problems. Since a probable error in range or
deflection is defined as the distance on both sides of the mean point of
impact (MPI) which together will include (in a statistical sense) 50% of
the rounds fired, a one-dimensional probable error is 0. 6745 of the un-
biased standard deviation.

These probable errors, range and deflection, are tabulated in


References 3 to 17 in their supplementary data tables. They are also shown
in the probable error columns in the compacted firing tables in Appendix A
of this report.

"Firing tab!e" values are usually the smallest measure of dispcrsior.


Various other measures of dispersion are thoroughly discussed in Reference
1 and the pertinent excerpt is included here verbaLiim. The only changes
have been to include some curves of the "firing table" values (these are
labeled "precision" since they conform to that definition in Reference 1) on
their graphs and to adjust figure and reference nomenclature.

"One of the most confusing field artiilery performance


characteristics is the delivery accuracy. Table 14 lists both
the precision and MPI probable errors for conventional and
extended range projectiles. Precision is the scatter of burst
points about the mean point of impact (MPI) of a group of
rounds fired from a single weapon on a sine occasion from
a single site. The MPI is the mean range and mearn deflection
of a set of impact points. If the rounds are fuzed for ?ir
bursts, the mean burst height is also included. The MPI
is not necessarily the aimpoint or target. The probable
error in precision is usually expressed in meterz, (m)
measured from the MPI ;f, for example, at a certain
range 50 Percent of the projectiles fa!l between the mean
range plus 10 m and the mean range minus 10 m, the
precision probable error in range is 10 m at that specified
range. The listed precision errors are given in units of
percent range (range at which measurement is valid) and

20
mils deflection. The values given are average values th;'.t
may Occur between 75 percent of maximum weapon range
and inaxinmum range at the top charge. For instance, Table
1it Ii,ts 0.21 percent range and 0.65 mils a, thz! precision
error for the Mi~lAl howitzer firing conventional munitions;3
therefore, the precision probable error in range at iraximur.a
range ('11.0 km) is 23. 1 m and the precision probablIe error
in deflection at the sam'Q range is 7.0 m. At 75 percent
maximum range (8250 in], the precision probable range and
dclofction t_rors are 17.3 and 5.3 m, respectivoly. The
listed pre-cision data are not applicable to ranges Iless than IS
percent maximum weapon range (precision error v's range
is non! inaar) or to chi rg;2s (zones) other chan top cnaroy.

To describe a more -cal~stic delivery 3cciiracy, the


mean point of impact (MPI) error is used. The MPI error Is
defined z's the scatter of MPIs about an airnooint. The aim-
point is not necessarily the targct, there may be an unknown
tarovi loca Liof error-. Precision errors are cei7.ed primarily
by inherent errors in z single weapon and ammunition Sy"!:inr
but MPI errors are caused by system errors such as imperfoct
aiming procedures and erroneous metcoroiog icM predictions.
In a fire mission adjusted by' a forv-.ard observer, the primary-
source of MPI error will be the forward observ~r's adJustment
and iocation inaccuro~ies. In the Met + VE predicted firc
mission, however, the MRi erro,-, willi he citused by rnet2oro -
logical errcrs (Mct) arci vtflocity error-, (\ffl"such as ft.ba-to-
tube differences (iii a battery) arid registration ervors (a
registration is never truly accurate, but it is as-sumied to be
so: therefore, tihere is a constant reSidItZI error ior edch
registration) .The largest mneteorological error results fromi
the inability to satisfactorhy predict wind velocity ;,nd
direction. This ballistic wind error may be 150 percent
larger than any other singlc met error. Available Met + MI'!j
probable errors are given in Table 14 i i units of p--rcent
range and mils deflection. A-, before, these are aver-age
values that may occur between 75 percent of maximum
weapon ran~ge and maximium ranq:e at top charge.

Figures 2 through 7 graphically dlescribc th(! range


and dcetlection MPI probable e;rror (in metres) as a furr tion
of range for selected weapons fir;nq Met 4 'VE missions. In

21
c
Z~ <- <4<

c 1 -: <ri .- t 0 2 -

0) <

Lt'
L C--

CL '
0 4)

co

.- x

Z -n

CL . ' (v

22 4t)
rmos, illustrations several zones are represented and identi-
fied by; for example, I (Charqe 1), II (Charge 2), and 111w
(Charge 3, white bag). Several features of this se.ries of
figures are outstanding. First, although low charges are
deijgr-,,qd for short-range operation, at certain ranges the
low-charge error is nearly double that of the top zone at
the same range. A principal cause of this phenomenon is
projectile instability due to slower launch velocities.
Catnnon life expectancy is advantageously extended, how-
ever, when lower charges arc used. Figures 3 and 4 sh('w
that the M109 firing the M5149 RA projectile has a smaller
MPI range error than the M109 firing the M1 07 HE projectile
at ranges above 8 km with Charge 7. At 12 km, the M109/
M549 RA has an MPI range probable error at 74 m; the
M109/M107 HE, 90 m. These values seem illogically re-
ve.-sed. One possible reason for this unexpected result
may be that the RAP is less sensitive to ballistic winds
cecause of tne inherent in-flight propulsion and improved
aerodynamics. Figure 7, the MPI probable error of the
M107 175mm gun, shows the error magnitude that may be
expected for 30-km systems: range probable error, 20m;
deflection proba)' ,error, 110 m. This is not the end of
the delivery accuracy story, however, as best shown by
the He!bat I tests (Ref 20) where simulated operationai
readiness tests produced some errors gretly in excess of
those given by the MPI curves: for an M109 howitzer firing
to an average range of 9.0 km, graphical range probable
error was 135 m and deflection probable error was 86 m.
The MPI prohable errors for the same range and zone are
as follows:
"eror," range probable error, 85 m; deflection
,l ua I fro probable
toJ 2L
error, .3m. Since the I'l e L- ranges .aried fr, m I to 12
km and since all Helbat missions were riot strictly Met +
VE types, a direct comparison of the Helbat I data with the
MPI error curves may be questionable: but the effect of
lh.umarn error ouviously should not be ignorcd".

Further discussion of thiv. topic may be found in Reference 21.

For any case in Appendix A wher e the source is not a firing table
and probable errors are given, they are either from a limited number of
fErings or estimated from computer simulations. rhese values should be
considered as estimates only. It i5 worthwhile to repeat the warning in

23
I

the discussion from Reference 1 about the dominant effect of meteorological


error, primarily winds at altitudes, upon precision and the importance of
target location error upon actual miss distances.

The only guided projectile considered in this study is the XM712


(Cannon Launched Guided Projecti!e (CLGP). The discussion of its accuracy
is given in the classified Addendum of this report. Dispersion data on
Soviet munitions w iclh is available is also included in the classified
Addendum to this report.

Aerodynamic Coefficients

All of the aerodynamic coefficients presented in this report, except


for the XM712 (CLGP), were estimated by the same method and are pre-
sented in the same format. The method used is documented in Reference
22 and is available as a computer program, SPIN73, in FORTRAN. It
consists, basically, of empirical curve fits to a large data base of the effect
of various proje-ctile dimensions upon the aerodynamic coefficients (Ret 22)

"Theestimates generated by SPIN73 are given in Appendix B, except


for the data on Soviet ammunition which is in the classified Addendum.
Some discussion of the meaning of the various column headings is neces-
sary to understand how to use the output in standard aerodynamic co-
efficient form.

If we call the total angle of attack ca (radians), the spin p (radians/


sec), and the angular rates are pitch, '4, or yaw, r (both rad/sec), then the
various coefficients are, in terms of the SPIN73 tabulated names, as a
function of Mach number:

Axial Force: Cx (M,a) =CX +CX2 sinsa (1)

Normal Force: C N(M, a) CNA sina (2)

Pitching Moment: C (M, a,q) =CMA sina + (qd/2VjCMQ (3)

Magnus Force*: C' (M,a,p) (pd/2V)CYPA sina (4)


y
Magnus Moment*: C" (M, a,p) (.d/2V) (CNPA sina + (5)
n
CNPA3 sin 3a 4 CNFA5 sin'a)

Rolling Moment: C t(M,p) = (pd/2V) CLP (6)

*Primes indicate that this is only the Magnius contribution to the side force,
C and the side moment, C.
y n"
24
Swhere all tabulated coefficients are functions of Niach nt iber (M) d is

the reference diameter, and V is the flight velocity.

In addition to the above, the following are also tabulated: the normal
force center of pressure, CPN (in calibers from the nose), the Magnus force
center of pressure at 10 and 50 angle of attack, CPF [11 and CPF [5] (from
the nose) and the secant slope of the Magnus moment (per radian) at 5'
angle of attack, CNPA [5]. Note that the designation, dimensions, and
physical properties of the projectiles are included in the description above
the coefficient tables.

The SPIN73 generated coefficients have not been checked for a tra-
jectory match with firing tables, where available, because of the lack of
time; therefore, they have not been perturbed to produce such a match.
Based on past experience and the degree of coefficient match reported in
Reference 22, it is expected that the mismatch is not severe fnr projectile
configurations within the rar.ge of the data base.

The XM712 (CLGP) coeticients are presented in whatever form that


they were available in the references. Usually derivatives with respect
to angle of attack given in this daza will be Der radiar1 ,ather than in terms
of sin a. The Advanced Dev-iopment (AD) configuration had only a fold-
ing deflectable crLicifOrn tail and is reported in Reference 23. The Engi-
neering Developmcnt configuration added a cruciform set of fixed (in
deflection) folding wings and this is reported in Reference 24. Edited
excerpts taken from these soturces are presented in Appendixes C--1 and C-2.

Trajectories and Firing Tables

Complete computer simulated trajectories based on the aerodynamic


coefficients in App indix D and the inertial properties discussed earlier
are not available. At the time the termination of this task due to reprogram-
m.ing of funds became known, it was decided that a thorough job of generat-
ing aerodynamic coefficients and collecting inertial properties on the pro-
jectiles was necessary, since it would be impossible to compute trajectories
at a later date without this data.

Substantial trajectory data are available in this report. The compacted


firing tables of Appendix A have range, deflection (angular), and quadrant
elevation information. Most of this is from firing tables (Ref 3-17) while
some is from computer simulated trajectories available for projectiles ir.
development under other projects or from a limited number of firings. It

25
is not claimed that this data can be exactly duplicated using the aerodynamic,
inertial, and initial conditions data in this report. Based on past experience
with SPIN73 aerodynamic coefficients, the results should be in fairly good
agreement. Not only is it possible to refer to References 3 to 17 for finer
detail in range than is in the compacted tables of Appendix A but these
references contain other information that is not in the compacted tables.
Probably the most useful of this additional information is time of flight,
angle of fall, terminal velocity, and graphs of altitude versus range. How-
ever, this data is only available for projectiles which have final or pro-
visional firing tanles.

The range data on the XM712 CLGP available in Reference 24 is


included in the Fly Under-Fly Out (FUFO) capability (Fig 8-15). This is
purely analytical data. More information is available in the Addendum
under zoning.

Similar compacted firing tables for those Soviet she-il for which full
tables are available have been generated and are in the Addendum to this
report.

Control Aeroballistics

The subject of this section is the experimental and analytical investi-


gation of the aerodynamics of projectiles guided by aerodynamic surfaces.
The primary method of presenting the information will be bibliographies
of experimental and analytical methods. There is, of course, some overlap.
Analytical reports will usually contain experimental comparisons and ex-
perimental reports will often discuss and comoare various theories with
the data.

There has been -ome aerodynamic coefficient data on the XM712


Cannon Laun.ched CuddPr- c i. colUected and presented it-,Appendixes.
C-I (AD) and C-2 (ED) . They represent both its AD (tail alone) and its
ED (tail and win.9s) configurations and were taken from Control Aerody-
namics Experimental Bibliography items CEI and CE7. Data on a canard
controlled-fixed tail CLGP design that was not selectecd for Engineering
Development is available in Experimental Bibliography items CE14, CE15,
and CE19.

The bibliographies are not meant to be exhaustive or deal with basic


aerodynamics. Hopefully the most recent and/or applicable work on aero-
dynamic controlled and guided projectiles have been included. It should

26 4k

................
I
:-)e noted that many of the items listed are titles obtained from a computer
search and have not yet been obtained for a more complete study of their
applicability.

The analytical methods that could be studied exhibit some areas of


poor- agreement with experimental results. They also usually do not allow
for more than two surfaces at a particular body station. Multiple surface
capability is needed for all foreseeable 3rtillery rounds. A typical difficulty
with the vortex shedding approach, so widely used, is that for in-line sur-
faces (e.g., wing-tail, canard-tail or canard-wing) the vortex shed by the
forward surface may be predicted to pass above (under) the rearward sur-
face while experiment shows it passes under (above) the surface (see
discussion in CA10) . Other experimental results indicate difficulty in prc-
dicting cross-coupling and roll (spin) effects in general and also static
stability in the transonic velocity flight regime.

As part of another task, preliminary and final aero data package


experimental programs were suggested for the two configurations proposed
for the CLGP ED program. These experimental efforts were intended to
investigate the expected trouble areas in both cases without incurring
excessive program costs; a research program would be more extensive.
as'.. These programs are attached as Appendixes D-1 and D-2. Appendix D-1
applies to a canard-controlled fixed-tail configuration and Appendix D-2
applies to a fixed-wing tail-controlled configuration.

Analytical studies should be pursued to improve techniques espe-


cially for in-line surfaces, transonic flight, multiple surfaces; and pitch,
yaw, and roll coupling.

Terminal Ballistics

Lethality and Vulnerability

The lethality and vulnerability aspects of terminal ballistics was in-


tended to be dealt with by a selected bibliography from the basic source,
Reference 25. The fact thit the selection must be based upon the descrip-
tions in Reference 25 rather than upon actual study of the possible selections
is unfortur.ate.

The descriptions in Reference 25 are sufficiently clear so that the


bibliography for this section includes the most useful material currently
available. Vulnerability of target systems has been included as an aspect
of lethality.

9 27
Sensitivity Coefficients

Sensitikity coefficients are, in general, first partial derivatives.


For example, holding all other variables constant, the effect of projectile

weight on range is linearized as AR = (- ) a W, where Ris the sensitivity

coefficient for range with respect to weight.

The practice of the US Army is to include such corrections in their


firing tables for muzzle velocity, cross wind, range wind, air temperature,
air density, and projectile weight. Propellant temperature corrections are
also made indirectly. There is usually a separate table which gives the
change in muzzle velocity for a given propellant temperature; this is then
used as a muzzle velocity correction to range.

The only listed correction which is not a true partial derivative is


the one for projectile weight. This range correction includes both the
effect of changed muzzle velocity and the effect of changed ballistic co-
efficient, (W/CxA), during flighi. This is why a separate correction for
muzzle velocity should not be made for a weight variation. The muzzle
velocity correction is to be used for properlant temperature corrections,
as mentioned, and for other effects, such as bore wear.

Firing table corrections may appear to be backwards but this is not


so. An increase in muzzle velocity will, for example, increase range; that
is, !-- > 0. But when one looks at a firing table it will be seen that ior a

muzzle velocity increase (usually tabulated for 1 m/s) the range correction
is given as a negative number, a decrease. This is because the tabulated
range change is to be algebraicahly added to the range desired, producing
in this case a shorter range. This will require that the guin elevation be
set so as to produce this shorter range. Then, when the shell really flies
further because of the increase in muzzle velocity, the desired range will
be reached. Similar reasoning applies to all the other corrections and is
the only real difference between corrections and sensitivity coefficients.
(A tail rainge wind is considered an increase and azimuth corrections for
a cross wind are made into the wind.)

Most US Army firing tables give ranges and range corrections in


meters and elevations and azimuths and their corrections in mils. One
Army mil is defined as 1/6400 of a circle. The usual increments in the
independent variables used are: cross and range winds. 1 knot, muzzle
velocity: I m/s, air temperature: 1%of standard (518.7"R, 288.159K), air

28
density: 1% of standard (0. 002378 slug/ft 3 , 1.2250 kg/rm), and projectile
weight: usually 1 square (SQ) from a stated standard, e.g., 2 SQ STD.
Atomic rounds are marked with their actual numerical weight so their fir-
ing table corrections are given per pound.

A further explanation of weight squares follows. Artillery projectiles


are stamped with square-shaped marks to give an indication of how far
away the loaded projectile is from some reference weight. The value of a
square is different in terms of pounds from one projectile to another. The
approximate values for some projectiles are listed below (Table 15) so that

a conversion can be made between squares and pounds. Another point to


be kept in mind is that a particular firing table may use a non-zero number
of squares as the reference weight of a projectile (the one for which the
basic table has been constructed) . This is always given but note must be
taken. For example: a projectile is stamped with 4 squares but the standard
number of squares is given as 2. Therefore, the range correction to be made
is that for + 2 squares not that for + 4 squares.

The compacted firing tables presented for US projectiles in Appendix


A contain all the corrections mentioned above where they are dvliiab!ie.
The data on those projectiles which have official firing tables or' provisional
firing tables are usually complete. Whatever data was available from other
projects has been incorporated into Appendix A. Most of the data, especially
on projectiles in development, is based on computer simulations but a limited
amount of firing data is also available and has been included. Appendix A
is no exception to all the data in this report; whenever a projectile datum
has been extrapolated unduly or assumed the same as some other projectile,
that value is inclosed in parentheses.

Similar compacted firinn tahIes for those Soviet projectiles for which
the information exists are presented in the Addendum to this report.

9 29
I
Table 15

Projectile

M329A1
Approximate relationship between squares and weight

Standard squares

2
Pounds/square

0.25
Source

Ref 3
1
M328A1 2 (= 7 of M329A1) 0.30 Ref 3
M1 2 0.6 Ref 5
M60, Gas 2 0.6 Ref 5
M60, WP 5 1.0 Ref 5
M548 2 0.5 Ref 6
M107 4 1.1 Ref 8
Milo, Gas 4 1.1 Ref 8
Milo, WP 5 1.1 Ref 8
M116 4 1.1 Ref 8
M116, Colored (= 4 of Ml) --- Ref 8
M121, Al 8 1.1 Ref 8
M549 4 1.4 Ref 13
M437A1, A2 3 1.1 Ref 14
MIOG 4 2.5 Ref 15
M404 4 2.5 Ref 17

3@
j4
t
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The most up-to-date unclassified aeroballistic data available on US


Army indirect-fire projectiles (105mm and up) has been collected or
generated. Aeroballistic is used in a very broad sense to include: ex-
ternal dimensions, inertial properties, trajectories, zoning, dispersion,
sensitivity coefficients, aerodynamic coefficients, lethality and vulner-
ability, and controlled projectile aerodynamics.

Classified data in the above areas on US projectiles and all data on


Soviet ind Soviet Bloc indirect fire artillery projectiles (100mm and up)
which were also collected or generated are in a separate addendum to this
main report.

This study concentrated on generating a complete set of aerodynamic


data without any trajectory information; the rationale being that trajectories
can be run later with the data. It is not presently known how closer/ thl.e
aerodynamic data, when used in simulated trajectories, will match firing
table results. Past experience lends credence to the belief that the match
will be acceptable.

It is recommended that further work in this area should assure con-


sistency between predicted aerodynamic coefficients and firing table results
and include free-fl ight rocket aeroball istics.

S31
REFERENCES

1. Reichard, B. L. and Downs, A. R., A Compendium of Field Artillery


Facts, BRL Report No. 1759, USA Ballistic Research Laboratories,
February 1975

2.. Reichard, B. L. and Downs, A. R., A Compendium of Classified


Field Artillery Facts (U), ,RL Report No. 1760, USA Ballistic
Research Laboratories, February 1975, Secret

3. Firing Tables, Mortar 4. 2-Inch: M30 Firing Cartridge, H. E.,


M329A 1 . . ., Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 4.2-H-2,
August 1968

4. Firing Tables, Mortar 4.2-Inch, M30, Firing Cartridge, H.E.,


M329A IEI . . ., Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 4.2-K-I,
August 1974

5. Firing Tables, Cannon, 705mm Howitzer: M2A2 and M2A 7 on


Howitzer; Light, Towed: 795mm MA701A I and M101 .1.. Firing
C artridge, H. E., M-I ... Headquarters, Department of the Army,
FT 105-H-7, May 1971

6. Firing Tables, Cannon, 16,mm Howitzer MA 03, on Howitzer, Light,


Seif-Propelled, 705mm, M108 and Cannon, 105mm M137A 1 and
M137 on Howitzer, Light, Towed, 105mm, M102 Firing Cartridge,
H.E., RA, M5118, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Ft 105-AU-i,
October 1974

7. Firing Table Addendum to FT 105-H-6 for Cartridge, H. E., M444,


Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 105 ADD-B-I, C-4,
January 1968

8. Firing Tables, Cannon, 155mm Howitzer, M126 and M126E1 on


Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propelled, 155mm, M109 Firing Projectile,
H.E., M107, Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 155-AH-3,
August 1974

9. Firing Tables, Cannon, 755mm Howitzer, M785 on Howitzer, Medium


Self-Propelled, 155mm MIO9A 1 . . . Firing Projectile, H.E., Al107,
Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 155-AM-I, September
1972

32
10. Firing Tables, Cannon, 155mm Howitzer, M 726E 1 and M 126 an
Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propelled: 155mm, M 109 Firing Projectile,
Atomic, XM454, Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 155-AJ -2,
May 1969

11. Firing Tables Addendum to FT 155-A H-2 for Projectife, H. E. M339A 1


(M449E2), Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 155-ADD-B-11,
November 1967

12. Firing Table Addendum to FT 155-Q-3 for Projectile, H. F., M4'49,


Headquarters Department of the At-my, FT 155 ADD-A-i, C-5,
January 1968

13. Provisional Firing Tables, Cannon, 155mm Howitzer, M126E1 and


M1726 on Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propelled 155mm, M 109 Firing
Projectile, H.F., RA, M549, Ballistic Research Laboratories, October
1974

14". firin
/fyl"Tobie, C.ulu,,u,, 175mrm Gun, miii, mi f3E,- on G.un, F-ield
Artillery, Self-Propelled: 175mm, M 107 Firing Projectile, H4. E.,,
M'i37A 2, M437A 1, Headquarters, Department of the Army, January
1970

15. Firing Tables, Cannon, 8-Inch7 Howitzer: . 2A 7Il on Howitzer,


..

Heavy, Self-Propelled: 8-Inch, M7 10 Firing Pro jcc~iI., H. E., M 106,


Headquarters, Department of the Army, FT 8-J-4~, June 1967

16. Firing Tables, Cannon, 8-Inch Howitzer . . . P42A 1E I on Howitz-er,


Heavy, Self-Propelled: 8-Inch. A4 11 Firmna Pro'iectilp. HFS, M424
Projectile, A tomic, M422, Headquarters, Dtcpartmeni. of the Ar.-y,
FT 80-4, June 1967

17. Firing Table Addendum to FTO-.1-4 for Projeci,lIe. H. E., M404,


Headquarters, Department of the Armry, FTI 8 ADi)-A-11, November
1967

.8. Hitchcock, H.P., Aerod 'ynamic Data for Spinning Projcctiles,


Ballistic Research Laboratories, Report No. 620. October 19147

19. Artillery Ammun~ition: Gtins, How~itzer, Mortars and Recaoilless


Rifles, Headquarters, EDepartmfnt of the Army, TM 9-1300-203,
April 1967
20. Horley, G. and Giordano, D., HELBA T I (Human Enqineering
Laboratory Battalion Artillery Test), LJSAHEL TM-24-70, September
1970

21. Indirect Fire Accuracy (U), 3 Vol., JMEM 61S1-3-6-23, 28 June 1974,
Confidential

22. Whyte, R. H., SPIN-.73, An Updated Version of the Spinner Computer


Program, Picatinny Arsenal TR 4588, November 1973

23. Addendum to Cannon Launched Guided ProjectileAdvanced Develop-


ment Program - Final Report (U), Martin Marietta Corp., Orlando
Division, OR 13, 759-Addendum 1, September 1975, Confidential

24. CLGP (XM712) Cannon Launched Guided Projectile (U), Martin


Marietta Corp., Orlando Division, OR 13, 651P, Vol. I1: Technical,
14 April 1975, Confidential

25. Index, Specialized Technical Handbooks for Joint Munitions Effective-


ie~s Munuais (JMEM) and Reiatcd Pubiicatlons, US Army Materiel
Command, AMCRD-TE, TH 61-1-2, 18June 1975

314
BIBLIOGRAPHIES -

1. Control Aerodynamics Analytical Bibliography


II
CAT. The Aero~dynamic Analysis of the Coning Motion of the CLGP, Martin
iMarietta Corp. ,Orlando Uivision, Doc. No. ANA 0o900000-002, 13 .
July 1973.

CA2. A ecrody-namic Effect o/ CLGP Fin 5we,,p-buck A ng~le Variotion, Martin


Marietta2, Orlando Division, Doc No. AN.IA '107000600.-01G, 6 July 1972
I
UA3. Aero.itnornic Methodology. Bodies with Tails a7t Arbitrar'y Poll
Angle, Fidler, J. F. , Mar'tin Marietta, Orlando Division, O)R 13,375--1,,
.
Decem b.er 1974 flprepared for A'rmy Missile Co rerml-]rid AD/A-003 3141) :
C,-oi. A Afet--:;d fo," Calc:ulating tha / erodynemic Loadin(, o17 Wimn- Body, -

dComb .'nct ons at Soall A .ngle_,"of A ttock in Sup(:rsonic r- o ti, Jar'kson,


C. M. o,,ld Sawyer, W. C-., NASA TN D-6441, Otctober 1971 .
CA5. AtlAet rodfnaics : c CAaiytrteiisalBc.ibogrp
5d Acd " , Noncirculor Cross Section Alonr and
arw'h
iettaiCr-p., Orlando
a iin'We,
oDoAttac, from No
0A 90000C,002, 1
L H., NASA TN D-7228, April
1973

CA6. Aerdnatice/ Predicton of the Rofin/fitch


end RokA Y: w Coupiino oM the
CLGt,Missir'n, Di.itin ,a Doctta
Corp., Orla(ndo Division. 6uoc. No.

ANA 00900000-003, 10 P~u.-ust 1973


CAT. Roseline IV Final Aerodynlgmics, Mrtin
wi rietU. Corpit.,
rarlanlo
D)ivision, Du~c. No . -.,-.
' ,,""...0 . - .2 7. Feb "LUary 19YI

CA8. Cannon Launcihed C:.ided 4'rojcctilo -Aeroclyr-utnic n 0o,,.,'ti


D.sign
Study, Fid'er, J . E and Mi et.t., Oartind Daiviesia Corp., Orlando
Division, OR19 ,/4
p, Vol D-c.:ember
MI1s73 (prepnred for Naval

Ordnance Sy"siems Command4)


CA9. Compute.- ,1rograai;for CCalulaiting
tt.h -trtyic Long it;dinalAerodyerioin-c
bharacceristics of W"inaA- of Coniin Supctonis, Mrendoen ha 1,
M. R., :A al, NASW. (,R-2474, Nielsen ( Engineering
,esearct '7nc.,
Januar SAT
1A75

D n.. 35
CAIO. Effoct of Syn1me7trical Vortc',c Sheddirq:
on the Iorigiid'ioal Aoro-
dynamrtic Char~cterist.:c of Winq -Body-Toil (':),nhifio!icn,
Me.-dcenhzall, M. R. and Nicken, J. N NASA CR-214., Nielson
Cn~gineet Oig f&Reearc'., Inc., .Janu4ry :V'5

CAII t-ffacts w&thi For wcard Sirakes on CLGP Coning Motion, Martin
Nlar~ezta Corp , Ori-1ndo Division, r~oc, No. /-,NA GOOO0O-OWJ.,
13 August i~ii3

CUl12. Estimoaicd Aet ociynonic C


(jur~ac&ir.'stics 1-or tWe Bc,Sc.JinV C1.6"' Coll-
ficui-A~ion, Martin kim ictia Corp., Orlanc-lo Division, Do~c, No.
ANA 10700000 00t, 3 April 1972

CAI 3. Estimated Aer-odyna-mic Charactcris tics for iNinc C'!GP Configo-~


rations~, Mar~tin MA~,etta O-lancio Division, Doc. No. A.'A
107000~00-02, 13, Apr#i 1912

CAI 4. Estimated Aoroclynomics for the Baseline bli CL(,P confiLjo.


i"olion,
Martin Mairietta, Or-lando Division, Doc. No. LNA 1IO;'COO0U-O'J7,
8 May 1972

C-A I . Estiniatmont c,7 ih -,,. ro- lift Drag cf Missile :n'fj, urct;,lns in 5up'.---
son;(c. F,'ovn vlth 7.i.'buleni onurdary, Lvop-r. Ja~ksoo, C. M., 6
al, NAS.A TfM >(890, 1969

CAI 6. L Iif,' in jC>,jrter (of FP"e. ':urtc. ofi' W(-FSu


u 1.y'-r 0 ai1 t
(ii~~io
Scthsop~ic. 7 .i-onsonic, cir-d Stpcrsoolc Spl-eds, Pivs, W. C
et :%I.JAC\ upoit No. 1-1,07, I 957

(cA 17. Me,.lod f'Colcuiritincq ind'. (d . %Vimii Mon. -rj(s for C'-ucifo,':,
Cji;4 ~s~ile s Angles of A,'Lack u!" to 20 Ot.c', Pic'nSch, M. J.
cL 0i!, IeNIv4*e (, -.ts'.rs, ,.... I 5761,',A M 1Iy 7

CAI 8. Alumericd MUUocjs fovr- the !)csiz~n cml Ancl's.-- (-f IWincs ' Super-
Sonir S~,es Ca;-, 3on, 1. VV- 2% Miler-, D. 5 NAIS. IN o- .

7713", Dececnhc: 1974

CE1. Adcdeml irn to Careiuor Launched Gui~dcl Projcct. '- A.w.yv.ce.0


i~hEop',e 1 1Progyrcm - Ci~lReport, (U) '.actiri LY,? iiata Corp.
.

Orlcondo Pivisioo, OR 13,759 - Addcr~duni 1, S5epteimber 1,j!5,


Coofidentied
I
I
CE2. Aerodynamic Characteristicsof a Canard-ControlModular Weapon
Clussification at Transonic Mach Numbers, Kaupp, H., Jr., Arnold
Engineering Development Center, AAEDC-TR-73-134, for Air Force
Armaments Laboratory, August 1973

C.E3. An Experimental Investigation of the A erodynamic Characteristics


of Several Nose-Mounted Canard Configurations at Supersonic Mach
Number, Burt, J. R., Jr., US Army Missile Command Tech Report
P-D-75-17, 30 Jinuary 1975

CE'l. An Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics


of Several Nose-Mounted Canard Configurations at Transonic Mach
Numbers, Burt, J. R., Jr., US Army Missile Command, Tech
Report P-D-75-2, 30 August 19174
CES. Best Estirrited Values of CL Trim and 8 Trim Based on Wind

Tunnel Data, Martin Marietta Corp., Orlando Division, Doc. No.


ANA 00900000-005, 15 August 1973

CE6. CanardControl Effectiveness Study on the Air Force Addvanced


?actical Rocket at Mach Numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5, StriKe, W. T.,
Jr., Arnold Engin,ering Development Center, AEDC-CR-74-34,
for Air Force A.-marnents Laboratory, April 197'4

CE7. Cannon Launched Guided Projectile (U), Martin Marictta Corp.,


Orlando Division, OR 13,651P, Vol. II: Technical, 14April 1975,
Confidential

CE8. CLGP Wind Tunnel Test Plans and Po-st-Test Report, Martin
Marietta Corp., Orlando Division, Doc. No. ANA 10700000-008,
16 June 1972

CE9. Effect of Several CanardSizes on the Static Stability, Performance,


and r-rim Characteristics of the PAVESTORM I Munition System at
Transonic Speeds, Smith, D. K , Arnold Engineering Development
Center, AEDC--TR-72-67, for Air Force Armaments Laboratory,
Mey 1972

CE 10. Effects of Nose Bluntness on Aerodynamic Characteristicsof


Cruciform - Finned Missile Configursition at Mach 1. 50 to 2.86,
JerrnelI, L. S, N.ASA I M X-2031, June 1970

37

kI
GEl 1. Lffect of Wing Plarnform and Canard Location and Georretry on the
Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Close -C oupl.od
Canard-Wing Mlodel at Subsonic Speeds, Gloss, B. B,, NASA TN
D-7910, June 1975

CE 12. Elimination of the Induced Roll of a Canard Control Con figur-ation


by Use of a Freely Spinning Tail (U), Darl ington, J. A., NavalI
Ordnance Laboratory, NOLTR-72- 197, August 1972, Confidential

CE1 3. Preliminary Static and MAlgnus Measurements on a Proposca Canard-


Controlled Guided Projectile, Regan, F. J , Naval Ordnance
Laboratory Wind Tunnel Report No. 80, April 1974

GEl 4. Static Force Te.Ft on a 0. 7 Scale Cannon Launched Guided Pro 'ifcctile
at the VA C High Speed Wind 7 unnel in the Mach Range of 0. r, to 2. 5.
Box, D. M., Vought Systems Division Report No. HSWT Test 438
(for Texas Instruments, Inc.), June 1972

CEl 5. Static Force Test on a 0. 7 Scale Cannon Launched Guided Pro jec~ile
u.J" I
fIU Vi/, k.iiyi17119 L Iri IU
WV>ee Tui-i-
U iii i htf IlVfUCI Rur'IyL ul' 0. 6 Iu. 21.5
Second Series, Box, D. M'., Vought Systems Division Report No.
HSWT Test 4146 (for Texas Instruments, Inc.) , 19 Septem~ber 1972
GElS5. Static Stability and Canard Hinge-Moment Characteristics of the
AIM-9J (Side Winder) Missile at Mach Alumbers from 0. 4 to 3. 4 (U),
Arnold Engineering Development Center, AEU-%C-TR-72-34, Final
Report 11 October - 12 November 1971

CE1 7. Supersonic lnthrference Effects in Low-A spect-Rutia Planer Con-


figurations at Large Angles of Attack. Hart, H. H. , Applied Physics
Laboratory, Johiis Hopkins University, TG-998, July 1968

GEl 8. VSD High Spe-ed Wind Tunnel Force Test on a 0. 70 Scale 755mm
Cannon Launched Guided Projectile in the Mach Number' Range of
0. 6 to 2.2, Popce, T. C., Voight Systems Division Report No. HSWT
Test 487 (for Texas Instr uments, Inc.), 25 March 19714

3. Lethality and Vulnera)ility Bibliography


(Index: Speci~ilized Technical Handbooks for Joint Munitions Effectiveness
Manuals (JMEN) , TH 61-1-2, 18 June 1975)

LV1. 61A1-3-1 Target Vulnerab;Ility (U), Secret, 13 Feb 74.

36
LV2. 61JTCG/ME-69.-1 Target Vulnerability Scaling and Modeling,
31 Jan 74
LV3. 61JTCG/ME-69-2 Target Vulnerability Symposium (U), Secret,
15 Apr 69
LV4. 61JTCG/ME-69-3-2 Lethality of US Ammunition Against Soviet
Armored Vehicles (U), Secret, 1 Jan 70
LV5. 61JCTG/ME-69-3-10 Blast Effects on Soviet Vehicles (U), Secret,
12 Mar 71
LV6. 61JTCG/ME-69-3-11 Vulnerability of Selected Soviet HE Projectiles
to Fragment Impact (U), Confidential, 14 Aug 71
LV7. 61JTCG/ME-70-6-1 JMEM Computer Program for General Full Spray
Personnel Mean Area of Effectiveness Computa-
tions (IJ) , Confidential, 25 May 71
LV8. 61JTCG/ME-70-6-2 JMEM Computer Program for General Full Spray
Personnel Mean Area of Effectiveness Computa-
tions (U), Secret
LV9. 61JTCG/ME-73-6 Lethality Prcdictions for US Army Munitions
Tested in Various Environments in the Dep
Static Arrays (U), Confidential, 25 Apr 73
LV1O. 61JTCG/ME-7;-9 Effectiveness Distribution for US Army Improved
Conventional Munitions, Confidential
LVI1. 61S1-2-2 Effectiveness Data for Howitzer, 105MM M101A1
(U), Confidential, 11 Dec 72
LV12. 61S1-2-3 Effectiveness Data for Howitzer, 1355M,4, M109
(U), Confidential, 11 Dec 72
LV13. 61S1-2-4 Effectiveness Data for Howitzer, 8-1i.ch Ml10
(U), Confidential, 18 Dec 72
LV14. 61S1-2-5 Effectiveness Data for Gun, 175MM M107 (U),
Confidential, 18 Dec 72
LV15. 61S1-2-6 Effectiveness Data for Mortar, 4.2 Inch M30
(U), Confidential, 15 May 72
LV16. 61S1-2-8 Effectiveness Data for Rocket, 762MM M50 (UL),
Confidential, 3, Oct 72
LV17. 61S1-2-13 Effectiveness Data for 155MM Howitzer M109A1
(U), Confidential

39
LV18. 61S1-3-2 Safe Distances for Fragmenting Munitions (U),
Confidential, 19 Mar 73
LV19. 61S1-3-3 Lethal Areas of Selected tJS Army, US Navy,
and US Marine Corps Surface-to-Surface
Weapons Against Personnel and Military Targets
(U), Confidential
LV20. 61S1-3-4 Manual of Fragmentation Data (U), Confidential
LV21. 61S1-3-5 Ammunition Reliability Report (U), 15 Oct 75

40
do
1 -S-

IIc C
d3 II

0
CL

f.

41~
120

80

VII (charge)

v
10

- 40

t w

v I

0 2 4 6 10

Range (Km)

80[

40!

Lu VII (ch.rge)

;0 !r_ .,-i - r,ision

0 2 4 6 8 10
(FT lOb H.7)
Range (Krn)

Fig 2. MIOlAl (105mm) MPI probable error firing M1 HE projectile

42
t

120

V VII (charge)
80

S J f
V V
J P,'ecision (FT 155-AH-3)

0'

04 8 12

Range (Kml

80r

F 40
E V1 (carge)

!t- Precision (FT 155 AH-3)

0 8 12

Range (Kin)

Fig 3. M109 (155mm) MPI probable error firing M107 HE projectile

40
120

80 VII (hargel
RA VII
"Preci5iorn (FT 155-AL-0)
- - "robatulV IToo high)
".u#
LU 40
a-

0 __
-- _ _ __ _ __ _ _ I ____

0 4 8 12 20

Range (Kin)

80[

40 VII W(harge)
-- RA

U1 . VII
S RA
Tt - . .i Precision
0 4 8 12 16 20 (FTr 1&-AL-0)

Range (Krn)

Fig 4. M109 (155mm) MPI probable error firing M5i9 RA projectile

44
I

VII (Charge)

80 Vw

111w
40- VII
- * Precision (FT 15,-AM-1)

-a--

0 4 8 12 16

Ranw. (Km)

80

Soo

40 - VII (Charge)

LU ViI
a. .ui=., Precision (FT 15bAM-I)
0 -
0 4 12 16

Rvign (Kin;

Fig 5. MIM9AI (155mm) MPI probable error firing M137 HE projectile

45
1160

120 VII (Charge~)

4 /V
80/

LIII

40
VI I
Precision (FT-8&J-4)

0
0 4 8 12 16

AR0iye 1Km,)

40-

01 ___________ - - Precisino (FT 13J 4)

0 4 8 12 li6

Pag (Kin)

Figj 6. M110 (203mm.) MPI probable er, or firing M106 HE pvojp.LtI e

46
.1
I'A

2C/

8
;1(charge)

/1 ( 7.,1

0 4 8 12 "16 20 24 28 30

RHnje (KWi)

120

.2 80

I ,'40
/ f /,
4
11(chug)

-_ O-I II-- (-"---4


-175 -A-1)

"0 412 16 20 24 28 30

RA6le Mr.-)
Fia 7. M107 (175mm) ? .PIprobable err orfiring MU37E2 HE proje ctile

47
4
7
~Qc

_J 0

z w -

*tLi L--
U, 0-

F,- .T- p .

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U I 19 244

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30 1,i3 126

T 0 3- fTH4 .\%LT"UDE - ~ iSETy

0M0 T, IMPACT TIMEI

41 CIf'tB LI)'iPAT 71 /'IANA


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XMIW HOWITZER
ZONE NO. 7
YM21I E2 CHARGE ""
Of 45 DIOPfiE /

I
I NOTT 21.2 KILU)METERS
EXTTENDN
IMLE MAXIMU'A
AG SEYND 203 KILOIEERS

CQUISITION COND!TIOkS. (0.6 TARGET

REFLECTANCE 116MJ LAER

2I

4
7
"3 -

22

NOINALI
FUFOAN4E IRN

19 20 204 2022 21.


FLVOUl RANGE KM

Fig 13. Maximum FUF'O 9uided range, XM198 howitzer

5.
BALLISTIC IMPACT
at (OEfAl IMPACT POINT (KIM) TIME (SEC)
75 4 ,'4 49
70 L,14 4 : 10
M109A1 5
30
679
5 02
4I.0
k7 3
15 30 146

12

10-- ~ 7 30 DEQR

90 GA f 2

11 U5D DEGRE

Fig 14i. ,Minimum ran~ge trajectories with MI09A1 howitzer, charge 4

52
I SE (DEGI
BALLISI Kji~-Z
UI4PAcTr POmIFhl() iIM ~im.E:sfC)
70 364 7
476 4b 3
86
30 402
16 3.10 1 3.6
it.4AIj 10.3
10
78 DJEGREE
-

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is 5 iiu ag taetrc ihX19 oizr hre'

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f1#4 65, -#6 46c


#4C,00 -#4 450

2. 4 "- 4i-
1.0
U.
.u
MN. NRANGE T KM MAX. FLY OUT

Fig o16. Trajctory


.LSI / =- flexibilityCIUdueI00FE
to FJFO and hig/iti ow OF options

- -- _ _
>.1.0 - - -

0 OALLISTIC 3WFEET CEIUI'eG


L .6

0O.4
IC OBAL(LISTIC = FAIR WEATHER
_____ FUFO =i 300FEET CF. ING/
I FUFO = FAI$ WEATHER

o 4 G 16 20 4
rt
TARGET RANGE -- KM

F 17. Engagement probabili, ballistic and FUFO

i54
APPENDIX A

COMPACTED FIRING TABLES OR SIMULATIONS

4, 55

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APPENDIX B

SPIN73 PREDICTED AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

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