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Chapter 2


This Chapter presents some foreign and local

literatures and studies which the researchers deemed

relevant with the present study. Such literatures and

studies cited paved the way in determining the extent of

how far researchers have gone through along the area under


Related Literature


Thomas (2011) study entitled "Concerted Efforts

towards Drub Abuse said that drug abuse is not the sole

responsibility of the police and other law enforcement

officer, the active responsive community correlates each

other in terms of curbing this drug menace. He stressed

that the community refers to the family itself considering

that the parents are the ones responsible for the moral

fiber of their children, to educate them being the first

teacher and to discuss the will of taking drugs. By doing

this, there will be a strong foundation in terms of drug

prevention. The education institution, from the primary

grade, secondary level or even in college, level it is the


moral responsibilities and obligation of the teacher to

inculcate into the mind of the pupils/students the

disadvantages of taking dangerous drugs. The evil effects

of it when it is taken to the body, it produce abnormal

effect emotionally and physically.

Drug Related Crimes

In the report of US Drug Library (2011), reported that

with a world GDP of 36$ US TRILLION in 2010, the illegal

drug trade may be estimated as slightly less than %1

(0.893%) of total global commerce (Drug Library, 2011)

Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally.

Because drugs traded on the black market can provide a

secretive source of money. They have long been used by

organizations such as the U.S Central Intelligence Agency

to fund covert operations and proxy wars. CIA involvement

in heroin trafficking began with the French Connection in

Marseille and continued with anti-communist operations in

Southeast Asia, In the early 1980s the CIA used cocaine as

a medium to launder money in Central America allegedly as

part of the Iran-Contra affair, Scott (2010).

In the study of Bernaman Com (2011), he said that the

countries of drug production have been seen as the worst

affected by prohibition, Bernaman Com (2011). Even so,


countries receiving illegally imported substances are also

affected by problems stemming from drug prohibition. In

many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought

to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder,

this is especially true in developing countries, such as

Honduras, but it is also an issue for many developed

countries worldwide, The Economist (2013)

In the report from DrugAbuse.Gov (2014), reported

that other common reasons why people take drugs are peer

pressure, social acceptance, boredom, frustrations,

constant tiredness, lack of parental guidance and focus in

life or an escape from reality for the north American

market, cocaine is typically transported from Colombia to

Mexico or Central America by sea and then onwards by land

to the united states and Canada. Cocaine is trafficked to

Europe mostly by sea, often in container shipments.

Colombia remains the main source of the cocaine found in

Europe, but direct shipments from peru and the

Plurinational state of bolivia are far more common than in

the united states market (www.DrugAbuse.Gov/2014).

In the book of Helfrich (2011) said that the illegal

drug trade is a global black market, dedicated to

cultivation manufacturing, distribution and sale of drugs,


which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most

jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many

types of drugs by drug prohibition laws. A UN report said

the global drug trade generated an estimated US$321.6

Billion in past 7 years (UN Report, 2011). The countries of

drug production have been seen as the worst affected by

prohibition. Even so, countries receiving the illegal-

imported substance are also affected by problems stemming

from drug prohibition. For example, Ecuador has allegedly

up to 300,00 refugees from Colombia who are running from

guerillas, paramilitaries and drug lords, says Linda

Helfrich. While some applied for asylum, other are still

illegal, and the drugs that pass from Colombia through

Ecuador to other part of South America create economic and

social problems as cited by.

A report by the UK governments drug strategy unit

that was subsequently leaked to the press, stated that due

to the expensive price of highly addictive crime including

85% for shoplifting, 70-80% of burglaries and 54% of

robberies. The cost of crime committed to support illegal

cocaine and heroin habits amounts to 16billion pound a year

in the UK (TDPF, 2011).


In the study of Syal (2011) said that in December

2011, the United Nation Drug and Crime Tsar Antonio Maria

Costa Claimed that illegal drug money saved the banking

industry from collapse. He claimed he had seen evidence

that the proceeds of organized crime were the only liquid

investment capital available to some banks on the brink of

collapse during 2009. He said that a majority of the drug

profits was absorbed into the economic systems main

problem and hence liquid capital became an important


Local Literature

The government enacted the Comprehensive Dangerous

Drugs Act of 2002 otherwise known as the Republic Act 9165,

which repealed the Antiquated Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972

of Republic act 6425. The new law provides for stiffer

penalties, maximum of which is the imposition of death for

illegal drug possession and pushing depending upon the act

and the volume of the drug seized but, at the same time

seeks to protect the countrys youth.

The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002

strengthened and revitalized the Dangerous Drugs Board

(DDB) and established the Philippine Drug Enforcement


Agency (PDEA) as the sole and dedicated entity tasked for

the enforcement of the Republic Act No. 9165

The pandemic state of drug abuse and trafficking

instigated the government and provoked the social sectors

to confront the problems with a firm resolve to identify

the components, which form the core of these social

maladies. The government laid down the basic strategies

with a support of the NGOS to prevent the people and the

youth in particular, from being pushed to and affected by

drug contamination, aware of political, economic, social

and moral implications of the state under the spell of

dangerous drugs, President Arroyo issued, Presidential

Proclamation No. 23 Angat Pinoy: Droga ay Labanan Whose

overriding mandate is to give flesh to the mandate and

commitment, Malacanang has formulated a five-point program

in its drug summit namely: information, prevention, law

enforcement, changes in drug laws and more rehabilitation


According to 2012 nationwide survey on the current

nature and extent of drug abuse in the Philippines this

study is a collaborative research between the ddb and the

Philippine normal university. It was conducted to determine

the current nature and extent of drug abuse in the country.


The survey sampled a total of 10, 752 respondents ranging

from ages 10 to 69 years old, identified through a

proportional sampling. a total of 256 sites served as study

areas. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in

selecting the study sites which included 17 regions, 43

provinces, 42 capitals, 86 municipalities/cities, 137 urban

and 119 rural barangays. The data gathering was conducted

from end of October 2012 to march 2013.

According to Dela Cruz (2012) said that it was

estimated that there could be 1.3 million current drug

users. The estimate was derived using the 2012 nscb

projected population of age 10-69 which is 72, 735, 094. It

has now become a common sight to see many young children as

well as adult using illicit drugs such as shabu, marijuana,

ecstasy, cough syrup, rugby, and glue. Researchers

conducted by the Dangerous Drug Board (DDB) reveal that a

high percentage of such major crimes, hold-ups, robberies,

rapes, homicides and murders are violent acts directly

linked to person under the influence of drugs. One may not

be a pusher nor an addict but he is not free from the

threats of drug problem as addicts might at any point in

time rob, burglarize and even kill him in their search for

money to sustain their drug habits.


According to Pastor (2011) said empowerment,

strengthen law enforcement system, and cooperative

government and non-government institutions, let us move as

one towards this very noble endeavor. The claws of drug

addiction never get satisfied, they spare no one, and

continue to penetrate deeper in our society, cooperation

among the government, private sector, and the civil society

is a main prerequisite towards this aspiration. We need to

take responsibilities with a sustained determination to

totally eradicate the illegal drug problem that wormed its

way down even to our less fortunate countrymen.

Ungson (2004)study entitled War on Drugs said that

drugs are natural and synthetic chemical substance which

can be used to affect the body and its processes, the mind

and the nervous system the behavior and feelings. This

definition includes a wide frame of reference, for the term

drug covers pharmacologically all foreign substances taken

into the body from simple pain killers like aspirin to

vitamins and the more sophisticated preparations used in

the treatment of severe infections, metabolic disturbances

and the like.

Drug differs widely in the chemical composition and

more important in their effects it depends upon: the


abusers personality; the circumstances of abuse and the

dose or amount of drug taken.

Operations on Illegal Drugs

By of September 2012 The Philippine National Police

seized some 4 billion worth of methamphetamine

hydrochloride (shabu) and drug ingredients were seized

while four people were arrested in a raid on a "mega" shabu

lab and a facility in Pampanga province The Philippine

National Police's Anti-Illegal Drugs Special Operations

Task Force and Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency conducted

the raids,

Tracking down drug traffickers the traditional way has

been though enough. Can the Philippines handle this latest

threat? Even the amended Dangerous Drug Act will be

toothless against the problem. The National

Telecommunications Commission, whichregulates internet

service providers, admitted it is helpless in stopping the

illicit drug trade in the cyberspace. A law has been passed

to crackdown on cybercrimes, but technology is advancing

too rapidly. Before Philippine law enforcers can master the

technology and the ways of cyber criminals, the criminals,

the crooks have learned new tricks.


Related Studies


According to Hamilton (2011) in his study that over

the past 20 years, much exciting addiction researcher has

been conducted. Extensive Knowledge has been gathered about

comorbid issues, particularly mental health disorders, HIV,

and criminal justice involvement. Health service addiction

research has become increasingly sophisticated, shifting

its focus from patients to consider also services,

organization and financing structures, furthermore, through

several long-term follow-up studies, empirical evidence

convincingly demonstrate that drug dependence is not an

acute and is best understood through a life course

perspective with an emphasis on chronicity. This study

highlights three major directions for future addiction

research, developing strategies for chronic care (including

longitudal intervention studies).

Chapagani (2012) study entitled drug abuse in Nepal

A Rapid Assessment of rapid assessment of drug abuse in

Nepal and was conducted at different states, including

eight municipalities in the five development regions of the

country. TO interview, in depth interviews and focus group

discussions were used a snowball sampling strategy for


respondents who were drug abusers and a judgmental sampling

strategy for the non-drug using key informants were

applied. About one fifth of the sample was recruited from

the treatment centers and the rest from the community. Drug

abusers in prison were interviewed, and secondary data from

treatment centers and prisons analyzed. The study revealed

that the sample of drug abusers has a mean age of 23.8

years and was overwhelmingly male. Most respondents lived

with their families and were either unemployed or students.

About 30 percent of the sample was married. A large

majority of the sample had a family member or a close

relative outside the immediate family who smoked or drank

alcohol and a friend who smoke, drank or used illicit

drugs. Apart from tobacco and alcohol, the major drug of

abuse were cannabis, codeine-containing cough syrup,

nitrazepam, tablets, buprenor-phine injections and heroinm

(usually smoked, rarely injected) The commonest sources of

drugs were other drug-using friends, cross-border supplies

from India or medicine shops. The commonest source or drug

money was the family. There has been a clear trend towards

the injection of buprenorphine by abusers who smoke heroin

or drink codeine cough syrup. The reasons cited for

switching to injections were the unavailability and rising


cost of non-injectable drugs and the easy availability and

relative cheapness of injectables. About half of the

injecting drug users (IDUs) Common reported sharing

injecting equipment inadequately cleaned with water, over a

half of IDUs reported visiting needle-exchange programmers

at two of the study sites where such programmers were

available. Infection y the immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

appears to be low among IDUs, although systematic

surveillance is absent. Two thirds of the sample had

experience sexual intercourse. The last sex partners

reported by respondent were commercial sex workers, wives

or girlfriends. Condom use was low with primary partners

and relatively high with sex workers. Treatment facilities,

mostly located in the central urban areas of the country,

are meager, an overwhelming majority of drug abusers felt

the need to stop abusing drugs. Cost-effective drug

treatment and HIV prevention programmers for IDUs are

urgently need in all areas of the country (Chapagain, 2009)


According to (2014) research

contrary to common belief, marijuana is addictive.

estimates from research suggest that about 9 percent of

users become addicted to marijuana; this number increases


among those who start young (to about 17 percent, or 1 in

6) and among people who use marijuana daily (to 25-50

percent).long-term marijuana users trying to quit report

withdrawal symptoms including irritability, sleeplessness,

decreased appetite, anxiety, and drug craving, all of which

can make it difficult to abstain. behavioral interventions,

including cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational

incentives (i.e., providing vouchers for goods or services

to patients who remain abstinent) have proven to be

effective in treating marijuana addiction. although no

medications are currently available, recent discoveries

about the workings of the endocannabinoid system offer

promise for the development of medications to ease

withdrawal, block the intoxicating effects of marijuana,

and prevent relapse.


Problem within local or in the country according to

Sandico (2011) study entitled "Drug Use and Crimes said

that the sole responsibility of the police and other law

enforcement officer, the active responsive community

correlates each other in terms of curbing this drug menace.

he stressed that the community refers to the family itself

considering that the parents are the ones responsible for


the moral fiber of their children, to educate them being

the first teacher and to discuss the will of taking drugs.

By doing this, there will be a strong foundation in terms

of drug prevention. the education institution, from the

primary grade, secondary level or even in college, level it

is the moral responsibilities and obligation of the teacher

to inculcate into the mind of the pupils/students the

disadvantages of taking dangerous drugs.

The evil effects of it when it is taken to the body,

it produce abnormal effect emotionally and physically. The

respondents in the study by Balbino (2011) in Lucena

concluded that the law enforcers were not effective in the

prevention and control of substance abuse in the city. The

other set of respondents, the PNP officers however asserted


While Foncesca's study (2012) focused on the Law

Enforcement effective in dealing with the drug problems in

Lucen City, this study emphasized on the drug control

strategies and the factors, which may draw the victims to

drug abuse.

Rafael (2011) recommended that drug problems are

confronted with more sophistication. Its psychological

impact on Philippine Society has created a chain of adverse


situation, which calls for a more committed support.

However, he noted that the problems received lesser

priority than other current problems, in spite of public

awareness about its long-term effect on the children and

the youth and ultimately on society. While Rafael's study

is confined to psychogical dimension of the drug problems,

this study sought to determine the scope and size of the

drug problems.

Molina (2011) state that it is difficult to address

the problem of drug consumption. While many well to do and

educated users consumed small amount of drugs, alcohol and

tobacco despite the known consequences, the poor users

consumed more drug, alcohol and tobacco in seeking to

anesthetize themselves and escape the thought of living in

desperate condition. He recommend that the best solution to

the drug problems is the eradication of the social malaise,

which feeds drug abuse, and the promotion of human and

environmental development, which are healthful to the

growth of a strong family and community with an ingrained

sense of moral value. his study is different from the

present study in the sense that Molina studies the factors

affecting the drug consumptions of the rich and the poor


uses, while the present study determines only extent of the

drug problems in the study of drug dependency problems.

Octavio Jr (2011) found that the use of illicit drugs

was prevalent among the male victims and that unemployment

was related to the problem. His findings show that drug

users come from different socio economic status thought it

is more prominent among those who belong to the low-income

group. octavio presented that the drug problem is a multi-

faced issue since there are a number of causes, which exert

influence to the problem. He commended that both the

government and the private sectors join forces in combating

the drug menace by addressing the individual issues, which

contribute to the problem. His work is in a way similar to

the present study as he focused on the multiple factors

contributing to the existence of the drug problem. As cited

by ocden (2008) study entitled "addressing drug problem in

baguio city" the Philippine National Police has adequate

anti-illegal drug programs of action. The organization has

an unmistakably firm commitment to eradicate the drug


Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies

The study and research on Philippine National Police

anti-illegal drug campaign is a very reliable sources of

empirical date in analyzing the perception of students in

the implementation of OPLAN Tokhang. The conduct of the

study is very timely and necessary since the trend to anti-

illegal drug campaign has evolved into a very complex


Literatures reviewed in the research revealed the

problem of drug addiction appear to be difficult to

prevent. The drug menace has penetrated almost all spectrum

of the society despite the prevention and suppression

efforts being exerted by law enforcement and other

government this has resulted in the upsurge of drug-related

crimes, many of which are heinous all of the major concerns

of the study was considered by the present study.

Numerous policy efforts have been implemented to

combat drug problems. That the study of Beaver, Aldred and

Gover contains data vital to this study since they were

able to spell-out the law enforcement personnel have been

very active in the eradication of illegal drug supply which

is related to the study at hand when it comes to anti-

illegal drug program.


Siegel identified the characteristics of those who are

prone to commit delinquent acts. They include psychological

and biological abnormalities and other illness, which

compels a person to take illicit drugs, Mangwong on the

other hand, seeks to present the pressure of PAKIKISAMA

in including a person to take drug while Lauder survey

reveals the distorted social bond which accelerates ones

drive to succumb to the lure of drugs.

Meanwhile , the Dangerous Drug Board railed the

prevents to do something about the problem instead of just

sitting down to watch unfolding of a problem, which may

eventually destroy its victims, particularly the youth.

The prevention strategies, which the private sectors

are expected to carry out and control strategies the police

units are duty bound to execute, are effective measures

conductive to enhancement of efforts to prevail in the war

against drugs. Unless they are mobilized efficiently, any

hope to establish drug free community may be elusive


However, it can be noted that no study has been

conducted on the perception of students in the

implementation of OPLAN Tokhang. This is the identified gap


of the studies which will be considered as the contribution

of this endeavor.