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Chapter 5

Mole Concept
Chemical Reaction

Mole & Stoichiometry

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
Defined as one-twelfth of the mass of the 12C isotope of carbon.
1 amu = 1.66054 x 10-24 g
1 g = 6.02214 x 1023 amu

Relative Atomic Mass, Ar

the mass of an atom is very small

A suitable way to determine the mass of an atom is by comparing its
mass with the mass of a standard atom
In 1961, the international unions of chemists and physicists agreed to use
isotope carbon-12 as a standard. Why?
Because natural abundance of C-12 is very high and also very stable

Ar = mass of an atom
1/12 x mass of a C-12 atom
Average Atomic Mass
(Average Relative Atomic Mass)
Most elements occur in nature as mixture of isotopes.
We can determine the average atomic mass of an element by using the
masses of its various isotopes and their relative abundances.
Also known as atomic weight.

Atomic weight = [(isotope mass) x (fractional isotopes abundance)]

Naturally occurring chlorine is 75.53% 35Cl, which has an atomic mass of
34.969 amu, and 24.47% 37Cl, which has an atomic mass of 36.966 amu.
Calculate the average atomic mass (atomic weight) of chlorine.

Atomic weight
= (0.7553) (34.969) + (0.2447) (36.966)
= 26.41amu + 9.046 amu
= 35.46 amu
Relative molecular Mass, Mr
(Molecular weight)

the no. of times the molecule is greater than 1/12 times of the mass of a
carbon-12 atom.
the sum of the Ar of all atoms in a molecular formula.

Mr = mass of a molecule
1/12 x mass of a C-12 atom


Compound molecular weight

Molecular compound 9(12.0) + 8(1.0) + 4(16.0)
Aspirin (C9H8O4) = 180.0 amu
Relative Formula Mass
(formula weight)

For substance consists of ions

the method is similar to the method used to determine Mr

Compound Relative Formula Mass

Sodium chloride (NaCl) 1(23.0) + 1(35.5) = 58.5 amu

CuSO4.5H2O ?

A mole of the amount of substance that contains as many atoms,

molecules, or ions as are in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
The number of formula units in a mole is known as Avogadros number (NA)
Avogadros number has been measured experimentally. Its value is 6.022 x
1023 formula units per mole.
1 mole of any element always contains Avogadros number of atoms.
1 mole of a compound contains Avogadros number of molecules
(molecular compound) or formula units (ionic compound)

1 mol of atoms = 6.022 x 1023 atoms

1 mol of molecules = 6.022 x 1023 molecules
1 mol of ions = 6.022 x 1023 ions
substance No. & type of particles

1 mole Al 6.02 x 1023 Al atoms

6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules

1 mole H2O H atoms
O atoms
1 mole NaCl 6.02 x 1023 NaCl formula units
We can use Avogadros number (NA) as a conversion factor to convert
between the moles of a substance and the no. of particles it contains.

Moles NA Particles
Example: Calculate the number of molecules of ammonia, NH3
present in 1.75 moles ammonia
Step 1: Given: 1.75 mole NH3 Need: molecules of NH3

Step 2: Conversion factor:

1 mole NH3 = 6.02 x 1023 molecules NH3

6.02 x 1023 molecules NH3 1 mole NH3

1 mole NH3 6.02 x 1023 molecules NH3

Step 3: Calculate the no. of NH3 molecules

1.75 mole NH3 X

Mole of Elements in a Formula

The subscripts in a chemical formula of a compound indicate the number

of atoms of each type of element.
The subscripts also indicate the number of moles of each element in 1
mole of the compound.


Nitrogen Oxygen

Atoms in 1 molecule

Moles of atoms in 1
mole of compound
Example: Calculate the number of moles of carbon atoms in
1.50 moles aspirin, C9H8O4
Step 1: Given: 1.50 moles C9H8O4 Need: moles of C atoms

Step 2: Conversion factor:

1 mole C9H8O4 = 9 mole C atoms

9 moles C 1 mole C9H8O4

1 mole C9H8O4 9 moles C

Step 3:

9 moles C
1.50 moles C9H8O4 X
1 mole C9H8O4

the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substances

one 24Mg atom weights 24 amu
1 mol 24Mg weights 24g
one H2O molecule weights 18.0 amu
1 mol H2O weights 18.0g
one NO3- ion weights 62.0 amu
1 mol NO3- weights 62.0g

Q: Calculate the molar mass of Ba(OH)2.

(atomic mass: Ba = 137.3 , O = 16.00 , H = 1.008 )

The formula of this compound contains one atom Ba and 2 atoms
each of O and H.
1 atom Ba = 1(137.3) = 137.3 g
2 atom H = 2(1.008) = 2.016 g
2 atom O = 2(16.00) = 32.00 g
171.3 g

mass of 1 mol of Ba(OH)2 is 171.3 g

Thus, the molar mass of Ba(OH)2 is 171.3 g/mol
Example: Calculate the molar mass of NaNO3
We can use molar mass to convert from grams to moles, and from moles to
We can use Avogadros number to convert from moles to the number of
molecules or atoms.

Grams atom/
Moles molecules
Use molar mass Use NA

Example: Silver metal is used in the manufacture of tableware, mirror, jewelry

and dental alloys. If the design for a piece of jewelry requires 0.750 moles
silver, how many grams of silver are needed?

Step 1: Given: 0.750 moles Ag Need: grams of Ag


Q : Calculate the number of moles of water in 36.0 g water

We know 1 mol H2O = 18.0 g/mol

The conversion is: gram mol
Use conversion factor
1 mol H2O
18.0 g H2O

Thus the calculation:

1 mol H 2 O
36.0 g H 2O x = 2.00 mol H 2 O
18.0 g H 2O
Q: Sulfur is a nonmetallic element that is present in coal. How many
atoms are in 16.3 g of S?
(atomic mass: S = 32.07 )
1) Helium (He) is a valuable gas used in industry, low temperature research,
deep-sea diving tanks and balloons. How many moles of He are in 6.46 g
of He?

2) Calculate the number of moles of glucose, C6H12O6, in 5.380 g of this

3) Calculate the mass, in gram, of 0.433 mol of calcium nitrate.
4) Calculate the number of molecules and the number of oxygen atoms in
4.20 g of nitric acid, HNO3?
Percent Composition Of Compounds

Percent composition of element:

Total molar mass of elements

x 100%
Molar mass of compound

What is the mass percent of C element in glucose (C6H12O6)?

molar mass of C6H12O6 = 180.16 g/mol

%C= 6 (12.01 g) C = 40%

x 100
180.16 g C 6H12O 6

The glucose contains 40% C.

Exercise: Calculate the percentage composition of C12H22O11
Empirical Formula & Molecular Formula

Empirical formula:
simplest formula
tells which elements are present and the simplest whole-number
ratio of their atoms.

molecular formula:
true formula
shows the exact number of atoms of each element present in one
molecule of a compound.

Structural formula:
Shows the order in which atoms are bonded together in a molecule
and what type of bonds

Water (H2O) Acetic acid (CH3COOH)

Empirical formula: H2O Empirical formula:

Empirical formula: H2O Empirical formula:

Structural formula: O Structural formula:



Write the empirical formula for the following molecules

a) acetylene (C2H2)
b) glucose (C6H12O6)
c) nitrous oxide (N2O)
General Procedure for Determining Empirical Formula

Given: Find:

Mass % Empirical
elements formula

Assume 100g sample Calculate mole ratio

Use molar mass

Grams of each Moles of each
elements elements

Dibutyl succinate is an insect repellent used against household ants and roaches.
Its composition is 62.58% C, 9.63% H and 27.79% O. The experimentally
determined molecular weight of this substance is 230 amu. What are the
empirical and molecular formulas of dibutyl succinate?


Empirical formula
Step 1: Determine the mass of each element (assume 100g sample)
Step 2: Convert grams to moles
Step 3: Calculate mole ratio.
Divide each number of moles by the smallest number of moles
Step 4: Make all the subscripts integral (whole number)
if the subscripts differ only slightly from whole numbers, round
them off to whole numbers.
if one or more subscripts is not a whole number, multiply all
subscripts by a small whole number that will make all subscripts

1) Mass 62.58g 9.63g 27.79g

2) Moles 5.210 mol 9.53 mol 1.737 mol

3) Ratio of moles 3 5.49 1

4) Multiply by 2 6 11 2

Empirical formula : C6H11O2

Empirical formula weight = 6(12.01) + 11(1.01) + 2(16.00)

= 115

Molecular formula: (C6H11O2)n

(115) n = 230

Molecular formula: (C6H11O2)2 = C12H22O4


1. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contains 40.92% C, 4.58% H, and 54.50%

O by mass. What is the empirical formula of ascorbic acid?
2. Mesitylene, a hydrocarbon that occurs in small amounts in crude oil,
has an empirical formula of C3H4. The experimentally determined
molecular weight of this substance is 121 amu. What is the
molecular formula of mesitylene?
Chemical Equations

Chemical reaction: a process in which a substance is changed into

one or more new substances.
Chemical equation uses chemical symbols to show what happens
during a chemical reaction.
In a chemical reaction, atoms are neither created nor destroyed.
All atoms present in the reactants must also be present in the
Reactants: the starting materials in a chemical reaction
Product: The substance formed in the chemical reaction

A + B C + D

Reactants Products:
Writing and Balancing Equation

Example: silver nitrate reacts with hydrogen sulfide to produce silver

sulfide and nitric acid. Write a balance equation.

Step 1: word equation

silver nitrate + hydrogen sulfide silver sulfide + nitric acid

Step 2: skeleton equation

AgNO3 + H2S Ag2S + HNO3

Step 3: Balance the equation

2AgNO3 + H2S Ag2S + 2HNO3

Check the number of atoms on both sides must equal


Balance the following equations

a) CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O
CH4 (g) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g)
CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g)

b) Na (s) + H2O (l) NaOH + H2


Balance the following equations:

a) Al + HCl AlCl3 + H2

b) AgNO3 + K2SO4 Ag2SO4 + KNO3

c) C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O

d) Na3PO4 + Ba(NO3)2 Ba3(PO4)2 + NaNO3

e) Cr(OH)3 + HClO4 Cr(ClO4)3 + H2O


The quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical

The number of moles of one substance is stoichiometrically
equivalent to the number of moles of any other substance.

2CO (g) + O2 (g) 2CO2 (g)

2 mol CO 1 mol O2 2 mol CO2

Calculation From Chemical Equations


Given one of these find one of these

Grams of A Moles of A Moles of B Grams of B

Use the coefficients

in the balanced
Use molar mass Use molar mass
Examples 1: Mole mole calculation

Q: How many moles of water will be produced by the reaction of 2.0

mol of glucose (C6H12O6), according to the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

1mol C6H12O6 6 mol H2O

Conversion needed: moles C6H12O6 moles H2O

Moles of water produced:

6 mol H2O
2.0 mol C6H12O6
1 mol C6H12O6
Examples 2: Mass mole calculation

Q: How many moles of water can be produced by burning 325 g of

octane (C8H18)?
2 C8H18 (g) + 25O2 (g) 16 CO2 (g) + 18 H2O (g)

Conversion needed:

Gram C8H18 moles C8H18 moles H2O

molar mass coefficients in the

balanced equation
Examples 3: Mass mass calculation

Q: Suppose 10.7 g of carbon monoxide react completely with oxygen

to form carbon dioxide. How many grams of CO2 will be formed?

Write the balanced equation: 2CO(g) + O2 (g) 2CO2 (g)

Conversion needed:

Grams of moles of moles of grams of


How many grams of water are produced in the combustion of 1.00 g of

glucose, C6H12O6
C6H12O6 (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Limiting reactant: the reactant used up first in a reaction.

Excess reactant: the reactants present in quantities greater than
necessary to react with the quantity of the limiting reactant.
The amount of products formed depends on the limiting reactant.

Silver bromide can be formed when solutions containing 50.0 g MgBr2 and
100.0 g AgNO3 are mixed together.

MgBr2 (aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) 2AgBr (s) + Mg(NO3)2 (aq)

(a) Calculate the moles of silver bromide formed from the reaction.
Which of the two reactants is the limiting reagent? Why?
(b) Calculate the mass of silver bromide formed.
(c) Calculate the moles of Mg(NO3)2 produced from reaction.
(d) How much excess reagent (in grams) is left at the end of the
(e) Calculate the percent yield if 85 g of AgBr was obtained from

a) Calculate the moles of AgBr formed from the reaction

Conversion needed:

g reactant mol reactant mol AgBr

Step 1: Determine which reactant is a limiting reactant

Step 2: Calculate moles of AgBr
How to determine the limiting reactant ?

Method 1: grams / moles reactant grams / moles product

From 50.0 g MgBr2 :

50.0 g MgBr2
1 mol MgBr2 2 mol AgBr

184.1 g MgBr2 1 mol MgBr2
= 0.543 mol AgBr

From 100.0 g AgNO3 :

2 mol AgBr
100.0 g AgNO 3 1 mol AgNO 3

169.9 g AgNO 3 2 mol AgNO 3

= 0.589 mol AgBr

The limiting reactant is MgBr2 because it gives less of AgBr moles.

Thus, the moles of AgBr formed from the reaction is 0.543 mol
Method 2: grams reactant moles reactant

Moles MgBr2 :
1mol MgBr 2
50.0 g MgBr 2 0.272 mol MgBr2
184.1g MgBr 2
Moles AgNO3 :
1mol AgNO 3
100.0 g AgNO 3 0.589 mol AgNO 3
169.9 g AgNO 3
From balanced equation:
1 mol MgBr2 2 mol AgNO3
2 mol AgNO 3
0.272 mol MgBr2 x 0.272 mol MgBr2
1 mol MgBr2
= 0.544 mol AgNO3
0.272 mol MgBr2 react with 0.544 mol AgNO3.
but, moles of AgNO3 is 0.589 mol (excess)
Thus, MgBr2 is a limiting reactant
MgBr2 (aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) 2 AgBr (s) + Mg(NO3)2 (aq)

Moles AgBr =

2 mol AgBr
0.272 mol MgBr 2 x 0.544 mol AgBr
1 mol MgBr 2

Limiting reactant
(b) Calculate the mass of silver bromide formed.

(c) Calculate the moles of Mg(NO3)2 produced from reaction.

d) How much excess reagent (in grams) is left at the end of the reaction?

Calculate first the grams of AgNO3 (excess reactant) that will react
with 50.0 g of MgBr2 (limiting reactant)

g MgBr2 Mol MgBr2 Mol AgNO3 g AgNO3

Use the coefficients in

the balanced equation

Theoretical yield: the amount of product that would result if all the
limiting reactant reacted.
Actual yield: the amount of product actually obtained from a

Actual yield x 100%

Percent yield =
Theoretical yield
e) Calculate the percent yield if 85 g of AgBr was obtained from

First, get the theoretical yield of AgBr. How?

102 g AgBr

85 g AgBr
x 100% = 83 %
102 g AgBr
Thus, the percent yield of AgBr is 83 %
Exercise 1

Consider the following reaction

Na3PO4 (aq) + Ba(NO3)2 Ba3(PO4)2 (s) + NaNO3 (aq)
Suppose a solution containing 3.50 g of Na3PO4 is mixed with a solution
containing 6.40 g of Ba(NO3)2. How many grams of Ba3(PO4)2 can be
Exercise 2

A strip of zinc metal weighing 2.00 g is placed in an aqueous solution

containing 2.50 g of silver nitrate, causing the following reaction to
Zn (s) + AgNO3 (aq) Ag (s) + Zn(NO3)2 (aq)
a) Determine the limiting reactant
b) Calculate the mass of Ag formed from this reaction
c) Calculate the mass of Zn(NO3)2 formed from this reaction
d) Calculate the mass of excess reactant left at the end of the reaction