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CLFJR 2014

RME, CPM,OSH

Preventive maintenance of Electrical equipment


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This objective of this summit is to up to date systems for
preventive maintenance, and to provide logical techniques
by which the more common troubles maybe identified and
localized.
To recommend emergency repairs that will keep the
equipment in operation until it can be scheduled out of
service.
To suggest operating procedures, and to outline inspection
programs that will help ensure safe, efficient, economics and
dependable operation.
To have knowledge on how to test the equipment.
To share my knowledge and skills to all electrical
practitioner and other professionals

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Electrical equipment-
any machine powered by electricity
Electrical machine -
An electrical machine is the apparatus that converts
energy in three categories: Generators which
convert mechanical energy to electrical energy, Motors
which convert electrical energy to mechanical energy,
and Transformers which changes the voltage level either
High voltage to low voltage or Low voltage to High voltage
of an alternating current. (step down/step-up transformer)

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Alternating Current Motors

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AC Motors

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Large Motor 4.16kv 700hp

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MGES Vacuum pump

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Generators

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Maintenance

Planned unplanned

Preventive Corrective Breakdown

Periodic

Predictive

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Types of maintenance - unplanned

1. Breakdown maintenance - It means that people/management waits


until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when
the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or
BM production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

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Breakdown of switch gear/MCC & transformer

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Circuit breaker

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2. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (1951 ) -
It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening ), design to retain the
healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration,
periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further

PM divided into PERIODIC maintenance and PREDICTIVE maintenance. Just like human life is
extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing
preventive maintenance.

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Types of maintenance
2a Periodic maintenance (Time based maintenance - TBM)
Time based maintenance consists of periodically
inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and
PM replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process
problems.

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2b Predictive maintenance
This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or
diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic
maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend
PM values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance
system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.

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Planned maintenance

3. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 )


It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance
can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be
redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability
CM OVERHAULING
1. Replacement of parts. 2. Testing of electrical equipment 3. Calibration of
protection relays 4. Replacement of new motors (as spare)

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Cooling tower 200hp, 440v, 3phase

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On line monitoring system

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On line monitoring system

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Preventive maintenance of EE

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How to measure Insulation resistance

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Winding insulation resistance
If the motor is not put into operation immediately upon
arrival, it is important to protect it against external
factors like moisture, high temperature and
impurities in order to avoid damage to the insulation.
Before the motor is put into operation after a long
period of storage, you have to measure the winding
insulation resistance.
If the motor is kept in a place with high humidity, a
periodical inspection is necessary.

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Winding insulation resistance
It is practically impossible to determine rules for the
actual minimum insulation resistance value of a motor
because resistance varies according to method of
construction, condition of insulation material used,
rated voltage, size and type. In fact, it takes many years
of experience to determine whether a motor is ready
for operation or not.

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How to measure Insulation resistance

Ground insulation test of a motor


Safety Tips :
During the measurement and immediately afterwards, some of the terminals carry
dangerous voltages and MUST NOT BE TOUCHED.
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Three points are worth mentioning in this connection:
Insulation resistance, Measurement and Checking.

1. Insulation resistance
The minimum insulation resistance of new, cleaned
or repaired windings with respect to ground is 10
Megohm or more.
The minimum insulation resistance, R, is calculated
by multiplying the rated voltage Un, with
the constant factor 0.5 Megohm/kV.

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2. Measurement
Minimum insulation resistance of the winding to
ground is measured with 500 V DC. The winding
temperature should be 25C 15C.
Maximum insulation resistance should be measured
with 500 V DC with the windings at a operating
temperature of 80 120C depending on the motor
type and efficiency.

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3. Checking
If the insulation resistance of a new, cleaned or
repaired motor that has been stored for some time is
less then 10 megaohm, the reason might be that the
windings are humid and need to be dried.
If the motor has been operating for a long period of
time, the minimum insulation resistance may drop to
a critical level. As long as the measured value does
not fall below the calculated value of minimum
insulation resistance, the motor can continue to run.

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However, if it drops below this limit, the motor has to
be stopped immediately, in order to avoid that people
get hurt due to the high leakage voltage.

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Factors affecting the winding insulation resistance

Ambient temperature is often overlooked as a


design criteria.
Ambient temperatures below 30 C can
require special bearing lubricant and material
requirements. Conversely, ambient temperatures
above 40 C may result in the allowable motor
temperature rise to be lowered, which effectively de-
rates the motor output.

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Instrument use in testing of insulation
of the equipment

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Hydro power plant

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A general rule-of-thumb is 10 Megohm or more.
Insulation resistance value Insulation level
2 Megohm or less Bad

2-5 Megohm Critical

5-10 Megohm Abnormal

10-50 Megohm Good

50-100 Megohm Very good

100 Megohm or more Excellent

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Class insulation

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Preventive maintenance of Motor Control

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Cleaning of contacts

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Generator breaker

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Winding resistance tester -DLRO

use to measure the low resistance of


the winding in terms of micro ohms

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Testing of Transformer

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Windings to ground

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Motor testing of insulation resistance
Winding to winding

Winding to ground
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