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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

The Frequency Dependence of Magneto-conductivity Tensors in Pr-doped


High Temperature Superconductors Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7
1
Hargyan Singh*,1Anup Kumar, 1P. K. Sharma, 1Deepak Sharma, and 2R. Swarup
1Department of Applied Sciences & Humanities, IIMT College of Engineering, Greater Noida (U. P.) India
2Department of Physics, D.S. College, Aligarh-202001 (U.P.) India

1*hargyansingh2011@gmail.com, 2ram.sswarup@gmail.com

Abstract: The study on the high-Tc superconductors Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 for x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1 had been made for their
magneto-potentials behaviors as transport-properties in these materials. The Hall Effect measurement had been
investigated using six-probe Hall geometry under radio-frequency (RF) signaling at room temperature T. The magneto-
potentials (VH) having oscillatory nature had been recorded with changing frequencies (0.5-7) MHz and magnetic fields at
6000 Gauss. These magneto-potentials have been employed to compute the various physical parameters as Hall coefficient
RH~1014esu, electron concentration n~1012esu, plasma frequency p~1010sec-1, longitudinal resistivity xx ~ 101cm.
and Hall resistivity xy ~ 103cm. The Hall coefficient RH suppresses alongwith xx and xy with doping whereas the other
physical parameters fluctuated in magnitude by doping of praseodymium (Pr) in these materials under RF-perturbations.

Keywords High-Tc superconductors, transport properties, magneto-potentials, magneto-conductivity


tensors and RF-perturbations

I. INTRODUCTION
After the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS), most research activities have been directed to the study
of fundamental physical properties of these materials. The doping processes with various elements were found to be useful
and effective in improving the properties of high-Tc superconductors. In Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7, a substitution of Pr at the Y
site, decreases Tc monotonically to zero at x 0.55 [1]. Pr is the only rare-earth element which suppresses both the Tc to
zero and preserves the 1-2-3 structure up to complete substitution [2]. It has been shown that doping of HTS YBCO with
Pr, both the residual resistivity 0 and the normal-state slope d/ dT are found to increase; thus Pr doping may increase
the elastic scattering rate or decrease the charge carrier density or both [3].

It has also been shown that doping YBCO with Pr is also found to suppress the sign reversal. Specifically, Jia et al. [4]
observed that the sign reversal in the Hall resistivity disappeared in a Y0.8Pr0.2Ba2Cu3O7 single crystal. Almasan et al. [5]
reported that the sign reversal occurs in Y0.87Pr0.13Ba2Cu3O7. However, these measurements were performed on samples
which were gold doped, twinned or both [4], [5]. Because of the unusual nature of this effect, and the fact that there is still
speculation that this effect depends on pinning. In transport study of single Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 crystal (0 x 1) Jiang et al.
[6] have found that, while the magnitude of Hall coefficient (RH) varies with x, its temperature dependence is essentially
the same for all superconducting samples (x upto ~ 0.55) for T 120K.

In the present investigation, we have studied the magneto-radio-frequency (MRF) stimulated conduction process in high-
Tc superconductors Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 for x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1, observing the magneto potential (VH) records with
changing both the frequency and magnetic fields at 300K. This data had been used to compute various physical parameters
of interest.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

II. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS


The bulk samples of pure as well as Pr doped HTS YBCO were prepared by using conventional ceramic processing
techniques with Y2O3, BaCO3, CuO and Pr6O11 as the starting materials having purity 99.999% (Aldrich USA) in
accordance with fractional weight. After weighing these mixtures, the powder mixture was thoroughly ground for 1 hour
and put ground powder in programmable furnace (Model No. C-19) for 12 hours in air at 850oC for 1st calcination. The
mixture powder taken from furnace by quenching process to room temperature and grounded again for 45 minutes and
then put in furnace for 12 hours at 875oC for 2nd calcinations.

Against mixture powder taken from furnace by quenching process to room temperature and grounded again for 45
minutes and then put in furnace for 12 hours at 900oC for 3rd calcination. Again mixture powder taken from the furnace
by quenching process to room temperature and grounded 45 minutes and then put in furnace for 12 hours at 925oC for 4th
calcination. Again mixture powder was taken from furnace by quenching process to 300K and grounded again for 45
minutes and palletized at 4.5 ton (k bar) pressure. Then put in furnace for 12 hours at 940oC with flowing of oxygen (O2)
then at 850oC for 12 hours with flowing O2 then at 750oC for 12 hours with flowing O2 then at 600oC for 24 hours with
flowing O2 then at 400 oC for 12 hours with flowing O2 and furnace was made off and cooled to room temperature with
flowing O2. Now the required samples are found ready to make experimental observations.

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


The superconducting transition was observed using the standard four probe resistance technique at the measurement
current of 10 mA in the temperature range 70K to 300K. Air drying silver paste (paste was formed by isoamil acetate,
which is in liquid form) was used for making electrical contracts on the samples. The sample temperature was monitored
within an accuracy of + 0.1 K using a standard 100-ohm platinum sensor in conjunction with the Keithley 224
programmable constant current source and Keithley 181 nono-voltmeter. The electrical resistivity versus temperature
measured for Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x = 0, 0.05, and 0.1) is shown in Fig. 1.

It is observed from the figure 1 that the doping process reduces the superconducting transition with these HTS. In
present investigations, one may observe that the transition temperatures (Tc) of YPBCO bulk superconductors are found
to be 89K, 87.6K and 84.4K for x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1 respectively. The transition temperatures of YPBCO films [7] were
also found by measuring their resistance to be approximately 90K, 89K, 86K, 72K, 64K, 46K and 26K for x = 0.0, 0.05,
0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.45 respectively.

The frequency dependent magneto conductivity tensors shown in table 1 indicates (i) xx as well as xy are oscillatory
with frequency rise both for pure as well as Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x = 0.1), (ii) at particular frequency, there is vital suppression
in xx values with Pr doping and (iii) the transverse magneto resistivity xy shows typical suppression at different
frequencies trends with Pr doping.

ix
VH RH Hz
The Hall potential VH may be written as b , where longitudinal current ix is in x-direction, Hz is the
magnetic field in transverse z-direction, b is the thickness of sample. The term RH is called Hall coefficient which is closely
associated with the concentration of different electrical carriers having different polarities and their mobilities participating
Ey
RH
in electrical conduction in the material of Hall probe and may be written as Jx Hz . For single dominant electrical
1
RH
carrier, the Hall coefficients may be written as nec . The plasma frequency p = (4ne2/m)1/2 may also be computed
using the experimental magneto-potential records (the terms having their usual meanings) in order to describe their
characteristic behaviour changes under MRF-excitations as shown in the Fig.-2, Fig.-3 and Fig.-4.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

Fig.1: Temperature dependent resistivity of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1)

YBa2Cu3O7 Y0.9Pr0.1Ba2Cu3O7
xx xy 103 xx xy 103
f(MHz)
(cm.) (cm.) (cm.) (cm.)
1 0.416 0.413 0.104 0.400
2 0.429 0.465 0.103 0.454
3 0.500 0.389 0.114 0.333
4 0.657 0.431 0.115 0.404
5 0.444 0.884 0.122 0.395
6 0.512 0.806 0.129 0.354
7 0.523 0.735 0.114 0.409

Table 1: The magneto-conductivity tensors for Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x = 0.0, 0.1) at H = 6000 Gauss, ix = 5mA.

YBa2Cu3O7
7 Y0.95Pr0.05Ba2Cu3O7
Y0.9Pr0.1Ba2Cu3O7
Hall Coefficient RH(x10 )
-14

2
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Frequency (MHz)

Fig. 1 Frequency dependent Hall coefficient RH of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x= 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) at 300K, H = 6000 Gauss.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

8
Y B a 2C u 3O 7
Y 0 .9 5 P r 0 .0 5 B a 2 C u 3 O 7
7
Y 0 .9 P r 0 .1 B a 2 C u 3 O 7

Plasma Frequency w (x10 )


10
6

p
5

2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Frequency (M H z)

Fig. 2 Frequency dependent plasma frequency p of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x= 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) at 300K, H = 6000 Gauss.

YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7
1.8
Y 0.95 Pr 0.05 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7
Electron Concentration n(x10 )

Y 0.9 Pr 0.1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7
12

1.5

1.2

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2 8.0
Frequency (MHz)

Fig. 4 Frequency dependent electron concentration n of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x= 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) at 300K, H = 6000
Gauss.

It is observed that the Hall coefficient varies in oscillatory manner with the rise of frequency at H = 6000G and
magnitude of RH in the same order (1014) is suppressed with doping of Pr in high-Tc superconductors YBCO [8]. The
frequency dependent electron concentration (n ~1012 esu) and plasma frequency (p~1010 sec-1) decrease in the same
order with the rise of frequency in case of pure as well as Pr-doped YBCO.

IV. CONCLUSIONS
The electrical as well as magneto conductions of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x = 0, 0.05, and 0.1) are deeply influenced by MRF
perturbation at room temperature. The doping of Pr in high-Tc superconductor YBCO seems to suppress the Hall
potentials along with the various physical parameters as Hall coefficient RH~1014 esu, electron concentration n~1012 esu,
plasma frequency p~1010 sec-1, longitudinal resistivity xx ~ 101cm. and Hall resistivity xy ~ 103cm. in the same
order.

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IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Dr. S.K. Agrawal, Superconductivity Division, NPL, New Delhi, for providing the necessary facilities and
making the HTS YBCO samples.

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[4] Y. X. Jia, J. Z. Liu, M. D. Lan, and R. N. Schelton, Phys. Rev. B 47, 6043-6050,1993.
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