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Since there was already a thorough discussion of Eriksons theory of psychosocial development

as provided by the reporters and there was already

What I am providing here is only additional information regarding Eriksons Psychosocial

development Theory considering that there was already a thorough discussion of this theory as
provided by the reporters and the post.
The following are the content of my post:
I. Difference as to Eriksons idea from Freud
II. Educational implications of the 8 stages of development
III. Value of the Theory

First, Erikson stressed that

First, Erikson stressed that children are active, curious explorers who seekto adapt to their
environment, rather than passive slave to biological
urgest h a t a r e m o l d e d b y t h e i r p a r e n t s . E r i k s o n h a s b e e n l a b e l e d a n
e g o psychologist because he believed that at each stage of life, people
mustcope with social realities in order to adopt successfully and display a normalpattern of
development. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that wedevelop through social
interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity isconstantly changing due to new
experience and information we acquire inour daily interactions with others.
In addition to ego identity, Erikson alsobelieved that a sense of competence also
motivates behaviors and actions.Each stage in Eriksons theory is concerned with becoming
competent in ana r e a o f l i f e . I f t h e s t a g e i s h a n d l e d w e l l , t h e p e r s o n w i l l f e e l
a s e n s e o f mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or
ego quality.

If t h e s t a g e i s m a n a g e d p o o r l y , t h e p e r s o n w i l l e m e r g e w i t h a s e n s
e of inadequacy. So in Erikson theory, the
e g o i s f a r m o r e t h a n a s i m p l e mediator of the opposing demands of the id
and superego

A second critical difference between Erikson and Freud is that Eriksonp l

aces much less emphasis on sexual urges or Freuds th
e o r y o f psychosexual stages and far more emphasis on cultural influen
c e s a n d describes the impact of social experience across the whole
lifespan.E r i k s o n b e l i e v e d t h a t p e o p l e f a c e e i g h t m a j o r c r i s e s , w h i c h h e l a b e
l e d psychosocial stages, during the course of their life. Each crisis emerge at adistinct time
dictated by biological maturation and the social demands that people experience at particular
points in life. Each crisis must be resolvedsuccessfully to prepare for a satisfactory
resolution of the next life crisis.Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves
as a turning pointin development. In Eriksons view, these conflicts are centered on
eitherdeveloping a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality.
Duringt h e s e t i m e s , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p e r s o n a l g r o w t h i s h i g h , b u t s o
i s t h e potential for failure

II. Trust vs Mistrust

Nurture and care the child during infancy
Give good quality of care. This means, consistency and regularity
Autonomy vs Shame and doubt
Guide the child gradually and firmly during early childhood. Help him build self-esteem and
independence as she learns new skills andthe difference betweenwrong. Eriksoncautions against
overlypermissive and harshparenting style, whichmay lead the child to beoverly impulsive orexperience
extremeshame and doubt.
Do not over-protect; befirm; show atience and tolerance
Initiative vs Guilt
Support the
childs initiative
and help himachieve goalsduring this stage

Do not over-protect; befirm; show patience and tolerance

Industry vs inferiority
Encouragement of good-efforts from parents and teachers; Give positivefeedback when the
child shows/showed goo

Identity vs Role confusion

Help the childdiscover hisidentity. Lead himto find the rightpeers. Give himstimulants todiscover hisstrengths.
Should be given freedom toexplore the different options in life but withproper guidance
Intimacy vs isolation
Connect withothers, physicallyand emotionally.
One must first establisha sense of identity before true intimacy canbe found.

Generativity vs isolation
Contribute toyour family
One must first establisha sense of identity before true intimacy canbe found.

Ego identity vs despair

Accept failures and success.
Having made gooddecisions in the previous stages

Value of the theory

One value of this theory is that it illuminates why individuals who have been thwarted in the healthy resolution of
early phases (such as in learning healthylevels of trust and autonomy in toddlerhood) had such difficulty with the
crises that came in adulthood. More importantly, it did so in a way that providedanswers for practical application.
It raised new potential for therapists and their patients to identify key issues and skills which required addressing.
But at thesame time, it yielded a guide or yardstick that could be used to assess teaching and child rearing
practices in terms of their ability to nurture and facilitatehealthy emotional and cognitive development.
Every adult, whether he is a follower or a leader, a member of a mass or of an elite, was once a child. He was
once small. A sense of smallnessforms a substratum in his mind, ineradicably. His triumphs will be measured
against this smallness, his defeats will substantiate it. The questions asto who is bigger and who can do or not do
this or that, and to whomthese questions fill the adult's inner life far beyond the necessities and
thedesirabilities which he understands and for which he plans