© All Rights Reserved

3 tayangan

© All Rights Reserved

- WisDOTPrestressedGirderDesignStudy (1)
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beam for Strength and Seviceability
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams for Strength And
- deep beam paper.pdf
- Anil (Final)
- Deep Beam
- Strong Well Gridform Design Guide
- 234745551-Corbel-Design.xlsx
- Why Concrete Still Crack and Leak.pdf
- steeel skid strength
- Article 03
- Birtel
- Composite Beams with Limited-Slip-Capacity Shear Connectors.pdf
- Influence of the Link Overstrength Factor on the Seismic Behaviour Of
- Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced High Performance Concrete Beams Subjected to Bending
- 00-Introduction.pdf
- Presentation 1
- Shear and flexural behaviour of concrete beams
- Influence of Steel Fibres on the Shear Strength of Concrete
- Shear Capacity of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Coupling Beams Using

Anda di halaman 1dari 16

1, 2014

Slender RC Beams without Web Reinforcement

E-Mail: malzoubi@mutah.edu.jo

ABSTRACT

This study presents a method that combines both dimensional analysis and statistical regression analysis for

predicting the shear capacity of slender reinforced concrete (RC) beams without web reinforcement taking the

size effect into consideration. This method incorporates the modified Buckingham-PI theorem (Butterfield,

1999, Geotechnique 49(3), 357-366) to formulate two mathematical models for predicting the shear capacity

at the formation of diagonal tension cracks and at the ultimate shear strength. The results of the two models

are compared with several sets of existing experimental results. This study shows that the variations in the

experimental results of shear capacity of slender RC beams ( a / d 2.5 ) defined at the formation of

diagonal tension cracks of beams can be explained by the variations of the concrete tensile strength and the

variations in the experimental results of ultimate shear strength of slender RC beams ( a / d 2.5 ) can be

explained by the variations of the concrete splitting strength.

KEYWORDS: Reinforced concrete beams, Diagonal tension cracking, Moment capacity, Ultimate

shear strength, Concrete tensile strength, Concrete splitting strength.

including failure due to flexure, shear compression,

Many concrete structural members such as slabs diagonal tension cracking, concrete splitting of the

and foundations do not use shear reinforcement. Hence, compression zone, bond or anchorage. For RC beams

knowledge of shear carrying capacity of reinforced with shear span to depth ratio a / d greater than about

concrete (RC) beams without web reinforcement is 6, failure is generally governed by flexure whereas for

necessary in these cases (Rebeiz et al., 2000). RC beams with a / d of less than about 6, failure is

Furthermore, most theoretical and experimental studies initiated by the formation of diagonal tension cracks in

on beams without web reinforcement also provide the shear span. RC beams with 2.5 a / d 6

useful insights for the explanation of failure generally fail upon the formation of diagonal tension

mechanism in beams with stirrups (Zararis and cracks when the tensile concrete strength is reached or

Papadakis, 2001) particularly in the availability of shortly afterwards (MacGregor, 1997) when concrete

large shear database for reinforced concrete members splitting strength of the compression zone is reached

without shear reinforcement (e.g., Reineck et al., (Zararis and Papadakis, 2001); whereas beams with

2003). Reinforced concrete beams without web a / d of less than about 2.5 may carry additional loads

reinforcement may, depending on the shear span to in excess of those that cause the diagonal tension

cracks due to arch action (MacGregor, 1997).

Accepted for Publication on 6/11/2013. Various approaches or models are available in the

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

literature for the evaluation and/or determination of the combined action of moment and shear taking the size

shear strength of RC beams (e.g., Clark, 1951; Van effect into consideration is evaluated at the formation

Den Berg,1962; Zsutty, 1968, 1971; Bazant and Kim, of diagonal tension cracks and at ultimate shear failure

1984; Vecchio and Collins, 1986; Hsu et al., 1987; by using a method that combines both dimensional

analysis and statistical analysis. Several sets of

Adebar and Collins, 1996; Collins et al., 1996;

experimental data were carefully selected such that the

Reineck, 1991; Kim and Park, 1996; Rebeiz, 1999;

influence of each basic variable (i.e., longitudinal steel

Zararis and Papadakis, 2001; Russo et al., 2005; Bentz

et al., 2006; AASHTO LRFD, 2004; CSA A23.3-2004; ratio , concrete compressive strength f c' , shear span

ACI318-2008; Arslan, 2008, 2010, 2012; Appa Rao to depth ratio a / d or beam size d ) can be separately

and Injaganeri, 2011). Despite the useful and valuable evaluated. Comparison with existing experimental

results reported in literature for the shear behavior of results as well as with four existing models supports

RC beams and factors affecting their shear failure (e.g., the validity of the two proposed models in predicting

ACI 445R-99), a fundamental theory explaining the and explaining the observed behavior of slender RC

mechanism of shear failure of beams is still missing or beams ( a / d 2.5 ) without web reinforcement.

unresolved (Zararis and Papadakis, 2001; Zararis,

2003) as evidenced by the differences between Dimensional and Regression Analysis for RC Beams

experimental results and theoretical analysis. As a for Different Modes of Failure

result, the available methods (including international Dimensional analysis by the modified Buckingham-

codes such as the AASHTO LRFD, 2004; CSA A23.3- PI theorem (Butterfield, 1999) is used in this study to

2004; ACI318-2008) are based on a rather empirical or evaluate the behavior of slender RC beams without

semi-empirical consideration. Hence, a dimensional web reinforcement. The goal of dimensional

analysis along with statistical regression analysis may analysis is to minimize the dimension space in

be suitable for predicting the behavior of RC beams which the behavior of a certain system might be

and can be used to give reasonably well predictions and studied by systematically combining the assumed

sufficiently accurate method of analysis if the governing n variables VAR V1 , V2 , V3 ,.., Vn ,

appropriate governing variables are considered. For involving a total of m independent primary

example, Phatak and Dhonde (2003) successfully dimensions D D1 , D2 , D3 ,.., Dm , into N ( n m)

formulated a general expression for the ultimate dimensionless groups (Phatak and Dhonde, 2003) as

torsional capacity of RC beams subjected to pure demonstrated in the following subsection.

torsion using dimensional analysis by the modified

Buckingham-PI theorem (Butterfield, 1999). Zsutty Slender RC Beams ( a / d 2.5 ) at the Formation of

(1968) also developed a model based on dimensional Diagonal Tension Cracks without Size Effect

analysis for the shear capacity of slender RC beams Dimensional analysis first requires identifying the

with depth d 50 cm without considering the size set of the appropriate governing variables and then the

effect. The Zsutty (1968) model may give reasonable set of independent primary dimensions. The shear

predictions for slender RC beams with d 50 cm; capacity v cr of slender RC beams without web

however, the Zsutty (1968) model may overestimate reinforcement at the formation of diagonal tension

the shear capacity for large RC beams ( d 50 cm) as cracking without considering size effect is dependent

will be shown later in this paper. on three governing variables: the longitudinal

In this study, the shear capacity of slender reinforcement ratio , shear span to depth ratio a / d

reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement and concrete tensile strength f ct' (Zsutty, 1968).

having shear span to depth ratio a / d 2.5 under the Hence, the set of variables may be expressed for

- 98 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

as follows: Using Eq. 7, isolated variables = { f c' , a / d , }

and repeating variables = { v cr }. Therefore, the

Variables vcr , f ct' , a / d , (1) dimensionless groups may be represented as follows:

1 vcr , f ct' (8)

n variables can be written as follows:

2 vcr , (9)

Dimensions M L T 1 1 2 1 1

,M L T 2

, 0, 0 (2)

3 v cr , a / d . (10)

Thus, the number of independent primary

b

Thus, the dimensionless group 1 vcr f ct'

a

dimensions is: may

be expressed in dimensional form as:

m 3. (3)

M 0 L0T 0 [ M 1 L1T 2 ] a [ M 1 L1T 2 ]b . (11)

The condition of D min is satisfied by minimizing

the value of total number of primary dimensions m Hence, a 1 and b 1 , therefore,

and thus accounting for the greatest number of

v cr

dimensionless groups possible (Phatak and Dhonde, 1 . (12)

1 1 2 f ct'

2003). Therefore, assuming that F M L T , then:

Similarly, for the other two dimensionless

D min F , F ,0,0 . groups:

(4)

2 . (13)

Hence, a

m min 1 . (5) 3 . (14)

d

The number of repeating variables forming a set of Expressing these three dimensionless groups by

Q is equal to mmin 1 . Thus, the number of using a power-product relationship, the following

dimensionless Pi-groups is equal to expression may be obtained (i.e., 1 A1 2 B1 3 C1 )

N ( n m) 4 1 3 , which is also the same as the C1

v cr a

number of isolated variables. Let R be the set of A1 B1 ; (15)

variables (in Eq. 1) that have dimensions totally f ct d

distinct from each other, therefore, where A1 , B1 and C1 are constants.

The concrete tensile strength f ct' may be expressed

R v cr . (6) as a function of the concrete compressive strength f c'

as follows:

Dimensionless groups are formed by the

combination of the repeating (Q) and isolated (NOTQ) f ct D1 f c' E1

. (16)

variable sets (Phatak and Dhonde, 2003). Q is to be

selected from R, therefore, Q may be taken as follows: Hence, the shear capacity of slender RC beams

defined at the formation of diagonal tension cracks

- 99 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

without size effect may be expressed as follows: the set of governing variables may be expressed for

slender RC beams including the size effect as follows:

C1

E1

a

vcr K1 B1 f c' . (17)

d

Variables v cr , f ct , a / d , . (20)

Equation 17 may be expressed in a logarithmic

form to allow the use of multiple linear regression The size effect law (Bazant and Kim, 1984) is

analysis as follows: suggested to be applied directly to the concrete tensile

a ; (18) strength as follows:

log vcr log K 1 B1 log E1 log f c' C1 log

d

f ct D 2 f c'

E2

(21)

to be determined empirically by multiple linear

1

regression analysis using the shear capacity of slender ; (22)

RC beams ( a / d 2.5 ) without web reinforcement at 1 d / d0

the formation of diagonal tension cracking. Zsutty where D 2 is constant and d 0 is defined in terms of

(1968, 1971), based on a similar analysis, suggested the the maximum aggregate size d a as d 0 25d a

following empirical expression: (Bazant and Kim, 1984).

Based on dimensional analysis using modified

1/ 3

V d Buckingham theory (Butterfield, 1999) similar to the

vcr 60 f 'c in psi units

bd a (19) analysis described earlier, the following expression

1/ 3

V d may be obtained:

vcr 2.2 f 'c in MPa units.

bd a

C2

E2

a

As can be seen, the Zsutty model is independent of v cr K 2 B 2 f c' ; (23)

the beam size and is valid only for the sizes of beams d

(i.e., d 50 cm) that were utilized to develop this where A2 , B2 , C 2 , D 2 , E 2 and K 2 are

empirical model as will be shown later in this study. constants to be determined empirically.

The following equation is suggested in this study

Slender RC Beams ( a / d 2.5 ) at the Formation of for the shear capacity of slender ( a / d 2.5 ) RC

Diagonal Tension Cracks with Size Effect beams without web reinforcement at the formation of

The beam size is an important factor affecting the diagonal tension cracks taking the size effect into

shear strength of slender RC beams. There is strong consideration:

evidence (Leonhardt and Walther, 1962; Kani, 1967;

1/ 3

Bhal, 1968; Taylor, 1972; Walraven, 1978; Chana, V d

vcr 70 f 'c in psi units

1981; Shioya et al., 1989; Bazant and Kazemi, 1991; bd a (24)

1/ 3

Collins and Kuchma, 1999) that the shear strength of V d

vcr 2.6 f 'c in MPa units.

beams decreases as the depth of the beam becomes bd a

larger. In order to take the beam size into Slender RC Beams ( a / d 2.5 ) at Ultimate Shear

consideration, the shear capacity v cr of slender RC Strength with Size Effect

beams without web reinforcement at the formation of The shear capacity of slender RC beams without

diagonal tension cracking is assumed herein to be web reinforcement at the formation of diagonal tension

dependent on four governing variables: the longitudinal cracking is mobilized when the concrete tensile

reinforcement ratio , shear span to depth ratio a / d , strength is reached. Still, the beam can carry additional

concrete tensile strength f ct' and beam size d . Hence, loads after the formation of diagonal tension cracking

- 100 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

by the compression zone above the neutral axis. reinforcement ratio , span to depth ratio a / d ,

Therefore, the ultimate shear strength of slender RC concrete splitting strength f sp and beam size d .

beams without web reinforcement may be attained after Therefore, the sets of variables may be expressed for

the formation of diagonal tension cracking when the slender RC beams taking into consideration the size

concrete splitting strength f sp of the compression zone effect as follows:

is reached (Zararis and Papadakis, 2001). Hence, the

ultimate shear strength is dependent on the longitudinal

Variables v u , f sp , a / d , . (25)

P P

a a

shear span pure bending shear span

h d

longintudinal reinforcement

P L P

Figure (1): Typical simply supported reinforced concrete beam under two-point loading

Based on dimensional analysis using the modified Comparison between Ultimate and Cracking Shear

Buckingham-PI theory (Butterfield 1999), the Strengths

following expression may be obtained for the ultimate The ratio of the ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29) to

shear strength: the cracking shear capacity at the formation of diagonal

tension cracks (Eq. 24) is about 1.22. This value is

vu C3

A3 B3 a (26) within the range obtained from the experimental results

f sp d

of slender RC beams of Fig. 2, which shows the

f sp D3 f c' E3

(27) variation of ultimate shear strength Vu / bd f c' as a

C3

a

E3 function of cracking shear capacity V cr / bd f c' .

vu K 3 B 3 f c' . (28)

d The variation or scatter observed in Fig. 2 may be

The following expression is suggested in this study due the differences (between and within the tests

for the ultimate shear strength of slender RC beams series) in the definition and identification of the

( a / d 2.5 ) without web reinforcement taking the size cracking shear and in the representation of the concrete

effect into consideration: compressive strength (Zsutty, 1968). Furthermore, it is

difficult, in many cases, to differentiate experimentally

1/ 3

V d

vcr 85 f c' in psi units between the shear capacity at the formation of diagonal

bd a (29) tension cracking and the ultimate shear strength at

1/ 3

V d beam failure; the same values for the ultimate and

vcr 3.2 f c' in MPa units.

bd a

- 101 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

considerable number of slender RC beams as

15 30

Moody (1954)

1. 1.

6

=

Krefeld and Thurston (1966)

tio tio

Van Den Berg (1962)

ra ra

=

5

00

Vu / b d sqrt f'c , psi units

1.

116 beams

=

tio

ratio = 1.073

ra

4 CoV = 13.7 %

3 a / d = 2.87 to 8.52

= 0.80 to 5.09 %

f'c = 1.77 to 5.66 ksi

d = 9.36 to 19.0 in.

b = 6.0 to 12.0 in.

2

more than 80 % of data points are

within 15 % above the cracking loads

1.5

1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7

Vc / b d sqrt f'c , psi units

Figure (2): Comparison between ultimate shear strength and cracking shear capacity for

116 beams without web reinforcement

Slender RC beams, with 2.5 a / d 6 , generally 1984) are practically within the range or limits

fail upon the formation of diagonal tension cracks or provided by the two models presented in Eq. 24 for the

shortly afterwards (MacGregor, 1997). Diagonal cracking shear capacity (as a lower limit) and in Eq. 29

tension cracks are expected to form when the diagonal for the ultimate shear strength (as an upper limit).

tensile stress becomes equal to concrete tensile Additional experimental results are provided later in

strength. However, slender RC beams may fail after the this study for supporting the validity of the two

formation of diagonal tension cracks when concrete proposed models.

splitting strength of the compression zone is reached

(as may be deduced from the work of Zararis and Validity of the Proposed Models: Comparison with

Papadakis, 2001). Hence, the ratio between the Experimental Results and Other Existing Models

ultimate and cracking shear strengths may also be Several sets of existing experimental results on

interpreted on average as the ratio between the concrete shear capacity at the formation of diagonal tension

splitting strength that may be given by f sp 6 f c

'

cracking and on ultimate shear strength of slender RC

and the concrete tensile strength that may be taken as beams are utilized herein to show the capability of the

f ct 5 f c' . Figure 3 shows that the experimental two proposed models in predicting the observed

results of slender RC beams (Mphonde and Frantz, behavior and variations of the experimental results with

- 102 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

different governing variables. Each set was carefully 2.5 after which the shear strength decreases much more

selected in order to examine the influence of one single slowly. Figures 4 and 5 show that deep RC beams

variable at a time. Furthermore, four expressions for ( a / d 2.5 ) can carry large additional loads after the

computing the shear capacity of slender RC beams formation of diagonal tension cracking by arch action.

without web reinforcement (Zsutty, 1968; MCFT of Figures 4 and 5 also show that, for slender RC

Vecchio and Collins, 1986; Zararis and Papadakis, beams ( a / d 2.5 ), the experimental results are within

2001; ACI 318-08) have been selected in order to the range or limits provided by the two models

verify and compare the two proposed models with proposed for the shear capacity at the diagonal tension

these existing models. cracking (as a lower limit) and for the ultimate shear

strength (as an upper limit). Furthermore, the values of

Influence of Shear Span- Depth Ratio a / d on the cracking and ultimate shear strengths are quite

Cracking and Ultimate Shear Strengths comparable to those of the models of Zsutty (1968) and

Figures 4 and 5 compare the variation of Zararis and Papadakis (2001).

V/ f ' c bd as a function of shear span - depth rati It should be pointed out that the Zsutty (1968)

model is independent of the beam size d (i.e., shear

( a / d value) of the proposed cracking and ultimate

capacity is constant with d ). It is thus expected that

shear strengths with experimental results (Kani, 1967;

this model may give reasonable results for beams with

Bukhari and Ahmad, 2007) as well as with the models

d 50 cm because this model was developed

of Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001);

empirically for such beams. The Zsutty (1968) model

other variables ( , f ' c , and d ) are being practically

may significantly overestimate the shear capacity for

constant as shown in the figures. As can be seen, the large beams ( d 50 cm) as will be illustrated later in

experimental ultimate shear strength decreases

this paper.

drastically as the a / d value increases from 1 to about

0.5

Cracking capacity (experimental)

Ultimate strength (experimental)

Vu / b d sqrt f'c , MPa units

0.4

cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

0.3

0.2

= 3.36 % ; a / d = 3.6

0.1 b = 15.2 cm ; d = 29.8 cm Data from Mphonde

da = 0.953 cm and Frantz (1984)

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

f'c , MPa

Figure (3): Experimental results are within the limits provided by the two proposed models developed for

cracking shear capacity and for ultimate shear strength

- 103 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

1200

Kani (1967) ultimate shear (experimental)

cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

Zsutty (1968)

900 Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

additional capacity

due to arch action

a / d < 2.5

vc , psi

da = 0.75 in (19 mm)

b = 6.0 in (152 mm)

d = 21.2 in (538 mm)

f'c = 3.94 ksi (27.2 MPa)

300 fy = 53.9 ksi (372 MPa)

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

a/d

Figure (4): Comparison of the two proposed models with experimental results and models of

Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001) for different values of a / d from 1 to 8

10

Bukhari and Ahmad (2007) (Exper.)

Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

Zsutty (1968)

8 cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

V / b d sqrt psi

6

= 1.94 %

f'c = 7.69 to 8.21 ksi

4 b = 6.0 in ; d = 10.5 in

ACI (2008)

2

ultimate strength

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

a/d

Figure (5): Comparison of the two proposed models with experimental results and models of

Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001) for different values of a / d from 1 to 6

- 104 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

ultimate strength (experimental)

Zsutty (1968)

5 Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

4

v / b d sqrt

2 a / d = 3.80

f'c = 2.98 - 3.23 ksi

1 Experimental Data b = 6 in (15.2 cm)

Krefeld and Thurston (1966) d = 9.5 in. (24.1 cm)

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

,%

Figure (6): Comparison of the proposed models with experimental results and models of Zsutty (1968) and

Zararis and Papadakis (2001) with varying (cracking and ultimate strengths)

0.5

cracking shear capacity (experimental)

ultimate shear strength (experimental)

proposed cracking model (Eq. 24)

0.4

Vu / b d sqrt f'c , MPa units

Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

Zsutty (1968)

0.3

0.2

= 3.36 % ; a / d = 3.6

0.1 Data from Mphonde

b = 15.2 cm ; d = 29.8 cm

and Frantz (1984)

da = 0.953 cm

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

f'c , MPa

Figure (7): Comparison of the two proposed models with experimental results and with the models of

Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001) for varying f c'

- 105 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

Influence of Steel Ratio on Diagonal Tension reasonably utilizing the four models. These models

Cracking and Ultimate Shear Strengths show that the shear capacity ( V / f ' c bd ) generally

Figure 6 compares the variation of V / f ' c bd as a increases with , but the rate of increase varies

function of steel ratio obtained by the two proposed significantly. The rate of increase in shear capacity is

models for diagonal tension cracking capacity and for relatively small for beams with steel ratio greater than

ultimate shear strength with experimental results about 1% to 2%. The Zsutty (1968) model again gives

(Krefeld and Thurston, 1966) as well as with the reasonable results because the beams of Fig. 6 have

models of Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis d 50 cm. However, the Zsutty (1968) model may

(2001). As can be seen, the general trend and values of significantly overestimate shear capacity for large

the experimental results can be predicted quite beams ( d 50 cm) as shown later in this paper.

0.5

shear strength (experimental)

cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

0.4 ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

Vu / b d sqrt f'c , MPa units

Zsutty (1968)

0.3

0.2

ACI 318 (2008)

= 1.8 %

0.1

a / d = 4.0 Data from

b = 20 cm ; d = 28 cm Papadakis (1996)

0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

f'c , MPa

Figure (8): Comparison of the two proposed models with experimental results (Papadakis, 1996) and

with the models of Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001) for varying f c'

Influence of Concrete Compressive Strength f ' c on Figures 7 to 9, which include a wide range of concrete

Shear Strength compressive strength, show that these models can

reasonably predict the general behavior of shear

Figures 7 to 9 compare the variation of V / f c' bd

capacity with f c' that yield almost parallel lines for

as a function of f c' obtained by the two proposed

V/ f c' bd as a function of f c' . Figures 7 to 9 show

models for diagonal tension cracking capacity and for

ultimate shear strength of slender RC beams with three that the experimental results of slender RC beams are

sets of experimental results as well as with the models practically within the range or limits provided by the

of Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and papadakis (2001). two models presented in Eq. 24 for the cracking shear

- 106 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

capacity and in Eq. 29 for the ultimate shear strength 30 d 120 cm. As can be seen, the two proposed

(despite the relatively large scatter in the experimental models and MCFT model (Appendix 3) as well as the

results observed particularly in Fig. 9). Figure 10, model of Zararis and Papadakis (2001) can reasonably

however, shows that the calculated values of the predict the general trend of the shear capacity with the

cracking shear capacity are within about 10% of those

variation of the beam size d where the diagonal

experimentally measured for the cracking shear

cracking shear capacity model (Eq. 24) provides a

capacity of slender RC beams with a / d 2.5 .

lower limit and the ultimate shear strength model (Eq.

29) provides an upper limit for the slender RC beams

Influence of Beam Size d on Shear Capacity with a / d 2.5 . Figure 11 shows that the Zsutty

Figure 11 compares the variations of V / f ' c bd (1968) model, which is independent of the beam size

as a function of the beam depth d obtained by the two d , overestimates the shear capacity for slender RC

proposed models for cracking and ultimate shear beams with depth greater than about 30 cm for this

strengths and experimental results of Bhal (1968) series of tests.

slender RC beams with depth in the range

6

Data from = 4.32 %

5 Van Den Berg (1962) a / d = 3.50

b = 9 in (22.9 cm)

d = 14.14 in. (35.9 cm)

V / b d sqrt f'c , psi

ultimate shear strength (experiment)

cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

1 ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

Zsutty (1968)

0

1000 3000 5000 7000 9000

f'c , psi

Figure (9): Comparison of the two proposed models with experimental results and with

the models of Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001) for varying f c'

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS web reinforcement taking into consideration the size

effect under the combined action of moment and shear

A method that combines dimensional analysis and is presented. This method incorporates the modified

statistical regression analysis for predicting the shear Buckingham-PI theorem (Butterfield, 1999) to

strength of slender reinforced concrete beams without formulate general expressions for the shear capacity

- 107 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

under different conditions. Two models are proposed well predictions and sufficiently accurate method of

for predicting the cracking shear capacity at the analysis. This study shows that the large variations in

formation of diagonal tension cracks and the ultimate the experimental results of shear strength of slender RC

shear strength. Comparison of the results of the two beams ( a / d 2.5 ) defined at the formation of

proposed models with several sets of existing diagonal tension cracks can be explained by the

experimental results supports the validity of the two variations of the concrete tensile strength.

proposed models in predicting and explaining the This study also shows that the large variations in

observed behavior of slender RC beams ( a / d 2.5 ) the experimental results of ultimate shear strength of

without web reinforcement and also shows that slender RC beams ( a / d 2.5 ) can be explained by

dimensional analysis can be used to give reasonably the variations of the concrete splitting strength.

4.5

Van Den Berg (1962)

4 Taylor and Brewer (1963)

Krefeld and Thurston (1966)

calculated Vcr / b d sqrt f'c , psi

e

lu

3.5 Bhal (1968)

va

d

re

su

ea

m

3

of

%

0

11

2.5

e

lu

va

ed

ur

s

ea

2

m

of

%

90

cracking capacity

1.5

1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

measured Vcr / b d sqrt f'c , psi

Figure (10): Comparison of the calculated cracking shear capacity with experimentally

measured shear capacity for slender RC beams with different values of a / d 2.5

at the formation of diagonal tension cracks provides a 1- Model of Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

lower limit (within only about 10%) for the Zararis and Papadakis (2001) suggested the

experimentally measured values and the model following expression for evaluating the ultimate shear

proposed for the ultimate shear strength provides an strength for slender RC beams without web

upper limit for the experimentally measured values. reinforcement having a / d 2.5 .

- 108 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

0.4

shear strength (experimental)

Zsutty (1968)

Zararis and Papadakis (2001)

0.3 cracking shear capacity (Eq. 24)

ultimate shear strength (Eq. 29)

MCFT

Zsutty (1968)

0.2

0.1 a / d = 3.0

= 1.28 % Data from

f'c = 22.8 to 29.1MPa Bhal (1968)

0.0

0 25 50 75 100 125 150

d , cm

Figure (11): Comparison of the two proposed models with experimental results and MCFT model and

the models of Zsutty (1968) and Zararis and Papadakis (2001) for varying d

vu

V c

d f ct (30)

f ct 0.30 f c'

2/3

; (33)

bd d

where d is in meters and f c' in MPa. This model

a

d 1.2 0.2 d 0.65 (31) was developed based on the concrete splitting strength

d

of compression zone above the neutral axis in the shear

2 span. The Zararis and Papadakis (2001) model may

c c

600 ' 600 ' 0 (32) also be rewritten as follows:

d fc d fc

2

vu

0.30d

f c

' ' '

300 600 * 300 f c' 1/ 6

(34)

f c' fc fc

2- ACI Code Formula (ACI 318-08) shear strength at which diagonal flexure-shear cracking

The ACI Code (ACI 318-08) has accepted the develops in beams without web reinforcement.

following empirical bilinear expression as the nominal

- 109 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

V Vd

1.90 2500 3 .5 [in psi units]

bd f ' c M f ' c

(35)

V Vd

0.16 17 0.29 [in MPa units].

bd f ' c M f ' c

The ACI Code (ACI 318-08) has also allowed the control the capacity of the member; the average stress

use of a simplified expression as follows: calculation is used only for estimating the inclination

of the critical diagonal crack (ACI-ASCE, 1998).

V According to the MCFT model, the shear strength of

2 [in psi units] RC members without web reinforcement may be

bd f ' c

(36) expressed as follows:

V 1

[in MPa units].

6 V

bd f ' c v f 'c (37)

bw d v

3- Model of the Modified Compression Field Theory where is a function of the size effect

(MCFT) (1986) s xe s z 35 /(15 a g ) and strain x that can be

In the modified compression field theory MCFT expressed for reinforced concrete beams (ACI-ASCE

(Vecchio and Collins, 1986), the behavior of reinforced 1998) as follows:

concrete is evaluated by considering equilibrium,

M / d v 0.5V cot

compatibility and stress-strain relationships that x . (38)

As E s

include an average concrete tension component to the

concrete stress-strain relationship (Bentz and Collins, The two proposed models are compared with the

2006). The MCFT was used as the basis for the shear MCFT models in terms of the shear capacity

provisions in the Canadian Standard Association (CSA V / bd f ' c as a function of the steel ratio d (Fig. 11).

2004 A23.3-04) and the American Association of State The MCFT predictions were carried out according to

Highway and Transportation Officials LRFD bridge the general procedure described in Bentz and Collins

design specifications (AASHTO, 2004). (2006) using a spread sheet; the strain x and the angle

The MCFT is formulated in terms of average of the average principal compression were adjusted

stresses and requires a check to ensure that the loads until the value of from the average shear stress is

resisted by the average stresses can be transmitted

equal to the value of from the local shear stress and

across the crack. For members without transverse

reinforcement, the local stresses at cracks always the strain x is equal to that calculated from Eq. 38.

f c' = cylindrical compressive strength

a = shear span f ct' = concrete tensile strength

a / d = shear span-to-depth ratio f sp = concrete splitting strength

As = area of tension reinforcement f y = yield strength of longitudinal steel

b = width of beam h = total depth of beam

d = effective depth of beam L = length

- 110 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 8, No. 1, 2014

M = mass V1 , V2 etc. = basic variables

n = number of the basic variables = longitudinal reinforcement ratio

T = time = beam size factor

vcr = diagonal cracking capacity

Diagonal Shear Failure of Beams without Stirrups".

AASHTO LRFD. (2004). Bridge Design Specification ACI Structural Journal, (3), 268-274.

and Commentary. 3rd Edition, American Association Bentz, E.C., and Collins, M.P. (2006). "Development of

of State Highway Transportation Officials, the 2004 Canadian Standards Association {CSA}

Washington, D.C., 1264 pp. A23.3: Shear Provisions for Reinforced Concrete".

ACI Committee 318. (2008). Building Code Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 33, 521-534.

Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI318-08) and Bentz, E.C., Vecchio, F.J., and Collins, M.P. (2006).

Commentary (318R-08).American Concrete Institute, "Simplified Modified Compression Field Theory for

Farmington Hills, Mich., 430 pp. Calculating Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete

ACI-ASCE Committee 445 on Shear and Torsion. (1998). Elements". ACI Structural Journal, 103 (4), July-

"Recent Approaches to Shear Design of Structural August.

Concrete". ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Butterfield, R. (1999). Dimensional Analysis for

124 (12), 1375-1417. Geotechnical Engineering. Geotechnique, 49 (3), 357-

Adebar, P., and Collins, M.P. (1996). Shear Strength of 366.

Members without Transverse Reinforcement, Clark, A.P. (1951). "Diagonal Tension in RC Beams". ACI

Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 23 (1), 30-41. Journal, 23 (2), 145-156.

Appa, Rao G., and Injaganeri, S.S. (2011). "Evaluation of Collins, M.P., and Kuchma, D.A. (1999). How Safe Are

Size Dependent Design Shear Strength of Reinforced Our Large, Lightly Reinforced Concrete Beams, Slabs

Concrete Beams without Web Reinforcement". and Footings? ACI Structural Journal, 96 (4), 282-

Sadhana Journal, June, 36 (3), 393-410. 290.

Arslan, G. (2008). "Cracking Shear Strength of RC Slender CSA Committee A23.3 (2004). "Design of Concrete

Beams without Stirrups". Journal of Civil Engineering Structures (CSA A23.3-04). Canadian Standards

and Management, 14 (3), 177-182. Association, Mississauga, 214 pp.

Arslan, G. (2010). "Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Hsu, T. T. C., Mau, S. T., and Chen, B. (1987). "A Theory

Slender Beams". Proceedings of the ICE - Structures of Shear Transfer Strength of Reinforced Concrete".

and Buildings, 163 (3), June, 195-205. ACI Structural Journal, 84 (2), 149-160.

Arslan, G. (2012). "Diagonal Tension Failure of RC Beams Kani, G. N. J. (1967). "How Safe Are Our Large

without Stirrups". Journal of Civil Engineering and Reinforced Concrete Beams?" ACI Journal, 64 (3),

Management, 18 (2), 217-226. May-June, 128-141.

Bazant, Z. P., and Kim, J. K. (1984). "Size Effect of Kim, J.K., and Park, Y.D. (1996). "Prediction of Shear

Longitudinally Reinforced Beams". ACI Journal, 81 Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams without Web

(5), 456-468. Reinforcement". Materials Journal, 93 (3), 213-222.

- 111 -

Diagonal Cracking Capacity Mohammed Shukri Al-Zoubi

Krefeld, W. J., and Thurston, C. W. (1966). "Contribution Reineck, K-H., Kuchma, D.A., Kim, K.S., and Marx, S.

of Longitudinal Steel to Shear Resistance of Reinforced (2003). Shear Database for Reinforced Concrete

Concrete Beams". ACI Journal, 63 (3), 325-344. Members without Shear Reinforcement. ACI

Leonhardt, F., and Walther, R. (1962). "Beitrge zur Structural Journal, 100 (2), 240-249.

Behandlung der Schubprobleme in Stahlbetonau". Rebeiz, K.S., (1999). Shear Strength Prediction for

Beton-und Stahlbetonbau (Berlin), March and June, Concrete Members. The Journal of Structural

141-149. Engineering, 125 (3).

MacGregor, J.G. (1997). Reinforced Concrete Mechanics Russo, G., Somma, G., and Mitri, D. (2005). "Shear

and Design, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Eaglewood Strength Analysis and Prediction for Reinforced

Cliffs, N.J. Concrete Beams without Stirrups." ASCE Journal of

Mphonde, A. G., and Frantz, G. C. (1984). "Shear Tests of Structural Engineering, 131 (10), 66-74.

High- and Low Strength Concrete Beams without Shioya, T., Iguro, M., Nojiri, Y., Akiayma, H., and Okada,

Stirrups". ACI Journal, 81 (4), 350-357. T. (1989). "Shear Strength of Large Reinforced

Papadakis, G. (1996). "Shear Failure of Reinforced Beams". Fracture Mechanics: Application to Concrete,

Concrete Beams without Stirrups". PhD Dissertation, SP-118, V.C.

Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University Taylor, H. P. J. (1972). "Shear Strength of Large Beams".

of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece (in Greek). Journal Structural Division, ASCE, 98 (11), 2473

Phatak, D.R., and Dhonde, H.B. (2003). Dimensional 2490.

Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Van Den Berg, F.J. (1962). "Shear Strength of RC Beams

Pure Torsion. Journal of Structural Engineering, without Web Reinforcement, Part 2-Factors Affecting

ASCE, 129 (11), November, 1559-1563. Load at Diagonal Cracking". ACI J., 59(11), 1587

Rebeiz, Karim S., Fente, Javier, and Frabizzio Michael. 1600.

(2000). "New Shear Strength for Concrete Members Vecchio, F. J., and Collins, M. P. (1986). "The Modified

Using Statistical and Interpolation Function Compression Field Theory for Reinforced Concrete

Techniques". The 8th International Specialty Elements Subjected to Shear". ACI J., 83(2), March-

Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural April, 219-231.

Reliability. PMC2000-279. Zararis, P.D., and Papadakis, G. (2001). Diagonal Shear

Regan, P. E., and Yu, C. W. (1973). "Limit State Design of Failure and Size Effect in RC Beams without Web

Structural Concrete". Chatto and Windus, London. Reinforcement", ASCE Journal of Structural

Reineck, K.H. (1991). "Ultimate Shear Force of Structural Engineering, 127 (7), 733-742.

Concrete Members without Transverse Reinforcement Zsutty, T. C. (1968). "Beam Shear Strength Prediction by

Derived from a Mechanical Model". ACI Structural J., Analysis of Existing Data." ACI Journal, 65 (11), 943-

88 (5), 592-602. 951.

Zsutty, T. C. (1971). Shear Strength Predictions for

Separate Categories of Simple Beam Tests. ACI

Journal, Proceedings, 68 (2), 138-143.

- 112 -

- WisDOTPrestressedGirderDesignStudy (1)Diunggah olehIsidro Buquiron
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beam for Strength and SeviceabilityDiunggah olehEgidijus Venckus
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams for Strength AndDiunggah olehWallen Jusri Sihotang
- deep beam paper.pdfDiunggah olehziyaurrahaman
- Anil (Final)Diunggah olehrashidking
- Deep BeamDiunggah olehDeana White
- Strong Well Gridform Design GuideDiunggah olehBabak Vand
- 234745551-Corbel-Design.xlsxDiunggah olehMrJanji Johny
- Why Concrete Still Crack and Leak.pdfDiunggah olehAndreOnifeAlwynWhite
- steeel skid strengthDiunggah olehகரிகாலன். ஜெ
- Article 03Diunggah olehShirlin Charles
- BirtelDiunggah olehkrishnanunni
- Composite Beams with Limited-Slip-Capacity Shear Connectors.pdfDiunggah olehrigobertoguerrag
- Influence of the Link Overstrength Factor on the Seismic Behaviour OfDiunggah olehokt_lya
- Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced High Performance Concrete Beams Subjected to BendingDiunggah olehAJER JOURNAL
- 00-Introduction.pdfDiunggah olehQedew Er
- Presentation 1Diunggah olehNeeraj Singh Thakur
- Shear and flexural behaviour of concrete beamsDiunggah olehRohn J Jackson
- Influence of Steel Fibres on the Shear Strength of ConcreteDiunggah olehTùng Nguyễn
- Shear Capacity of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Coupling Beams UsingDiunggah olehCurioso
- eqDiunggah olehkartik.123
- Paper FenwickDiunggah olehGeovanny Tierra
- rethnasamy2013....Diunggah olehEvonne Lee
- ImportantDiunggah olehRakesh
- 1-s2.0-S1878522011000233-main.pdfDiunggah olehZimp MSaulitos
- Ijirt146651 PaperDiunggah olehShreeHarunKrishnan
- CE58A_syllabus_fall010Diunggah olehbladeyus
- 2680-5863-1-SMDiunggah olehHarish Lakshminarayanan
- catia portfolioDiunggah olehapi-317123665
- Books_Machine Design & Energy MgnDiunggah olehsaurabhkumar2002

- Simplified Modified Compression Field Theory for Calculating Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete ElementsDiunggah olehTooma David
- 8-lti_psdDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 8-lti_psdDiunggah olehpratheep01
- 90Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- Shear Capacity of Self-Compacting ConcreteDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- SHAH&HMADDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 2009-perera.pdfDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- Slope DeflectionDiunggah olehDebendra Dev Khanal
- 5_2017_03_16!01_22_38_PM.pdfDiunggah olehVincent Vetter
- Experimental Investigation and Nonlinear Analysis of Hybrid Reinforced Concrete Deep BeamsDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- engeneeringmecanic 2Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- CentroidsDiunggah olehMaxneil Quijano
- 4-Hydrometer-Test.pdfDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- soil pressure123.pdfDiunggah olehnagesh4189
- Partial Derivatives p01-03Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 98Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 2002Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 2014.pdfDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- Experimental Study on Shear Strength of High-Strength Concrete BeamsDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- Evaluation of Minimum Shear Reinforcement Requirements for Higher Strength ConcreteDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 96Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 09_02_14-15_10_50-NULz@632Diunggah olehHuda Jawad
- referencesDiunggah olehkkttt
- 08_nzdravkovicDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- 2480.pdfDiunggah olehHuda Jawad
- HSCDiunggah olehZila Kamarul

- 26650958 Updating the Rules for Pipe SizingDiunggah olehrobin_samuel88
- Cyclone designDiunggah olehKartika Rizqimaulida
- 2 MarksDiunggah olehAnand Vinayagam
- MecFlu_7ed_ch07-13Diunggah olehGerson Santos - Polamalu
- A. Beccantini, A. Malczynski and E. Studer- Comparison of TNT-Equivalence Approach, TNO Multi-Energy Approach and a CFD Approach in Investigating Hemispheric Hydrogen-Air Vapor Cloud ExplosionsDiunggah olehSodaMoussez
- 1-s2.0-S0140700717302013-main.pdfDiunggah olehSalvador Perez
- Non-dimensional Aerodynamic Design of a Centrifugal Compressor ImpellerDiunggah olehSubhash Padmanabhan
- FccuDiunggah olehRavi Kumar Bandarulanka
- Dim AnalDiunggah olehaargovind
- ME2204 Qp UsitwiseDiunggah olehmaivizhi
- Heat Transfer and Multiphase Flow With Hydrates FormationDiunggah olehFélix Gallo Cruz
- Dimensionless Group AnalysisDiunggah oleh13670319
- Dimension, ErrorsDiunggah olehEkansh Singh
- Dimensional AnalysisDiunggah olehVINAY CHANDWANI
- Dimensional Analysis for Pumps-rittickDiunggah olehAnkush Kalia
- Fox 7th ISM Ch07-13Diunggah olehd280299
- FMM IT-3 key.docxDiunggah olehdass143143
- 24.Concepts of Feeder Design and Performance in Relation to Loading Bulk Solids Onto Conveyor BeltsDiunggah olehSrini Kumar
- 32COST710-3(Vertical Profiles of Wind, Temperature and Turbulence)Diunggah olehbarantiev
- 11- Pervane teorisiDiunggah olehizzet9696
- dimanal2 (1)Diunggah olehSandile SynthaxError Mabika
- Non DimensionalizationDiunggah olehpadmanathan
- Symbols in Physics WorksheetDiunggah olehHugh Fox III
- Dessicant PropertiesDiunggah olehSHI
- humping.pdfDiunggah olehlustronegro
- 15 Liquid-Liquid Extraction and other Liquid-Liquid Operation and Equipment.pdfDiunggah olehslsantini1
- Drag DerivationDiunggah olehMani Vannan
- Model Simlitude [Compatibility Mode]Diunggah olehArpan Agrawal
- 2Diunggah olehOm Prakash
- exp-2Diunggah olehRoselle Gene Celin Agpalo