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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Fault level
Extent of
damage Duration of
fault
Winding failures

Voltage
regulating load
changers

Transformer Transformer
faults bushing failure

Transformer core
problem

Miscellaneous
failures
Insulation
breakdown
Time
Improve cooling
Ageing of
system of
insulation
possible
Temperature
Condition Over heating
Reduced load
leading to faults due to excitation

Oil
contamination%
& oil leakage

Reduced cooling
FAULT OF TRANSFORMER
Earth fault on H.V external connection
Phases to phase fault on H.V external connection
Internal earth fault on H.V windings
Internal phase to phase fault on H.V windings.
Short circuit between turns L.V windings.
Earth fault on L.V external winding
Phase to phase fault on L.V external connection.
Internal earth fault on L.V windings
Internal phase to phase fault on L.V winding
Short circuit b/w turn L.V windings
Earth fault on tertiary windings
Short circuit b/W turns tertiary windings
Sustained system phase to phase fault
Sustained system earth fault
Differential relay

L.V side three phase


over current and
earth fault relay

132KV/11KV H.V side three


POWER phases over current
TRANSFORMER and earth fault relay

D.C trip circuit


supervision relay

Trip and lock out


relay
Percentage biased
Transformer
differential relay

High REF impedance


Circulating current
differential protection

HV side over current


and earth fault relay

LV side over current


and earth fault relay

Over excitation relay

220/132/11KV AUTO
TRANSFORMER
Thermal over load
relay

Overall percentage
biased differential
relay

L.H&H.V Connection
circulating protection

Tertiary over current


protection

D.C trip circuit


supervision relay
Percentage biased
Transformer
differential relay

High REF impedance


Circulating current
differential
protection

HV side over current


and earth fault
relay

LV side over current


and earth fault
relay

Over excitation
relay

500/220KV AUTO Thermal over load


TRANSFORMER relay

Overall percentage
biased differential
relay

L.H&H.V Connection
circulating
protection

Tertiary over
current protection

D.C trip circuit


supervision relay

Over voltage relay


Transformer
buchhloz relay

Tap changer
buchhloz relay

MECHANICAL Winding
PROTECTION: Temperature

0IL
temperature

Pressure
relieve valve
Factors:
The shape, magnitude and duration of the inrush
current depend on the factors:
Size of power transformer
Source Impendence
The magnetic properties of the core i.e.
saturation density
The remanence of core
Resistance in power system from source to
transformer.
The moment when transformer is switch on.
Effect of magnetising current
Appears on one side of transformer only
Seen as fault by differential relay
Normal steady state magnetising current is less than relay
setting
Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to operate
The vector group shows the connection of
windings of transformer and numerical index
(hour numbers) for displacement of vector of
two star voltages.
Capital Letter DY11 Small
letter ( clock dial reference)
The first capital letter donates the connection
of high voltage winding of transformer
The small letter represent the connection of
low voltage secondary winding of transformer
Yy0d5

The first capital letter Y is referred to H.V or


primary winding, the second letter y is
referred as secondary winding and third letter
is referred as tertiary winding.
Primary winding is taken as phase referred O
means that phase angle b/W H.V and M.V
winding is zero. Whereas 5 denotes that
phase angle b/W H.V and tertiary winding is
150 (5x30)
OVER CURRENT PROTECTION
As it names implies, relay will pick up when it
exceeds its present value
TYPES:
The types of over current relay are based on the
relay characteristics over can be classified into three
groups.
Definite current or instantaneous
Definite time
Inverse time
Vcurent Relay Applied to a
Transformer
51 51 51
HV2 HV1 LV
HV2
HV1
Time
LV

Current
IF(LV) IF(HV)
1.2IF(LV)
Use of Instantaneous Overcurrent
Protection
Source LV

50
51
Differential Protection
Overall differential protection may be justified for larger
transformers (generally > 5MVA).
Provides fast operation on any winding
Measuring principle :
Based on the same circulating current principle as the
restricted earth fault protection
However, it employs the biasing technique, to maintain stability
for heavy thro fault current
Biasing allows mismatch between CT outputs.
It is essential for transformers with tap changing facility.
Another important requirement of transformer differential
protection is immunity to magnetising inrush current.
PROTECTED ZONE

HV LV

R
Correct application of differential
protection requires CT ratio and winding
connections to match those of
transformer.
CT secondary circuit should be a
replica of primary system.
Consider :
(1) Difference in current magnitude
(2) Phase shift
(3) Zero sequence currents
Biased Differential Scheme
Differentia
l
Current

I1 - I2 OPERATE
I1 BIAS BIAS I2
I1 - I2
OPERATE RESTRAIN

I1 + I2 Mean Thro
2 Current

Bias = Differential (or Spill)


Current Mean Through Current
Restricted E/F Protection
Low Voltage Windings (1)
A B C N

LV restricted E/F
protection trips
both HV and LV breaker
Recommended setting : 10% rated
Restricted E/F Protection
Low Voltage Windings (2)
A B C N

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV breaker


Recommended setting : 10% rated
Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault
Source

Protected zone
REF

Delta winding cannot supply zero


sequence current to system

Stability : Consider max LV fault level


Recommended setting : less than 30% minimum
earth fault level
Protection of Auto-Transformer
by High Impedance Differential
Relays (2)
(b) Phase and Earth Fault Scheme
A
B
C
a
b
c
87 87 87

n
`
Combined Differential and Restricted
Earthfault Protection

A2 A1 a1 a2 P1 P2
S1 S2

P1 S1 P2
REF
S2 P1
P2
S1
S2
To differential relay
Integral Vectorial and Ratio
Compensation
Power transformer

Ratio
correction

Vectorial
correction
Differential
Virtual interposing CT element Virtual interposing CT
In Zone Earthing Transformer
a1 a2
P1 P2
A1 A2 P2 P1

S2 S1

S2 S1 T2 T1 P1 P2
Three Winding Transformer
63MVA 25MVA
132KV 11KV
300/5 1600/5

50MVA
33KV

1000/5

4.59 5.51 10.33


2.88 5 2.88
5

All interposing C.T. ratios refer to


common MVA base (63MVA
Transformer Magnetising
Characteristic

Twice
Normal
Flux

Normal
Flux

Normal
No
Load No Load
Current Current at
Twice Normal
Flux
Parallel Transformers
T1 N A B C

T2
Inter-Turn Fault

CT
E
Load
Shorted
turn

Nominal turns ratio - 11,000 / 240


Fault turns ratio - 11,000 / 1
Current ratio - 1 / 11,000

Requires Buchholz relay


Buchholz Relay Installation
3 x internal pipe
Conservator
diameter (minimum)
5 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Oil conservator
3 minimum

Transformer
Buchholz Relay
Petcock
Alarm bucket Counter balance
weight

Mercury switch
Oil level

To oil From transformer


conservator

Trip bucket
Aperture adjuster

Drain plug Deflector plate


Overfluxing Basic Theory

2m
V = kf
Causes
m
Low frequency
High voltage Ie

Geomagnetic disturbances
Effects
Tripping of differential element (Transient overfluxing)
Damage to transformers (Prolonged overfluxing)
EFFECTS OF OVER FLUXING:
Increase in magnetizing current
Increase in winding temperature
Increase in noise and vibration
Overheating of laminations and metal parts
(cause by stray flux)
V/Hz Overfluxing Protection

V K
f

Trip and alarm outputs for clearing prolonged overfluxing

Alarm : Definite time characteristic to initiate corrective action

Trip : IDMT or DT characteristic to clear overfluxing condition

Settings
Pick-up 1.5 to 3.0 i.e. 110V x 1.05 = 2.31
50Hz
DT setting range 0.1 to 60 seconds
V/H CHARACTERISTIC:
Over-fluxing Relay
Ex
G

VT

AVR RL
THERMAL OVERLOAD:
EFFECT OF OVER LOAD ON TRANSFORMER
INSULATION LIFE:
Overheating Protection
Trip
I load
Alarm
TD
setting
On
Top oil of I load Fan
power control
transformer Off

On
Pump
control
Off
Heater Temp. indication
Local
Thermal Temperature Remote
replica sensing resistor
Overload Protection
Overcurrent protection designed for fault
condition
Thermal replica provides better protection
for overload
Time
Current based
Flexible characteristics
Single or dual time constant
Reset facility
Non-volatile Current
Thermal Overload Oil Filled Transformers
Trip time (s)
10000 Single
characteristic:
= 120 mins
1000

Dual characteristic
100

Single
10 characteristic:
1 2 3 4 5 6 = 5 mins
Current (multiple of thermal setting)
ZA
DIGITAL RELAYS FOR TRANSFORMER
THERMAL WINDING PROTECTION