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INTERNATIONAL

International JOURNAL
Journal of Mechanical OF MECHANICAL
Engineering ENGINEERING
and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4,
AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 70-79
IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) IAEME
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ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF NOZZLE HOLE DIAMETER ON CI


ENGINE PERFORMANCE USING KARANJA OIL-DIESEL BLENDS

1 2
Mr. Lijo P Varghese, Mr. Rajiv Saxena, 3Dr. R.R. Lal
1
M.E. [Heat Power & Thermal] Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engg, Lakshmi Narain College
of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engg. Lakshmi Narain College of Technology, Bhopal,
Madhya Pradesh, India
3
Professor, AISECT University, Raisen, Madhya Pradesh, India3

ABSTRACT

An experimental study was carried out to find out the effect of fuel injector nozzle hole
diameter on diesel engine performance using Karanja oil- diesel blends. For this experimental setup a
5.97 KW single cylinder, water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine with dynamometer was used
for the experimental work. Engine performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE),
brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) ,brake power (BP), total fuel consumption(TFC) and
exhaust gas temperature were calculated. These performance parameters were measured using three
different size nozzles. One nozzle with holes of .25 mm, .25 mm and .15 mm, second nozzle with all
three holes of .4 mm size, third nozzle with all three holes of .6 mm size. Results indicated that brake
thermal efficiency decreased with the increase in nozzle size. Brake power increased with increase in
nozzle size but with increasing load, brake power reduced. The brake specific fuel consumption
increased with increase in nozzle size, with karanja oil diesel blends having less brake specific fuel
consumption but at peak load and with nozzle size of .6 mm, diesel had the least brake specific fuel
consumption. Exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in nozzle size and percentage of
karanja oil to diesel.

Keywords: diesel, engine performance, karanja oil, nozzle diameter.

1. INTRODUCTION

The consumption of diesel is 4-5 times higher than petrol in India. Due to the shortage of
petroleum products and its increasing cost, efforts are on to develop alternative fuels especially, to
the diesel oil for full or partial replacement. It has been found that the vegetable oils are
promising fuels because their properties are similar to that of diesel and are produced easily and
renewably from the crops. Vegetable oils have comparable energy density, cetane number, heat of
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

vaporization and stoichiometric airfuel ratio with that of the diesel fuel. None other than Rudolph
Diesel, the father of diesel engine, demonstrated the first use of vegetable oil in compression ignition
engine in 1910. He used peanut oil as fuel for his experimental engine [1].
Vegetable oils have almost similar energy density, cetane number, heat of vaporization, and
stoichiometric air/fuel ratio compared to mineral diesel fuel. However, straight vegetable oils cannot
be used directly in engines. Straight vegetable oils or their blends with diesel pose various long-term
operational and durability problems in compression ignition engines, e.g. poor fuel atomization,
piston ring-sticking, fuel injector coking and deposits, fuel pump failure, and lubricating oil dilution
etc.. The properties of vegetable oils responsible for these problems are high viscosity, low volatility,
and polyunsaturated character. Several techniques are proposed to reduce the viscosity of vegetable
oils such as blending, pyrolysis, micro-emulsion and transesterification etc. Heating and blending of
vegetable oils reduce the viscosity but its molecular structure remains unchanged hence
polyunsaturated character and low volatility problems exist. It has been reported that
transesterification is an effective process to overcome all these problems associated with vegetable
oils [2]. There are many vegetable oils which have properties similar to diesel but viscosity is a
major factor against their use, they need to be processed before they can be used with diesel, for this
nozzle with increased hole sizes were used for testing the performance of CI engine, as processing
add to the cost of bio-diesel. If they would be used at normal standard size nozzles, it may lead to the
choking of the nozzles.
Vegetable oil can be directly mixed with diesel fuel and may be used for running an engine.
The blending of vegetable oil with diesel fuel in different proportion were experimented successfully
by various researchers. Blend of 20% oil and 80% diesel have shown same results as diesel and also
properties of the blend is almost close to diesel. The blend with more than 40% has shown
appreciable reduction in flash point due to increase in viscosity. Some researchers suggested for
heating of the fuel lines to reduce the viscosity. Although short term tests using neat vegetable oil
showed promising results, longer tests led to injector choking, more engine deposits, ring sticking
and thickening of the engine lubricant [3]. Micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification are
the remedies used to solve the problems encountered due to high fuel viscosity. Although there are
many ways and procedures to convert vegetable oil into a Diesel like fuel, the transesterification
process was found to be the most viable oil modification process [2]. The use of vegetable oils, such
as palm, soya bean, sunflower, peanut, and olive oil, as alternative fuels for diesel is being promoted
in many countries [4].
Y.He et al. [5] conducted tests with blend of 30% cottonseed oil and 70% diesel on diesel
engine. The experimental results obtained showed that a mixing ratio of 30% cottonseed oil and 70%
diesel oil was practically optimal in ensuring relatively high thermal efficiency of engine, as well as
homogeneity and stability of the oil mixture. For this purpose, a modification of diesel engine
structure is unnecessary, as has been confirmed by the literature. High viscosity of cottonseed oil is
one of the key problems preventing its widespread application. Deshpande [6] used blends of linseed
oil and diesel to run the CI engine. Minimum smoke and maximum brake thermal efficiency were
reported in this study. Barsic et al. [7] conducted experiments using 100% sunflower oil, 100%
peanut oil, 50% of sunflower oil with diesel and 50% of peanut oil with diesel. A comparison of the
engine performance was presented. The results showed that there was an increase in power and
emissions. In another study, Rosa et al. [8] used sunflower oil to run the engine and it was reported
that it performed well. Blends of sunflower oil with diesel and safflower oil with diesel were used by
Zeiejerdki et al. [9] for his experimentation. He demonstrated the least square regression procedure
to analyze the long-term effect of alternative fuel and I.C. engine performance. The straight karanja
oil blend up to 25% with the petro diesel meets the standard specification. However blending of this
oil with petro diesel up to 20% (by volume) can be used safely in a conventional CI engine without
any engine modification that could help in controlling air pollution. [10]

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND METHODOLOGY

A Kirloskar make, single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine was selected
for the present research work, which is primarily used for agricultural activities and household
electricity generations. It is a single cylinder, four stroke,
str and water-cooled
cooled engine. It has a provision
of loading mechanically since it is coupled with mechanical dynamometer. The engine can be hand
started using decompression lever. The inlet and exhaust valves are operated by an overhead
camshaft driven from the crankshaft. The fuel pump is driven from the end of camshaft. The detailed
technical specifications of the engine are given in Table 1.

Table No.1:-
No.1: Specifications of the Diesel Engine

Make Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.


TYPE single cylinder, 4 stroke, vertical, water-cooled
cooled engine
Rated Brake Power(kW) 5.968
Rated Speed (rpm) 1800
Number of Cylinder One
Bore x Stroke (mm) 87.5 x 110

For determining the effect of injector nozzle diameter on diesel engine performance, the size
of the nozzle holes were increased using the process of laser drilling. Nozzle is heat treated as a
result it cannot be machined using ordinary machining processes.
processe It can be machined by laser drilling
and EDM (electric
electric discharge machining).
machining).The
The tests were conducted on nozzles with holes of .4 mm,
.6 mm sizes and nozzle with holes of .25 mm, .25mm and .15mm.

FIGURE NO.1 experimental set-up


(N-SPEED SENSOR, W-LOADING
LOADING ARRANGEMENT, T1-T6-TEMPERATURE
T1 TEMPERATURE SENSORS, II-
INJECTOR)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

2.1 The Fuel Properties


The fuel properties of the karanja oil and its blends are furnished.

Table No.2: Fuel properties of Karanja Oil and its Blends

Karanja oil
Properties Diesel
B5 B10 B15 B20
Calorific value, KJ/kg 43500 43119 42738 42357 41956
Specific gravity 0.835 0.837 0.840 0.842 0.844
Kinematic viscosity at 30C, 2.5 2.78 2.89 3.06 3.64

3. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

3.1 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption(BSFC)


The brake specific fuel consumption of engine was increased with increase in the nozzle size,
the brake specific fuel consumption was less when using karanja oil and diesel blends with B20
having the least brake specific fuel consumption but at peak loads, while running on diesel fuel,
engine had least specific fuel consumption. Nozzle with hole sizes of .25 mm, .25 mm and .15 mm,
had the least brake specific fuel consumption while nozzle with all three holes of .6 mm had the
highest brake specific fuel consumption. The comparative brake specific fuel consumption for all the
three nozzles at various loads is given in the below figures.

BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 25% LOAD


BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL

NOZZLE HOLES
CONSUMPTION

SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm

NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm

DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

FIGURE NO.2 BSFC in kg/kw-hr at 25% load for different nozzle sizes

BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 50%


BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL

LOAD
CONSUMPTION

NOZZLE HOLES SIZE


.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20 .25,.25 &.15 mm

FIGURE NO.3 BSFC in kg/kw-hr at 50% load for different nozzle sizes

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 75%


LOAD
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL
CONSUMPTION
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.25,.25 &.15 mm

DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20


Fig.4 BSFC in kg/kw-hr at 75% load for different nozzle sizes

BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 100%


LOAD
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL
CONSUMPTION

NOZZLE HOLES SIZE


.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20 .25,.25 &.15 mm

Fig.5 BSFC in kg/kw-hr at 100% load for different nozzle sizes

3.2 Brake Power(BP)


In general brake power increased with increased in nozzle size, that is a nozzle with all holes
of .6 mm produced more brake power compared to the nozzle with all holes of .4 mm, and nozzle
with hole sizes of .25 mm, .25 mm and .15 mm. At maximum load condition B20 fuel produced the
highest brake power, for nozzles with all holes of .6 mm and .4 mm but nozzle with hole sizes of .25
mm, .25 mm and .15 mm diesel fuel produced the maximum brake power.

BRAKE POWER AT 25% LOAD


BRAKE POWER

NOZZLE HOLES SIZE


.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.6 brake power in kW at 25% load for different nozzle sizes

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

BRAKE POWER AT 50% LOAD

BRAKE POWER
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.7 brake power in kW at 50% load for different nozzle sizes

BRAKE POWER AT 75% LOAD


BRAKE POWER

NOZZLE HOLES SIZE


.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.25,.25 &.15 mm

DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.8 brake power in kW at 75% load for different nozzle sizes

BRAKE POWER AT 100% LOAD


BRAKE POWER

NOZZLE HOLES SIZE


.6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES SIZE
.25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.9 brake power in kw at 100% load for different nozzle sizes

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

3.3 Brake Thermal Efficiency(BTE)


Brake thermal efficiency decreased with increase in the nozzle sizes. At 25%, 50%, 75% load
conditions B20 produced the maximum brake thermal efficiency with some exception. But at peak
load condition, for all the three nozzles, diesel fuel produced the maximum break thermal efficiency.
Comparative analysis of brake thermal efficiency at various load conditions for different nozzle sizes
is given in the below figures.

BTE AT 25% LOAD


BRAKE THERMAL

NOZZLE HOLES
EFFICIENCY

SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm


NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.10 BTE at 25% load for different nozzle sizes

BTE AT 50% LOAD


BRAKE THERMAL
EFFICIEENCY

NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.11 BTE at 50% load for different nozzle sizes

BTE AT 75% LOAD


BRAKE THERMAL
EFFICIEENCY

NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.12 BTE at 75% load for different nozzle sizes

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

BTE AT 100% LOAD

BRAKE THERMAL
EFFICIEENCY
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.13 BTE at 100% load for different nozzle sizes

3.4 Total Fuel Consumption(TFC)


Total fuel consumption increased with the increase in the nozzle hole sizes. The total fuel
consumption was less when engine was running on karanja oil-diesel blends but at peak load, the
total fuel consumption was less when diesel fuel was used.

TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 25% LOAD


CONSUMPTION
TOTAL FUEL

NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.14 TFC in kg/hr at 25% load for different nozzle sizes

TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 50% LOAD


CONSUMPTION
TOTAL FUEL

NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.15 TFC in kg/hr at 50% load for different nozzle sizes

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 75% LOAD

CONSUMPTION
TOTAL FUEL
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm
DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.16 TFC in kg/hr at 75% load for different nozzle sizes

TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION AT 100% LOAD


CONSUMPTION
TOTAL FUEL

NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .6,.6 &.6 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .4,.4 &.4 mm
NOZZLE HOLES
SIZE .25,.25 &.15 mm

DIESEL B5 B10 B15 B20

Fig.17 TFC in kg/hr at 100% load for different nozzle sizes

4. CONCLUSIONS

With increase in the nozzle size brake specific fuel consumption increased which was least
for the B20 fuel but at peak load diesel fuel produced the least brake specific fuel consumption. The
exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in nozzle size, with increase in karanja oil-diesel
blending ratio, exhaust gas temperature increased but B20 produced less exhaust gas temperature
compared to B15 for all nozzle sizes. The brake thermal efficiency decreased with increase in nozzle
hole size, karanja oil-diesel blends produced more brake thermal efficiency but at peak load diesel
fuel produced the maximum brake thermal efficiency for all the nozzle sizes. Brake power increased
with the increase in the nozzle size with some exceptions, at peak load B20 produced the highest
brake power at .6 mm nozzle size. The total fuel consumption increased with the increase in the
nozzle hole size, karanja oil-diesel blends had less total fuel consumption as compared to diesel fuel.
But at peak load, diesel fuel had the least total fuel consumption at all nozzle sizes.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) IAEME

5. REFERENCES

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