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VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01) Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems

VdS Guidelines for

Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and


Water Mist Extinguishing Systems
(High Pressure Systems)
Planning and Installation

CONTENTS

0 Foreword ................................................................................................................ 12
0.1 Terms .................................................................................................................. 12
0.2 Application of the VdS Guidelines ...................................................................... 12
0.3 Classification system for water mist sprinkler systems....................................... 12
0.4 Contents of these Guidelines .............................................................................. 13
1 General ................................................................................................................... 13
1.1 Application .......................................................................................................... 13
1.2 Aims .................................................................................................................... 14
1.2.1 Water mist sprinkler system ................................................................................ 14
1.2.2 Water mist extinguishing system ........................................................................ 15
1.2.3 General ............................................................................................................... 15
1.3 Description .......................................................................................................... 15
1.3.1 Types of water mist systems .............................................................................. 16
1.3.2 Scope of protection ............................................................................................. 17
1.4 Approvals ............................................................................................................ 17
1.4.1 VdS-approved systems and installers ................................................................ 17
1.4.2 Completion .......................................................................................................... 17
1.4.3 Periodical inspections ......................................................................................... 17
1.4.4 Responsible person ............................................................................................ 17
1.5 Normative reference ........................................................................................... 18
2 Definitions.............................................................................................................. 21
3 Contract planning and documentation ............................................................... 25
3.1 General ............................................................................................................... 25
3.2 Initial considerations ........................................................................................... 26
3.3 Preliminary or estimating stage .......................................................................... 26
3.4 Design stage ....................................................................................................... 26
3.4.1 General ............................................................................................................... 26
3.4.2 Installation certificate .......................................................................................... 26
3.4.3 System layout drawings ...................................................................................... 27
3.4.4 Water supply ....................................................................................................... 29
3.4.5 Electrical installation for electrically driven pumps ............................................. 30
3.5 Commencement of installation works ................................................................. 30

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Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01)

4 Scope of protection of water mist systems and formation of fire


compartments ....................................................................................................... 31
4.1 Scope of protection and exceptions for water mist sprinkler systems ................ 31
4.2 Scope of protection for water mist extinguishing systems .................................. 32
4.3 Exceptions required for water mist systems ....................................................... 33
4.4 Compartmentation and separation ..................................................................... 33
5 Rating bases and fire hazard classes ................................................................. 34
5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 34
5.2 Characteristics .................................................................................................... 34
5.3 Fields of application of water mist systems ........................................................ 34
5.3.1 Water mist sprinkler systems .............................................................................. 35
5.3.2 Water mist extinguishing systems ...................................................................... 35
5.4 Selected storage in OH zones ............................................................................ 36
5.4.1 General ............................................................................................................... 36
5.4.2 Type of storage ................................................................................................... 36
5.4.3 Maximum storage heights ................................................................................... 38
6 Hydraulic design criteria ...................................................................................... 38
6.1 Areas of operation and section areas of operation ............................................. 38
6.1.1 Water mist sprinkler systems .............................................................................. 39
6.1.2 Water mist extinguishing systems ...................................................................... 39
6.2 Pipe sizing ........................................................................................................... 40
6.2.1 Pre-calculated systems ....................................................................................... 40
6.2.2 Hydraulically calculated systems ........................................................................ 40
6.3 Operating area and maximum pressure ............................................................. 40
7 Water supply General ...................................................................................... 40
7.1 Suitability ............................................................................................................. 40
7.1.1 General ............................................................................................................... 40
7.1.2 Operating times................................................................................................... 41
7.1.3 Protection against freezing ................................................................................. 41
7.2 Connections of other services ............................................................................ 41
7.3 Housing of equipment for water supplies............................................................ 41
7.4 Test facilities and measuring equipment at water supplies ................................ 42
7.5 Flow tests on the water supply and/or refill mechanism ..................................... 42
7.6 Water supply pressure test ................................................................................. 42

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VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01) Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems

8 Choice of water supply......................................................................................... 42


8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 42
8.2 Public water mains .............................................................................................. 43
8.3 Water storage tanks ............................................................................................ 43
8.3.1 General ............................................................................................................... 43
8.3.2 Minimum water volume ....................................................................................... 44
8.3.3 Frost protection measures .................................................................................. 44
8.3.4 Refill rates for water storage tanks ..................................................................... 44
8.3.5 Reduced capacity tanks ...................................................................................... 44
8.3.6 Nominal volume of tanks..................................................................................... 46
8.3.7 Strainers .............................................................................................................. 46
8.3.8 Design, material, strength of tanks ..................................................................... 47
8.3.9 Welded and non-welded steel tanks ................................................................... 47
8.3.10 Concrete tanks .................................................................................................... 47
8.3.11 Plastic tanks ........................................................................................................ 48
8.3.12 Booster pump...................................................................................................... 48
8.4 Cylinder systems................................................................................................. 48
8.4.1 General ............................................................................................................... 48
8.4.2 Water quality ....................................................................................................... 48
8.4.3 Dimensioning ...................................................................................................... 48
8.5 Gas-driven pump systems .................................................................................. 49
8.5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 49
8.5.2 Water supply ....................................................................................................... 49
8.5.3 Dimensioning ...................................................................................................... 49
8.6 Type of water supply ........................................................................................... 49
8.6.1 Single water supply ............................................................................................. 49
8.6.2 Superior single water supply ............................................................................... 49
8.6.3 Duplicate water supply ........................................................................................ 50
8.7 Separation of water supply ................................................................................. 50
8.8 Choice of water supply........................................................................................ 50
8.8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 50
8.8.2 Water mist sprinkler systems .............................................................................. 50
8.8.3 Water mist extinguishing systems ...................................................................... 51
8.8.4 Reserve quantities for cylinder systems or gas-driven pump systems ............... 51

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Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01)

9 Systems for water delivery .................................................................................. 52


9.1 Installation location of pump systems, cylinder systems, and gas-driven pump
systems ............................................................................................................... 52
9.1.1 Room requirements ............................................................................................ 52
9.1.2 Protection of the installation location .................................................................. 52
9.1.3 Deviating requirements for installation locations of water mist extinguishing
system ................................................................................................................. 52
9.1.4 Temperature range ............................................................................................. 53
9.1.5 Ventilation ........................................................................................................... 53
9.1.6 Requirements for cylinder systems and gas-fuelled pump systems .................. 53
9.2 Pump system ...................................................................................................... 53
9.2.1 General ............................................................................................................... 53
9.2.2 Multiple pump module arrangements ................................................................. 54
9.2.3 Maximum temperature of water supply............................................................... 54
9.2.4 Valves and accessories ...................................................................................... 54
9.2.5 Safety valve ........................................................................................................ 54
9.2.6 Delivery conditions .............................................................................................. 54
9.2.7 Performance characteristics ............................................................................... 55
9.2.8 Overflow valve .................................................................................................... 55
9.2.9 Pressure switches or pressure sensors .............................................................. 55
9.2.10 Electrically driven pump systems........................................................................ 56
9.3 Diesel engine driven pumps ............................................................................... 63
9.4 Cylinder systems................................................................................................. 63
9.4.1 Storage ............................................................................................................... 63
9.4.2 Monitoring ........................................................................................................... 63
9.5 Gas-diven pump systems ................................................................................... 63
10 Types of water mist sprinkler and extinguishing systems and
their triggering ...................................................................................................... 63
10.1 General ............................................................................................................... 63
10.2 Water mist sprinkler systems .............................................................................. 64
10.2.1 Wet pipe systems................................................................................................ 64
10.2.2 Dry pipe systems ................................................................................................ 65
10.2.3 Pre-action systems ............................................................................................. 66
10.3 Water mist extinguishing systems ...................................................................... 67
10.3.1 General ............................................................................................................... 67
10.3.2 Electric triggering and monitoring ....................................................................... 67
10.3.3 Manual release elements .................................................................................... 68
10.3.4 Functional test: Triggering of water mist extinguishing system .......................... 68
10.3.5 Electrical cables .................................................................................................. 68

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VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01) Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems

11 Spacing and location of water mist sprinklers and nozzles............................. 68


11.1 General ............................................................................................................... 68
11.2 Model, spacing, and installation height of water mist sprinklers and nozzles .... 69
11.3 Information on life safety ..................................................................................... 69
11.4 Minimum distance between water mist sprinklers .............................................. 69
11.5 Arrangement of water mist nozzles for local application protection ................... 69
11.6 Location of water mist sprinklers or nozzles in relation to building, facilities,
and equipment .................................................................................................... 69
11.6.1 Distance from walls ............................................................................................. 69
11.6.2 Water mist sprinklers distance from the ceiling ............................................... 70
11.6.3 Slope of ceilings .................................................................................................. 70
11.6.4 Water mist sprinklers skylights ........................................................................ 70
11.6.5 Beams, ceiling joists, etc. ................................................................................... 71
11.6.6 Platforms, landings, mezzanines, ducts, etc. ..................................................... 71
11.6.7 Water mist sprinklers platforms, escalators, and staircases .......................... 72
11.6.8 Vertical shafts and chutes ................................................................................... 72
11.6.9 Ceiling obstructions............................................................................................. 72
11.6.10 Suspended open ceilings .................................................................................... 72
12 Types and design characteristics of water mist sprinklers and nozzles ........ 73
12.1 General ............................................................................................................... 73
12.2 Design discharge ................................................................................................ 73
12.3 Filter or fine screen ............................................................................................. 73
12.4 Water mist sprinkler ............................................................................................ 73
12.4.1 Nominal operating temperatures ........................................................................ 73
12.4.2 Sprinkler sensitivities (RTI values)...................................................................... 74
12.4.3 Protecting cages ................................................................................................. 74
12.4.4 Water shields ...................................................................................................... 74
12.5 Buildings with smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems .............................. 74
13 Valves ..................................................................................................................... 75
13.1 Section valve stations ......................................................................................... 75
13.2 Stop valves ......................................................................................................... 75
13.3 Drain valves ........................................................................................................ 75
13.4 Test facilities ....................................................................................................... 76
13.4.1 Alarm and pump start test facilities ..................................................................... 76
13.4.2 Test facilities at the end of the pipework............................................................. 76
13.5 Flushing connections .......................................................................................... 76
13.6 Pressure gauges and pressure sensors ............................................................. 76
13.6.1 Water supply connections ................................................................................... 76
13.6.2 Section valve stations ......................................................................................... 77
13.6.3 Removal .............................................................................................................. 77
14 Alarms and alarm devices.................................................................................... 77
14.1 Audible alarm devices ......................................................................................... 77
14.2 Electrical water flow, water and air pressure switches, pressure sensors ......... 78
14.2.1 General ............................................................................................................... 78
14.2.2 Flow detectors..................................................................................................... 79
14.2.3 Pressure switches or pressure sensors .............................................................. 79
14.2.4 Dry and pre-action systems ................................................................................ 79
14.3 Alarm transmission equipment to permanently manned locations ..................... 79

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Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01)

15 Pipework ................................................................................................................ 79
15.1 General ............................................................................................................... 79
15.1.1 Underground piping ............................................................................................ 79
15.1.2 Above ground piping ........................................................................................... 80
15.1.3 Bending of pipes ................................................................................................. 80
15.1.4 Welding ............................................................................................................... 80
15.1.5 Mechanical pipe joints......................................................................................... 81
15.1.6 Flexible pipes and joints ..................................................................................... 81
15.1.7 Requirements for press fitting systems............................................................... 82
15.1.8 Subsurface piping ............................................................................................... 82
15.1.9 Protection against fire and mechanical damage................................................. 82
15.1.10 Painting ............................................................................................................... 83
15.1.11 Drainage ............................................................................................................. 83
15.1.12 Pipework in false ceiling and false floor areas .................................................... 83
15.2 Pipe hangers ....................................................................................................... 83
15.2.1 General ............................................................................................................... 83
15.2.2 Spacing and arrangement .................................................................................. 83
15.2.3 Dimensioning ...................................................................................................... 86
15.2.4 Anchorage in concrete ceilings ........................................................................... 86
16 Signs, notices, and information .......................................................................... 87
16.1 Block plan ........................................................................................................... 87
16.2 Signs and notices................................................................................................ 87
16.2.1 Information sign .................................................................................................. 87
16.2.2 Signs for stop valves ........................................................................................... 87
16.2.3 Section valve stations ......................................................................................... 87
16.2.4 Water supply connections to other services ....................................................... 88
16.2.5 Water supply ....................................................................................................... 88
16.2.6 Electric switches and control panels ................................................................... 88
16.2.7 Test and operating devices ................................................................................. 89
17 Commissioning and approval inspections ........................................................ 89
17.1 Commissioning inspections ................................................................................ 89
17.1.1 Pipework ............................................................................................................. 89
17.1.2 Equipment ........................................................................................................... 89
17.1.3 Water supply ....................................................................................................... 89
17.1.4 Cylinder systems................................................................................................. 90
17.2 Installation certificate and documentation .......................................................... 90
17.2.1 Required documents for VdS Schadenverhtung .............................................. 90
17.2.2 Documents on power supply to pump systems .................................................. 90
17.2.3 Required documents for the operator ................................................................. 90
17.3 Spray test ............................................................................................................ 91

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VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01) Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems

18 Maintenance of operational readiness ............................................................... 91


18.1 General ............................................................................................................... 91
18.1.1 Spare water mist sprinklers and nozzles ............................................................ 91
18.1.2 Exchange of water mist sprinklers and nozzles .................................................. 92
18.1.3 Precautions and procedures when a system is not fully operational.................. 92
18.2 Action following release of a system................................................................... 93
18.2.1 Release of a water mist sprinkler system ........................................................... 93
18.2.2 Release of a water mist extinguishing system .................................................... 93
18.3 Operators control programme ............................................................................ 94
18.3.1 General ............................................................................................................... 94
18.3.2 Special controls................................................................................................... 94
18.3.3 Daily controls ...................................................................................................... 94
18.3.4 Weekly controls................................................................................................... 95
18.3.5 Monthly controls .................................................................................................. 95
18.3.6 Quarterly controls................................................................................................ 96
18.4 Servicing programme by VdS-approved installer ............................................... 97
18.4.1 Half-yearly servicing routine by the VdS-approved installer ............................... 97
18.4.2 Yealry servicing work by the VdS-approved installer ......................................... 98
18.4.3 3-year inspection by VdS-approved installer ...................................................... 99
18.4.4 5-year inspection by VdS-approved installer ...................................................... 99
18.4.5 25/12,5-year inspection....................................................................................... 99
18.4.6 Modifications by VdS-approved installer............................................................. 99
19 Monitoring of water mist systems ....................................................................... 99
19.1 Stop valves ....................................................................................................... 100
19.2 Fill level ............................................................................................................. 100
19.3 Pressure ............................................................................................................ 100
19.4 Power supply .................................................................................................... 100
19.5 Lines.................................................................................................................. 100
19.6 Detection circuits............................................................................................... 101
19.7 Pump system .................................................................................................... 101
19.8 Place of installation of water supply.................................................................. 101
19.9 Fault warning .................................................................................................... 101
19.10 Power supply of monitoring system .................................................................. 101
19.11 Power supply from the electric network ............................................................ 101
19.12 Power supply from accumulators...................................................................... 102
19.13 Requirements for components of monitoring systems ..................................... 102
Annex D Water mist sprinkler systems requirements for
multi-storey buildings ............................................................................. 104
D.1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 104
D.2 Subdivision of the system into zones................................................................ 104
D.3 Requirements for water mist sprinkler systems subdivided into zones ............ 104
D.3.1 Extent of zones ................................................................................................. 104
D.3.2 Zone subsidiary stop valves ............................................................................. 104
D.3.3 Flushing valves ................................................................................................. 104
D.3.4 Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 104
D.3.5 Test and drainage facilities for zones ............................................................... 105
D.3.6 Section valve stations ....................................................................................... 105
D.3.7 Monitoring of alarms in water mist sprinkler systems ....................................... 105
D.4 Block plan ......................................................................................................... 106

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Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01)

Annex E Special requirements for high rise systems ......................................... 107


E.1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 107
E.2 Design criteria ................................................................................................... 107
E.2.1 Hazard class ..................................................................................................... 107
E.2.2 Subdivision into zones ...................................................................................... 107
E.2.3 Calculation of the distribution pipework ............................................................ 107
E.2.4 Water pressure ................................................................................................. 107
E.3 Water supplies .................................................................................................. 107
Annex G Methods for hydraulic calculation of pipework .................................... 108
G.1 Calculation of pressure losses in pipework ...................................................... 108
G.1.1 Pipe friction losses ............................................................................................ 108
G.1.2 Static pressure difference ................................................................................. 109
G.1.3 Friction losses in fittings and valves ................................................................. 109
G.1.4 Accuracy of calculations ................................................................................... 110
G.2 Pre-calculated systems ..................................................................................... 110
G.3 Hydraulically calculated systems ...................................................................... 110
G.3.1 Design density minimum design discharge ................................................... 110
G.3.2 Location of the areas of operation of water mist sprinkler systems.................. 110
G.3.3 Form of the area of operation of water mist sprinkler systems ......................... 111
G.3.4 Water mist extinguishing systems .................................................................... 111
G.3.5 Minimum pressure at water mist sprinkler or nozzle ........................................ 111
G.3.6 Minimum pipe diameter..................................................................................... 111
Annex H Figures with examples (from VdS CEA 4001) ....................................... 112
Annex I Components and systems ....................................................................... 114
I.1 Components subject to approval ...................................................................... 114
I.2 Systems ............................................................................................................ 114
Annex K Information on and requirements for selected fields of application .. 116
K.1 Water mist sprinkler systems ............................................................................ 116
K.1.1 Office space ...................................................................................................... 116
K.1.2 Accomodation areas ......................................................................................... 117
K.1.3 Office space and recreation areas with water mist sidewall sprinklers ............ 117
K.1.4 False ceilings and false floors........................................................................... 118
K.1.5 Parking garages ................................................................................................ 118
K.1.6 Selected sales and storage areas and mechanical floors ................................ 119
K.2 Water mist extinguishing systems .................................................................... 119
K.2.1 Cable ducts ....................................................................................................... 119
K.2.2 Machinery rooms .............................................................................................. 121
K.2.3 Paint shops ....................................................................................................... 122
K.2.4 Storage and processing areas for combustible liquids ..................................... 123
K.2.5 Kitchen protection systems ............................................................................... 124
K.2.6 Local protection of machines ............................................................................ 124

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VdS 3188en : 2015-05 (01) Water Mist Sprinkler Systems and Water Mist Extinguishing Systems

Annex M Proportioning of film-forming foam concentrate ................................. 126


M.1 Selection and type of the water mist sprinkler or water mist extinguishing system 126
M.1.1 General ............................................................................................................. 126
M.1.2 Wet pipe systems.............................................................................................. 126
M.1.3 Dry pipe systems or water mist extinguishing systems .................................... 127
M.1.4 Function test of alarm device ............................................................................ 127
M.2 Foam proportioning units .................................................................................. 127
M.2.1 General ............................................................................................................. 127
M.2.2 Marking of the proportioning unit ...................................................................... 127
M.2.3 Test facility for foam concentration ................................................................... 127
M.2.4 Foam concentration .......................................................................................... 128
M.2.5 Tolerance .......................................................................................................... 128
M.3 Foam concentrate pumps ................................................................................. 128
M.4 Foam concentrate ............................................................................................. 128
M.4.1 General ............................................................................................................. 128
M.4.2 Water quality ..................................................................................................... 128
M.4.3 Foam concentrate supply ................................................................................. 128
M.5 Foam concentrate tanks ................................................................................... 129
M.5.1 General ............................................................................................................. 129
M.5.2 Normal pressure tank........................................................................................ 129
M.5.3 Pressure tanks .................................................................................................. 129
M.6 Foam concentrate pipes and water-foam mixture pipes................................... 130
M.7 Pressure loss calculation with foam concentrate pipes .................................... 130
M.8 Disposal ............................................................................................................ 130
Annex R Requirements for material and fire resistance classes and their
classification in accordance with DIN 4102 and DIN EN 13501 .......... 131
R.1 Principles .......................................................................................................... 131
R.2 Combustibility of materials ................................................................................ 131
R.3 Fire resistance of components .......................................................................... 133
Annex S Combustion heat of insulating materials of cables and wires
(acc. to VdS 2134) .................................................................................... 137
S.1 General ............................................................................................................. 137
S.2 Scope ................................................................................................................ 137
S.3 Application of tables .......................................................................................... 138
Annex T System specific manual for planning and installation ........................ 142
T.1 General information .......................................................................................... 142
T.2 Contents of the system specific P&I manual .................................................... 142
T.2.1 Part A: General part system description ...................................................... 142
T.2.2 Part B: Data sheet for water mist sprinklers and/or nozzles ............................. 143
T.2.3 Part C: System structure and components ....................................................... 143
Annex Z Notification of installation for water mist systems .............................. 144

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