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MECHANICS

ABSTRACT ................................................................. 1

1. INTRODUCTION .................................................. 2

2. THEORY ................................................................. 2

2.1 VERTICAL DEFLECTION ....................................... 2

2.2 HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION .................................. 2

4. METHODOLOGY ................................................. 2

4.1 EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP ....................................... 2

4.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE............................... 3

5. RESULTS ................................................................ 3

7. DISCUSSION .......................................................... 3

Proving

8. APPENDIX .............................................................. 4

8.1 RAW DATA .......................................................... 4

8.1.1 Deflections .................................................... 4

8.1.2 Dimensions ................................................... 4

8.2 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS ..................................... 4

Ring

8.2.1 Area Moment of Inertia ................................ 4

8.2.2 Theoretical Deflection .................................. 4

8.3 ASSUMPTIONS ...................................................... 4

8.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................... 4

A BSTRACT

0900 1200

TUESDAY 14TH NOVEMBER 2017

ring, by comparing the horizontal and vertical deflections

of a steel proving ring under loading, with a proposed

theoretical formula to predict the deflection via

Group 22:

Castigilanos First Theorem. Jessica Li

Deflection data was generated by fixing the ring to an Ivan Chan

Avery Universal Tensile Test machine, while both

increasing and decreasing the load. The data was

Isla Du Boulay

tabulated and analysed with the aid of a MATLAB Emil Hansen

generated graph.

predicted the linear nature of the pattern the relationship

between deflection and applied load. Some match in data

could be seen however further improved accuracy is

essential due to the precise requirements of a proving

ring. It is suggested that a correction scaling factor should

be applied for both deflections. J E S S I C A L I S 1605860

1

1. I NTRODUCTION = position on structure

=>

= is combined with this by taking the partial derivative

=?@

A =? =?

Different materials form the fundamental building bricks of of 5 to give ( 5 ) = 2 , where = 1.

A?@ =?@ =?@

the physical world. It is then without a doubt that the

<

calculation of their strengths and the measurement of various 5 1

loads becomes crucial factors of consideration. They can be = = = $ 5

$ ; $ 2 2

determined precisely with a proving ring which consists of

(1) a steel ring with (2) and internal diameter measuring By considering the form of the resulting deformation, there is

system composed of screws and a vibrating plate. Uncertainty GH

no actual end rotation; so = 0, giving $ = . Here, the

should range from only 0.075% to 0.0125% [1] thus, the <

G

correct calibration of the ring itself (via loading) becomes very applied load = and Castiglianos 1st Theorem is applied.

5

important in order to be viable for its scientific and industrial

uses; as well as obtaining theoretical predictions of the <

<

5 2 5

deflections resulting from calibration. The latter component of I = 2 =2 =

; 2 ;

the proving ring is therefore omitted from the experimental set <

up, as only the steel ring itself is being investigated. 2 5

I = sin sin

; 2 2

Thus, the aim of this report is to compare the horizontal and

vertical deflections resulting from external loading during

= = .

calibration, with a theoretical prediction stemming from

Castiglianos Theorem in order to explore its suitability. The

mild steel ring used has an elastic modulus of 200GPa, and 2.2 Horizontal Deflection,

was loaded with an Avery Universal Tensile Test machine that There is no such external horizontal

is used for a range of tensile/compression tests on different force = at the point of interest.

materials and structures. Therefore, a fictitious horizontal force

that will later be set to 0 is applied as

below, via the fictitious load method.

2. T HEORY

This gives a new bending moment of

Figure 2: Free

body diagram with

As deflections at various points of a loaded structure is fictitious force [2] Z = sin $ + (1 cos )

2

measured, Castiglianos First Theorem is applied, which states

that, Following 2.1, it can be shown that the horizontal deflection is,

= , =

$ = = .

2.1 Vertical Deflection,

Due to symmetry, consider only half of the

ring, giving half the applied force F at F/2 at

3. A PPARATUS

each of the loading points. There will also be

an external moment, Mo, acting to ensure the

points of loading remain horizontal. The 1. Mild steel proving ring (without internal measuring

direct stresses due to axial force negligible system) that is being calibrated

in comparison. 2. Dial Gauge with link for securing the dial gauge onto the

proving ring. This gives a precise measurement of gap

This implies that the structure can be widths which is the resulting deflections in this

modelled as one that is deforming under a experiment

bending moment, M, which is a function of 3. A venire calliper and metre stick for taking various

, the position on the ring. measurements of the proving ring

Figure 1: Free 4. Avery Universal Tensile Test machine, where the proving

body diagram of

= sin $ ring will be fixed and loaded through a lever. The force

half the ring [3] 2 reading is given by a digital display.

M can be related to the strain energy by

:

5

<

5 5 4. M ETHODOLOGY

= =

; 2 ; 2

= bending moment of beam 4.1 Experimental Set-up

= Elastic modulus (200GPa for mild steel) The steel ring was fixed within the loading dimples of the

= Area Moment of Inertia of a cross section of the Avery machine. Then, the dial gauge was also fixed as in

beam, parallel to the direction of loading

2

Figure 3 to measure vertical deflection, and then moved vertically, as given by the MATLAB function polyfit().

accordingly to measure the horizontal deflection. The gradients of the lines of best fit were 0.0967 and 0.1069

respectively.

Figure 3: Set-up of ring and

dial gauge within the Avery

test machine. [2] Here the

6. A NALYSIS

dial gauge is in line with the

axis of loading, for the

measurement of the vertical The data was analysed by comparing theoretical to measured

deflection. data visually, by plotting the results into a graph as in Figure

4. The plotted measured deflection data both horizontally and

vertically shows near complete overlap between the deflection

values of each force during increasing and decreasing load

suggesting that the ring was under elastic deformation during

the entire experiment. This can be seen also in the raw data, in

4.2 Experimental Procedure Section 8.1.

1. The outer diameter of the steel ring was measured 3

times across different angles with the metre stick, to give Lines of best fit were fitted for the 2 sets of measured data,

an average of 404mm which allowed for analysis of correlation and precision, as

2. Similarly, the depth and thickness of the steel ring was well as the detection of any systematic errors. The elastic

taken 3 times, at different points around the ring with deformation was further supported by the linear correlation

venire calipers and low dispersion from the linear line of best fit (in red and

3. A light compression was applied to the ring initially to blue). The tightly fitted data indicates that the results taken

ensure its secured position on the supports. The load were highly precise, showing that the experimental procedure

applied was zeroed in this position. was very reliable.

4. The load was increased to 0.50kN by pressing the lever

on the machine. A momentary pause to allow the applied 7. D ISCUSSION

load to settle to 0.50 exactly was given, before noting

down the deflection reading from the dial gauge.

5. Step 4 was repeated for loads 0.50 to 5.00kN in 0.50kN

increments and 6kN, before load was decreased likewise Figure 4 illustrates clearly that the measured deflections were

from 5.00kN to 0.50kN in the same 0.50kN increment. linear in correlation, matching the linear gradient of the

The deflection from releasing the load was taken to ensure theoretical data. This shows that the core of the theory is

that during the compression process, the yield point had correct. However, most evidently, there is a poor match of the

not been reached. actual gradients of the lines which results in the errors

6. The dial gauge was then moved 90 to a horizontal becoming more and more prevalent with increasing applied

position, perpendicular to the axis of loading Step 4 and 5 force. This shows that while measured results were precise and

were then repeated to generate horizontal measurements. of high quality, they are of low accuracy compared with the

theoretical expectations.

5. R ESULTS

The theoretical vertical gradient can be shown to be G =

0.1239, compared to the fitted gradient of 0.1069; the

theoretical horizontal gradient is G = 0.1138, compared to the

fitted gradient of 0.0967. The difference in theoretical and

fitted is near identical at 0.0170 and 0.0171 respectively. This

suggests that the theoretical formulas are missing some

constant factor and require adjustment. The most probable

source of error here is the modelling of the ring as simply a

thin ring i.e., that of negligible thickness, with the radius

taken as the outer radius. The results suggest that for the

dimensions of the ring used for this experiment, the

approximation is inadequate, with the depth of the ring at

5c.;d

25.04mm which accounts for 5;5 = 12.40% of the radius.

Thus, the theoretical derivations should be modified to

account for an outer and inner radius, 5 and g . Alternatively,

a much less general approach would be to apply an empirically

obtained scaling factor, specific to the dimensions of this ring

to the theoretical deflection equations. Here, it was found that

using R = 194mm rather than the true 202mm gave the best fit,

ghd i

Figure 4: MATLAB graph of measured horizontal and vertical which implies a scaling factor of 5;5 = 0.8858 to both

deflections, with their respective lines of best fit and their equations to account for the thickness of the ring.

theoretical counter parts. Data given in Section 8.1

The precision of the results demonstrates the precise

The collected data was found to have an intercept of measuring instruments, with very low reading and random

deflections of 0.0222mm horizontally and 0.0231mm uncertainties, as in Section 8.1.2. Thus, very additional

3

sources of error could have occurred due to equipment. An as the calculated average value and corresponding random

intercept of 0.0222mm horizontally and 0.0231mm vertically uncertainty

;.;555

at 0kN is equivalent to a theoretical force of = 0.20kN

;.ggik

;.;555 Dimension Three points of Average Random Reading

horizontally and = 0.19kN vertically is present. This variables reading (mm) (mm) uncertainty Uncertainty

;.ggik

suggests a systematic error and as these values are similar 404

1mm;

again, that it was likely the same systematic error present in , Diameter 404 404 0

0.25%

both the horizontal and vertical measurements. A source of 404

error that impacted both orientations was likely a frictional 25.04

force present from the loading points. Another source is the , Depth of 25.04 to 0.003mm; 0.01mm;

25.04

orientation of the ring when fixed to the dial gauges to ring 2 d.p. 0.01% 0.04%

25.03

markings every 90. However, the slightest misalignment of 37.86

the ring at the 0 position would cause all the data to be out by , Thickness 37.83 to 0.017mm; 0.01mm;

37.83

a certain amount for both vertical and horizontal readings. of ring 2 d.p. 0.04% 0.03%

37.81

Data at same load values during increasing and decreasing of

load served as a repetition of the experiment to prove the good 8.2 Sample Calculations

reliability of the data. The experiment could benefit from

repetition with the ring flipped around or rotated, which would 8.2.1 AREA MOMENT OF INERTIA

improve the reliability of the 0 vertical starting position.

i 37.8325.04i

= =

12 12

8. A PPENDIX = 49494.63mmd

8.1 Raw Data perpendicular to the circular face of the

ring but parallel to the direction of F,

8.1.1 DEFLECTIONS

with its centroidal axis where I is taken

Resulting Deflections due to Applied Force (mm)

Applied Measured Z ,Theoretical Measured I , Theoretical

Force Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical 8.2.2 THEORETICAL DEFLECTION

(kN) Deflection Deflection Deflection Deflection Taking applied force to be = 6.00kN, the theoretical

horizontal deflection can be calculated to be Z = 0.68mm.

0.50 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.06

is 200GPa for mild steel, = 0.5 = 202mm and =

1.00 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.12

49494.63mm4 as above. Note that 1GPa = 1kN/mm2.

1.50 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.19

2.00 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 i 6202i

2.50 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.31 Z = 0.13662 = 0.13662 = 0.68mm

20049494.63

3.00 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.37

3.50 0.36 0.40 0.40 0.43 8.3 Assumptions

4.00 0.41 0.46 0.46 0.50 A post-experiment evaluation of the appropriate-ness of both

4.50 0.46 0.51 0.50 0.56 assumptions have been discussed in Section 7.

5.00 0.50 0.57 0.55 0.62 1. The derivation of the theoretical formulas had the

6.00 0.59 0.68 0.65 0.74 underlying assumption that the ring could be

5.00 0.50 0.57 0.55 0.62 approximated as a thin ring of negligible depth dimension

4.50 0.46 0.51 0.50 0.56 d, with the radius is then taken as the outer radius of the

4.00 0.41 0.46 0.46 0.50 ring. This approximation was thought to be adequate due

3.50 0.36 0.40 0.40 0.43 to the reasonable size of the outer radius. The outer radius

3.00 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.37 was selected to be the approximate radius R, over the

r

2.50 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.31 middle line at because if the ring was split like so

5

2.00 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 on this middle line, then the outer half would have a

1.50 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.19 greater surface area to bear more stress than the inner half.

1.00 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.12 Thus, approximating R as the outer radius was chosen.

0.50 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 2. Friction at the loading points were assumed negligible as

Table 2: Raw data of measured deflections alongside their any resulting friction would be very small compared to

calculated theoretical counterparts, given in Section 8.2.2. the loads applied, which were in the kilo-newtons scale.

The highlighted cells are the sets with very minor discrepancy

in the same increasing and decreasing load. Reading 8.4 Bibliography

uncertainty is 0.01kN and 0.01mm. The citations used were in the IEEE style.

[1] "The Proving Ring Design", NIST. [Online]. Available:

8.1.2 Dimensions https://www.nist.gov/pml/quantum-measurement-

Figure 5: Diagram of steel ring division/mass-and-force/proving-ring-design. [Accessed: 26-

showing the dimensions to be Nov- 2017].

measured. Table 1: Tabulated [2] STRUCTURAL MECHANICS AND DYNAMICS 3 -

measurements that were taken 3 Structural Mechanics Laboratory Handbook. Edinburgh:

times at different points on the ring, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, 2017, p. 12.

with its reading uncertainty as well [3] Lecture SM-15-16: Application of Energy Methods.

Edinburgh: School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh,

2017, pp. 14-15.

4

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