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Sem serifa
Em tipografia e letras , uma letra sans-serif ,
sans serif , gtico ou simplesmente sans Fonte Sans-serif
uma que no possui recursos de extenso
chamados " serifs " no final dos traados. [1] As Fonte Serif
fontes Sans-serif tendem a ter menor variao
da largura da linha do que as fontes serif. Na
Fonte Serif
maioria das impresses, eles so
(serifas em vermelho)
freqentemente usados para ttulos e no para
texto corporal. [2] Eles costumam ser usados
para transmitir simplicidade e modernidade ou minimalismo.

As fontes Sans-serif tornaram-se as mais prevalentes para exibio de texto


nas telas do computador. Nas telas digitais de baixa resoluo, detalhes
finos como serifas podem desaparecer ou parecer muito grandes. O termo
vem da palavra francesa sans , que significa "sem" e "serif" de origem
incerta, possivelmente da palavra holandesa schreef que significa "linha"
ou pen-stroke.

Antes que o termo "sans-serif" se tornasse comum na tipografia inglesa,


vrios outros termos foram usados. Um desses termos antiquados para
sans serif foi gtico , que ainda usado na tipografia do leste asitico e s
vezes visto em nomes de fontes como News Gothic , Highway Gothic ou
Trade Gothic .
Da esquerda para a direita: um tipo
de letra serif com serifas em
As fontes Sans-serif so s vezes, especialmente em documentos mais
vermelho, um tipo de letra serif e
antigos, usadas como um dispositivo para a nfase , devido sua cor um tipo de letra sans-serif
tipicamente mais preta .

Contedo
Classificao
Grotesco
Neo-grotesco
Geometria
Humanista
Outro / misturado
Sem-seriformes modulados

Histria
Outros nomes
Recorrentes iniciais
Recelantes recentes
Galeria
Veja tambm
Referncias

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Classificao
Para efeitos de classificao de tipo, modelos sans-serif so geralmente divididos em trs ou quatro grupos principais,
o quarto sendo o resultado da diviso do grotesco categoria em grotesco e neo-grotesco. [3] [4]

Grotesco
Este grupo apresenta a maior parte dos projetos sem-serifs iniciais (do
sculo 19 ao incio do sculo 20). Influenciados pelas fontes de Didone serif
do perodo e das tradies de sinalizao, estes eram geralmente projetos
bastante slidos e arrojados adequados para manchetes e propagandas. Os
tipos de letra precoce do sans-serif freqentemente no apresentavam
maisculas nem cursivas, pois no eram necessrios para tais usos. s Akzidenz Grotesk , originalmente
vezes, eram lanados por largura, com uma amplitude de larguras de lanado por H. Berthold AG na
estendido para normal para condensado, com cada estilo diferente, o que dcada de 1890. Um popular
significa que os olhos modernos podem parecer bastante irregulares e grotesco alemo com um "g" de um
[5] [6]As andar.
excntricos. fontes grotescas tm variao limitada da largura do
traado (muitas vezes no so perceptveis em maisculas). Os terminais
das curvas geralmente so horizontais, e muitos tm um "G" estimulado e um "R" com uma perna enrolada. As
capitais tendem a ser de largura relativamente uniforme. A altura da tampa e a altura da elevao so geralmente as
mesmas para criar um efeito mais regular em textos, como ttulos com muitas letras maisculas, e os descendentes so
freqentemente curtos para uma camada mais rgida. [7] A maioria evita ter um verdadeiro itlico em favor de um
design oblquo ou inclinado mais restrito , embora pelo menos sintm verdadeiro itlico fosse oferecido. [8] [9]

Exemplos de fontes grotescas incluem Akzidenz Grotesk , Venus , News Gothic , Franklin Gothic e Monotype
Grotesque . Akzidenz Grotesk Old Face, Knockout, Grotesque No. 9 e Monotype Grotesque so exemplos de fontes
digitais que retm mais excentricidades de alguns dos primeiros tipos sem-serif. [10] [11] [12] [13] O termo realista
tambm foi aplicado a esses projetos devido sua praticidade e simplicidade.

Neo-grotesco
Como o nome indica, esses projetos modernos consistem em uma evoluo
direta de tipos grotescos. Eles so relativamente simples em aparncia com
variao de largura limitada. Ao contrrio de projetos grotescos anteriores,
muitos foram emitidos em famlias extremamente grandes e versteis
desde o momento do lanamento, tornando-os mais fceis de usar para o
texto do corpo. Semelhantes a tipos de letra grotescos, os neogrotescos Helvetica , originalmente lanado
geralmente apresentam maisculas de largura uniforme e um design pela Haas Type Foundry (como
bastante "dobrado", em que os traos (por exemplo no 'c') so curvos todo Neue Haas Grotesk) em 1957. Um
tpico neo-grotesco.
o caminho para terminar em uma horizontal ou vertical perfeita. Helvetica
um exemplo disso. Outros, como Univers, so menos regulares.

Neo-grotesque type began in the 1950s with the emergence of the International Typographic Style, or Swiss style. Its
members looked at the clear lines of Akzidenz Grotesk (1896) as an inspiration to create rational, almost neutral
typefaces. In 1957 the release of Helvetica, Univers, and Folio, the first typefaces categorized as neo-grotesque, had a
strong impact internationally: Helvetica came to be the most used typeface for the following decades.[14]

Other, later neo-grotesques include Unica, Imago and Rail Alphabet, and in the digital period Acumin, San Francisco
and Roboto.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

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Geometric
As their name suggests, Geometric sans-serif typefaces are based on
geometric shapes, like near-perfect circles and squares.[21] Common
features are a nearly-exactly circular capital "o" and a "single-story"
lowercase letter "a". The 'M' is often splayed and the capitals of varying
width, following the classical model. Of these four categories, geometric
fonts tend to be the least useful for body text and often used for headings
and small passages of text. Futura, originally released by Bauer
Type Foundry in 1927. A typical
The geometric sans originated in Germany in the 1920s.[22] Two early geometric sans serif.
efforts in designing geometric types were made by Herbert Bayer and
Jakob Erbar, who worked respectively on Universal Typeface (unreleased
at the time but revived digitally as Architype Bayer) and Erbar (circa 1925).[23] In 1927 Futura, by Paul Renner, was
released to great acclaim and popularity.[24]

Geometric sans-serif fonts were popular from the 1920's and 30's due to their clean, modern design, and many new
geometric designs and revivals have been created since.[a] Notable geometric types of the period include Kabel,
Semplicit, Nobel and Metro; more recent designs in the style include ITC Avant Garde, Brandon Grotesque, Gotham
and Avenir. Many geometric sans-serif alphabets of the period, such as those created by the Bauhaus art school (1919-
1933) and modernist poster artists, were hand-lettered and not cut into metal type at the time.[26]

A separate inspiration for many types considered "geometric" in design has been the simplified shapes of letters
engraved or stenciled on metal and plastic in industrial use, which often follow a simplified structure. Designs
considered geometric in principles but which are less descended from the Futura/Erbar/Kabel tradition include Bank
Gothic, DIN 1451, Eurostile and Handel Gothic, along with many of the fonts designed by Ray Larabie.[27][28]

Humanist
Humanist sans-serifs take inspiration from traditional letterforms, such as
Roman square capitals, traditional serif fonts and calligraphy. Many have
true italics rather than an oblique, ligatures and even swashes in italic. One
of the earliest humanist designs was Edward Johnston's Johnston typeface
of c. 1916, and, a decade later, Gill Sans (Eric Gill, 1928).[29] Edward
Johnston, a calligrapher by profession, was inspired by classic letter forms, Syntax, originally released by D.
especially the capital letters on the Column of Trajan.[30] Stempel AG in 1969. A humanist
sans serif.
Humanist designs vary more than gothic or geometric designs.[31] Some
humanist designs have stroke modulation (strokes that clearly vary in
width along their line) or alternating thick and thin strokes. These include most popularly Hermann Zapf's Optima
(1958), a typeface expressly designed to be suitable for both display and body text.[32] Some humanist designs may be
more geometric, as in Gill Sans and Johnston (especially their capitals), which like Roman capitals are often based on
perfect squares, half-squares and circles, with considerable variation in width. These somewhat architectural designs
may feel too stiff for body text.[29] Others such as Syntax, Goudy Sans and Sassoon Sans more resemble handwriting,
serif fonts or calligraphy.

Frutiger, from 1976, has been particularly influential in the development of the modern humanist sans genre,
especially designs intended to be particularly legible above all other design considerations. The category expanded
greatly during the 1980s and 1990s, partly as a reaction against the overwhelming popularity of Helvetica and Univers
and also due to the need for legible fonts on low-resolution computer displays.[33][34][35][36] Designs from this period
intended for print use include FF Meta, Myriad, Thesis, Charlotte Sans, Bliss and Scala Sans, while designs created for
computer use include Microsoft's Tahoma, Trebuchet, Verdana, Calibri and Corbel, as well as Lucida Grande, Fira
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Sans and Droid Sans. Humanist sans-serif designs can (if appropriately proportioned and spaced) be particularly
suitable for use on screen or at distance, since their designs can be given wide apertures or separation between strokes,
which is not a conventional feature on grotesque and neo-grotesque designs.

Other/mixed
Due to the diversity of sans-serif typefaces, many do not fit neatly into the above categories. For example, Neuzeit S
has both neo-grotesque and geometric influences, as does Herman Zapf's URW Grotesk. Other "trans-sans" designs
include Whitney and Klavika. Sans-serif fonts intended for signage, such as Transport and Highway Gothic used on
road signs, may have unusual features to enhance legibility and differentiate characters, such as a lower-case "L" with
a curl or "i" with serif under the dot.[37]

Modulated sans-serifs
A particular subgenre of sans-serifs is those such as Rothbury, Britannic,
Radiant and National Trust with obvious variation in stroke with. These
have been called 'modulated' or 'stressed' sans-serifs. They are nowadays
often placed within the humanist genre, although they predate Johnston
which started the modern humanist genre. These may take inspiration
from sources outside printing such as brush lettering or calligraphy.[38]
Rothbury, an early modulated sans-
History serif font from 1915. The strokes
vary in width considerably.
Letters without serifs have been
common in writing across
history, for example in casual,
non-monumental epigraphy of
the classical period. However,
Roman square capitals, the
inspiration for much Latin-
alphabet lettering throughout
history, had prominent serifs.

While simple sans-serif letters


Roman square capitals, the
have always been common in inspiration of serif lettering.
"uncultured" writing, such as
basic handwriting, most
artistically created letters in the Latin alphabet, both sculpted and printed,
since the Middle Ages have been inspired by fine calligraphy, blackletter
writing and Roman square capitals. As a result, printing done in the Latin
alphabet for the first three hundred and fifty years of printing was "serif" in
style, whether in blackletter, roman type, italic or occasionally script.

The earliest printing typefaces which omitted serifs were not intended to
Sans-serif letterforms in ancient render contemporary texts, but to represent inscriptions in Ancient Greek
Etruscan on the Cippus Perusinus and Etruscan. Thus, Thomas Dempster's De Etruria regali libri VII (1723),
used special types intended for the representation of Etruscan epigraphy,
and in c. 1745, the Caslon foundry made Etruscan types for pamphlets
written by Etruscan scholar John Swinton.[39] Another niche used of a printed sans-serif letterform from in 1786
onwards was a rounded sans-serif script font developed by Valentin Hay for the use of the blind to read with their
fingers.[40][41][42]
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Towards the end of the eighteenth century Neoclassicism led to architects


increasingly incorporating ancient Greek and Roman designs in
contemporary structures. The architect John Soane commonly used sans-
serif letters on his drawings and architectural designs.[43] Soane's
inspiration was apparently the inscriptions dedicating the Temple of Vesta
in Tivoli, Italy, with minimal serifs.[43] These were then copied by other
artists. The lettering style apparently became referred to as "old Roman" or
"Egyptian" characters, referencing the classical past and a contemporary
Blackletter calligraphy in a fifteenth- interest in Ancient Egypt and its blocky, geometric architecture.[43][46] The
century bible
inappropriateness of the name was not lost on the poet Robert Southey, in
his satirical Letters from
England written in the
character of a Spanish
aristocrat.[47][48] It commented:
"Everything now must be
Egyptian: the ladies wear
crocodile ornaments, and you
sit upon a sphinx in a room
hung round with mummies,
and with long black lean-armed
An inscription at the neoclassical
grotto at Stourhead in the west of long-nosed hieroglyphical men,
England dated to around 1748, one who are enough to make the
of the first to use sans-serif children afraid to go to bed. The
letterforms since the classical very shopboards must be
period.[43][44][b] metamorphosed into the mode,
and painted in Egyptian letters,
which, as the Egyptians had no An early "neoclassical" use of sans-
serif capitals to represent antiquity,
letters, you will doubtless conceive must be curious. They are simply the
drawn by William Gell for his book
common characters, deprived of all beauty and all proportion by having all
on Ancient Greek antiquities.[42]
the strokes of equal thickness, so that those which should be thin look as if
they had the elephantiasis."[49][43][c]

In London, 'Egyptian' lettering became popular for advertising, apparently because of the "astonishing" effect the
unusual style had on the public. Historian James Mosley, the leading expert on early revival of sans-serif letters, has
written that "in 1805 Egyptian letters were happening in the streets of London, being plastered over shops and on
walls by signwriters, and they were astonishing the public, who had never seen letters like them and were not sure they
wanted to."[51] A depiction of the style was shown in the European Magazine of 1805.[52][53] However, the style did not
become used in printing for some more years.[d] (Early sans-serif signage was not printed from type but hand-painted
or carved, since at the time it was not possible to print in large sizes. This makes tracing the descent of sans-serif styles
hard, since a trend can arrive in the dated, printed record from a signpainting tradition which has left less of a record
or at least no dates.) Around 1816, the Ordnance Survey began to use 'Egyptian' lettering, monoline sans-serif capitals,
to mark ancient Roman sites. This lettering was printed from copper plate engraving.[52][42]

Around 1816, William Caslon IV produced the first sans-serif printing type in England for the Latin alphabet, a
capitals-only face under the title 'Two Lines English Egyptian', where 'Two Lines English' referred to the font's body
size, which equals to about 28- points.[56][57] No uses of it from the period have been found; Mosley speculates that it
may have been commissioned by a specific client.[58]

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A second hiatus in interest in


sans-serif appears to have
lasted for about twelve years,
when the Vincent Figgins
foundry of London issued a new
sans-serif in 1828.[59]
Thereafter sans-serifs rapidly
began to be issued from
London typefounders. Much
imitated was the 1830
Thorowgood "grotesque" face,
arrestingly bold and highly
condensed, similar in aesthetic
effect to the slab serif and "fat
Sample image of condensed sans- faces" of the period. Intended
serifs from the Figgins foundry of for advertising, these typefaces,
London in an 1845 specimen-book.
often display capitals, became
Much less influenced by classical Simple sans-serif capitals on a late
very successful.[52] Sans-serif nineteenth-century memorial,
models than the earliest sans-serif
lettering, these faces became printing types began to appear London
extremely popular for commercial thereafter in France and
use.[55] Germany.[60][e]

Sans-serif lettering and fonts were


popular due to their clarity and legibility at distance in advertising and display use,
when printed very large or small. Because sans-serif type was often used for
headings and commercial printing, many early sans-serif designs did not feature
lower-case letters. Simple sans-serif capitals, without use of lower-case, became
very common in uses such as tombstones of the Victorian period in Britain. The
term "grotesque" became commonly used to describe sans-serifs. The term
"grotesque" comes from the Italian word for cave, and was often used to describe
Roman decorative styles found by excavation, but had long become applied in the
modern sense for objects that appeared "malformed or monstrous."[7]

The first use of sans serif as a running text has been proposed to be the short
booklet Feste des Lebens und der Kunst: eine Betrachtung des Theaters als The January 13, 1898
edition of L'Aurore (the
hchsten Kultursymbols (Celebration of Life and Art: A Consideration of the
"J'accuse" issue): An early
Theater as the Highest Symbol of a Culture),[65] by Peter Behrens, in 1900.[66]
example of sans-serif in the
media. Select headlines are
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries sans-serif types were
in a sans-serif typeface.
viewed with suspicion by many printers, especially those of fine book printing, as
being fit only for advertisements (if that), and to this day most books remain
printed in serif fonts as body text.[67] This impression would not have been helped by the standard of common sans-
serif types of the period, many of which now seem somewhat lumpy and eccentrically-shaped. In 1922, master printer
Daniel Berkeley Updike described sans-serif fonts as having "no place in any artistically respectable composing-
room."[68] By 1937 he stated that he saw no need to change this opinion in general, though he felt that Gill Sans and
Futura were the best choices if sans-serifs had to be used.[69]

Through the early twentieth century, an increase in popularity of sans-serif fonts took place as more artistic and
complex designs were created. As Updike's comments suggest, the more constructed humanist and geometric sans-
serif designs were viewed as increasingly respectable, and were shrewdly marketed in Europe and America as
embodying classic proportions (with influences of Roman capitals) while presenting a spare, modern

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image.[72][73][74][75][76] While he
disliked sans-serif fonts in
general, the American printer
J.L Frazier wrote of
Copperplate Gothic in 1925 that
"a certain dignity of effect
accompanies...due to the
absence of anything in the way
of frills," making it a popular
choice for the stationery of
professionals such as lawyers
and doctors.[77]

In the post-war period, an


increase of interest took place
The first section of the avant-garde in "grotesque" sans-serifs.[78] Sans-serif type in both upper- and
magazine Blast, published by Writing in The Typography of lower-case on a 1914 poster.
Wyndham Lewis in 1914, used a Press Advertisement (1956),
condensed grotesque in order to
printer Kenneth Day
give an impression of modernity and
novelty. commented that Stephenson Blake's eccentric Grotesque series had
returned to popularity for having "a personality sometimes lacking in the
condensed forms of the contemporary sans cuttings of the last thirty
years."[25] Leading type designer Adrian Frutiger wrote in 1961 on
designing a new face, Univers, on the nineteenth-century model: "Some of
these old sans serifs have had a real renaissance within the last twenty
years, once the reaction of the 'New Objectivity' had been overcome. A
purely geometrical form of type is unsustainable.[79]" Of this period in
Britain, Mosley has commented that in 1960 "orders unexpectedly revived"
for Monotype's eccentric Monotype Grotesque design: "[it] represents,
Gill Sans on the nameplate of even more evocatively than Univers, the fresh revolutionary breeze that
Mallard. It was marketed as a began to blow through typography in the early sixties" and "its rather
sophisticated refinement of earlier clumsy design seems to have been one of the chief attractions to
sans-serifs, taking inspiration from iconoclastic designers tired of the...prettiness of Gill Sans".[80][81]
Roman capitals and designer Eric
Gill's experience carving By the 1960s, neo-grotesque fonts such as Univers and Helvetica had
monuments and memorials.[70][71] become popular through reviving the nineteenth-century grotesques while
offering a more unified range of styles than on previous designs, allowing a
wider range of text to be set artistically through setting headings and body
text in a single font.[5][82][83][84][85]

Other names

Early appellatives
Egyptian: The term was first used by Joseph Farington after seeing the sans serif inscription on John Flaxman's
memorial to Isaac Hawkins Brown in 1805,[52] though today the term is commonly used to refer to slab serif, not
sans serif.

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Antique: In about 1817, the Figgins foundry in London made a type


with square or slab-serifs which it called 'Antique', and that name was
adopted by most of the British and US typefounders. An exception
was the typefounder Thorne, who confused things by marketing his
Antique under the name 'Egyptian'. In France it became Egyptienne,
and to worsen the confusion, the French called sans-serif type
'Antique'.[39] Some fonts, such as Antique Olive, still carry the name.
Grotesque: It was originally coined by William Thorowgood of Fann
Street Foundry in 1832.[86] The name came from the Italian word
'grottesco', meaning 'belonging to the cave'. In Germany, the name
became Grotesk. German typefounders adopted the term from the Different sans-serif designs take
nomenclature of Fann Street Foundry, which took on the meaning of different decisions on the
cave (or grotto) art.[87] Nevertheless, some explained the term was proportions of the capitals. Futuras
derived from the surprised response from the typographers. capitals are inspired by Roman
Doric: It was the term first used by H. W. Caslon Foundry in Chiswell square capitals, with considerable
Street in 1870 to describe various sans-serif fonts at a time the variation in width. Helveticas are
generic name 'sans-serif' was commonly accepted. Eventually the
foundry used Sans-serif in 1906. At that time, Doric referred to a more uniform in width, following the
certain kind of stressed sans-serif types. grotesque model. Different
Gothic: Not to be confused with blackletter typeface, the term was designers have expressed different
used mainly by American type founders. Perhaps the first use of the opinions on which style is
term was due to the Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry, which in preferable.
1837 published a set of non-serifed typefaces under that name. It is
believed that those were the first sans serif designs to be introduced in
America.[88] The term probably derived from the architectural
definition, which is neither Greek nor Roman,[89] and from the
extended adjective term of "Germany", which was the place where
sans-serif typefaces became popular in the 19th to 20th centuries.[90]
Early adopters for the term includes Miller & Richard (1863),
J. & R. M. Wood (1865), Lothian, Conner, Bruce McKellar. Although
the usage is now rare in the English-speaking world, the term is
commonly used in Japan and South Korea; in China they are known
by the term heiti (Chinese: ), literally meaning "black type", which
is probably derived from the mistranslation of Gothic as blackletter
typeface, even though actual blackletter fonts have serifs.

Recent appellatives
Lineale, or linear: The term was defined by Maximilien Vox in the Three sans-serif "italics". News
VOX-ATypI classification to describe sans-serif types. Later, in British
Standards Classification of Typefaces (BS 2961:1967), lineale Gothic, a 1908 grotesque design,
replaced sans-serif as classification name. has an oblique. Gothic Italic no. 124,
Simplices: In Jean Alessandrini's dsignations prliminaries an 1890s grotesque, has a true italic
(preliminary designations), simplices (plain typefaces) is used to resembling Didone serifs of the
describe sans-serif on the basis that the name 'lineal' refers to lines, period.[8] Seravek, a modern
whereas, in reality, all typefaces are made of lines, including those that humanist font, has a more
are not lineals.[91]
calligraphic italic.
Swiss: It is used as a synonym to sans-serif, as opposed to roman
(serif). The OpenDocument format (ISO/IEC 26300:2006) and Rich
Text Format can use it to specify the sans-serif generic font family
name for a font used in a document.[92][93][94] Presumably refers to the popularity of sans-serif grotesque and
neo-grotesque types in Switzerland.
Industrial: used to refer to grotesque and neo-grotesque sans-serifs, that unlike humanist, geometric and
decorative designs are not based on "artistic" principles.[95][96]

Gallery
This gallery presents images of sans-serif lettering and type across different times and places from early to recent.
Particular attention is given to unusual uses and more obscure fonts, meaning this gallery should not be considered
a representative sampling.

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Sample use of early Light sans-serif being Capitals on a German Condensed but
sans-serifs, Dublin 1848. used for body text. propaganda poster, somewhat decorative
Setting is caps only for Germany, 1914 1914. sans-serif with small
titling, with the letters flourishes on the 'v' and
very bold and 'e'. Ljubljana, 1916.
condensed. Reasonably
conventional except for
the crossed V-form 'W'.

A conventional, nearly Broad block capitals. A monoline sans-serif Thick block sans-serif
monoline sans Hungarian film poster, with art-nouveau capitals, with inner
combined with a stroke- 1918. influences visible in the details kept very thin
modulated sans used for tilted 'e' and 'a'. Note and narrow lines down
the title. Austrian war embedded umlaut at top the centres of letters,
bond poster, 1916. left: accents are often characteristic of Art
compressed in sans- Deco lettering. France,
serif capitals as here to 1920s.
allow tight linespacing.
Commemoration of
Jewish soldiers killed
fighting for Germany,
1920.

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Berthold Block, a thick Simple Geometric-style Lightly modulated sans Classic geometric sans-
German sans-serif with sans (the line 'O serif lettering on a 1930s serif capitals, 1934,
shortened descenders, Governo do Estado', poster, with pointed Australia. Note the sharp
allowing tight Brazil, 1930. Curves are stroke endings points on the capital 'A'
linespacing. Switzerland, kept to a minimum. suggesting a brush. and 'N'.
1928.

Dwiggins' Metrolite and Lettering in relief, Modernist setting on a 1952 Jersey holiday
Metroblack fonts, suggesting solid lettering 1940s American poster. events brochure, using
geometric types of the on a wall. Sweden, The curve of the 'r' is a the popular Gill Sans-led
style popular in the 1942. common feature in British style of the period
1930s. grotesque fonts, but the
'single-story' 'a' is a
classic feature of
geometric fonts from the
1920s onwards.

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Neo-grotesque type, Swiss TV logo: tightly-


1972, Switzerland: spaced neo-grotesque
Helvetica or a close capitals with a more
copy. The tight setting is rounded sans-serif on
characteristic of the the left.
International style of
graphic design. The
irregular setting may
have been the result of
using transfers.

See also
Serif
East Asian sans-serif typeface
Roman type
Italic type
Monospace
Emphasis (typography)
San Serriffe, an April fool joke by Guardian newspaper
List of typefaces

References
1. "sans serif" in The New Encyclopdia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopdia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol.
10, p. 421.
2. Serifs more used for headlines (http://www.compudeskpub.com/fonts/Serif.html)
3. Childers; Griscti; Leben (January 2013). "25 Systems for Classifying Typography: A Study in Naming Frequency"
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In British Standards Classification of Typefaces (BS 2961:1967), the following are defined:
Grotesque: Lineale typefaces with 19th-century origins. There is some contrast in thickness of strokes. They
have squareness of curve, and curling close-set jaws. The R usually has a curled leg and the G is spurred. The
ends of the curved strokes are usually oblique. Examples include the Stephenson Blake Grotesques, Condensed
Sans No. 7, Monotype Headline Bold.
Neo-grotesque: Lineale typefaces derived from the grotesque. They have less stroke contrast and are more
regular in design. The jaws are more open than in the true grotesque and the g is often open-tailed. The ends of
the curved strokes are usually horizontal. Examples include Edel/Wotan, Univers, Helvetica.
Humanist: Lineale typefaces based on the proportions of inscriptional Roman capitals and Humanist or Garalde
lower-case, rather than on early grotesques. They have some stroke contrast, with two-storey a and g. Examples
include Optima, Gill Sans, Pascal.
Geometric: Lineale typefaces constructed on simple geometric shapes, circle or rectangle. Usually monoline, and
often with single-storey a. Examples include Futura, Erbar, Eurostile.
5. Shinn, Nick. "Uniformity" (http://shinntype.com/wp-content/uploads/Uniformity.pdf) (PDF). Nick Shinn. Graphic
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6. Coles, Stephen. "Helvetica alternatives" (http://fontfeed.com/archives/helvetica-and-alternatives-to-helvetica/).
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7. Berry, John. "A Neo-Grotesque Heritage" (http://acumin.typekit.com/history/). Adobe Systems. Retrieved
15 October 2015.
8. Specimens of type, borders, ornaments, brass rules and cuts, etc. : catalogue of printing machinery and
materials, wood goods, etc (https://archive.org/details/specimensoftypeb00amer). American Type Founders
Company. 1897. p. 340. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
9. "Italic Gothic" (https://fontsinuse.com/typefaces/40724/italic-gothic). Fonts in Use. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
10. Hoefler & Frere-Jones. "Knockout" (http://www.typography.com/fonts/knockout/overview/). Hoefler & Frere-Jones.
Retrieved 1 July 2015.
11. Hoefler & Frere-Jones. "Knockout sizes" (http://www.typography.com/fonts/knockout/features/knockout-size-profic
iency). Hoefler & Frere-Jones.
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Jones. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
13. Lippa, Domenic. "10 favourite fonts" (https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/gallery/2013/sep/14/the-10-best-f
onts?picture=417118798). The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
14. Meggs 2011, pp. 376-377.
15. Adi Kusrianto. Pengantar Tipografi (https://books.google.com/books?id=LAB5ciDThXsC&pg=PA66). Elex Media
Komputindo. p. 66. ISBN 978-979-27-8132-8.
16. Lagerkvist, Love. "American Football" (https://fontsinuse.com/uses/16969/american-football-american-football).
Fonts In Use. Retrieved 18 June 2017. "Imago [is] a relatively obscure neo-grotesk released by Berthold in the
early 80s."
17. Slimbach, Robert. "Using Acumin" (http://acumin.typekit.com/usage/). Acumin microsite. Adobe Systems.
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18. Twardoch, Slimbach, Sousa, Slye (2007). Arno Pro (http://wwwimages.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/product
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19. Coles, Stephen. "New Additions: November 2015" (http://blog.identifont.com/show?ZO8). Identifont. Retrieved
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short-intro-to-geometric-sans). FontShop. Retrieved 19 August 2015.

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23. Kupferschmid, Indra. "On Erbar and Early Geometric Sans Serifs" (http://cjtype.com/dunbar/#research). CJ Type.
Retrieved 20 October 2016.
24. Meggs 2011, pp. 339-340.
25. Day, Kenneth (1956). The Typography of Press Advertisement. pp. 868.
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(http://www.howdesign.com/design-creativity/typodermic-fonts-raymond-larabie-type-technology-sci-fi-fonts/).
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28. Kupferschmid, Indra. "Some type genres explained" (http://kupferschrift.de/cms/2016/01/type-classification-texts/).
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29. Tracy 1986, pp. 86-90.
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33. Millington, Roy (2002). Stephenson Blake: The Last of the Old English Typefounders. Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 1-
58456-086-X.
34. Tankard, Jeremy. "Bliss" (http://typography.net/fontfamilies/view/27). Retrieved 1 August 2014.
35. "Speak Up Archive: Saab or Dodgeball?" (http://www.underconsideration.com/speakup/archives/002029.html).
Underconsideration.com. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
36. Previous Next Commentary. "Questioning Gill Sans - Typography Commentary" (http://typographica.org/2007/
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2607/http://typefoundry.blogspot.it/2007/01/nymph-and-grot-update.html), archived from the original (http://typefou
ndry.blogspot.com/2007/01/nymph-and-grot-update.html) on June 10, 2014, retrieved June 10, 2014
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47. L. Parramore (13 October 2008). Reading the Sphinx: Ancient Egypt in Nineteenth-Century Literary Culture (http
s://books.google.com/books?id=uRfGAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA22). Springer. pp. 223. ISBN 978-0-230-61570-0.
48. Jason Thompson (30 April 2015). Wonderful Things: A History of Egyptology 1: From Antiquity to 1881 (https://bo
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49. Southey, Robert (1808). Letters from England: by Don Manual Alvarez Espriella (https://books.google.com/book
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50. Farington, Joseph; Greig, James (1924). The Farington Diary, Volume III, 1804-1806 (https://archive.org/details/fa
ringtondiaryvo027674mbp). London: Hutchinson & Co. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
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-update.html). Typefoundry blog. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
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Library, 1999
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pp. 5455.
55. Specimen of Plain & Ornamental Types from the Foundry of V. & J. Figgins (https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Ik
NPAAAAcAAJ). London: V. & J. Figgins Letterfounders. 1846. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
56. Tracy, Walter (2003). Letters of credit : a view of type design. Boston: David R. Godine. ISBN 9781567922400.
57. Tam, Keith (2002). Calligraphic tendencies in the development of sanserif types in the twentieth century (http://keit
htam.net/documents/sanserif.pdf) (PDF). Reading: University of Reading (MA thesis).
58. Simon Loxley (12 June 2006). Type: The Secret History of Letters (https://books.google.com/books?id=9AfP2prm
EDUC&pg=PA36). I.B.Tauris. pp. 368. ISBN 978-1-84511-028-4.
59. Mosley, James; Shinn, Nick. "Two Lines English Egyptian (comments on forum)" (http://www.typophile.com/node/
51985). Typophile. Retrieved 30 October 2017. "[T]he Figgins Sans-serif types (so called) are well worth looking
at. In fact it might be said to be that with these types the Figgins typefoundry brought the design into typography,
since the original Caslon Egyptian appeared only briefly in a specimen and has never been seen in commercial
use. One size of the Figgins Sans-serif appears in a specimen dated 1828 (the unique known copy is in the
University Library, Amsterdam).It is a self-confident design, which in the larger sizes abandons the monoline
structure of the Caslon letter for a thick-thin modulation which would remain a standard model through the 19th
century, and can still be seen in the ATF Franklin Gothic. Note that there is no lower-case. That would come, after
1830, with the innovative condensed Grotesque of the Thorowgood foundry, which provided a model for type that
would get large sizes into the lines of posters. It gave an alternative name to the design, and both the new
features the condensed proportions and the addition of lower-case broke the link with Roman inscriptional
capitalsBut the antiquarian associations of the design were still there, at least in the smaller sizes, as the
specimen of the Pearl size (four and three quarters points) of Figginss type shows. It uses the text of the Latin
inscription prepared for the rebuilt London Bridge, which was opened on 1 August 1831."
60. Morlighem, Sebastien (September 30, 2016). Nineteenth-century sans serif typefaces in France (https://static1.sq
uarespace.com/static/55c341d8e4b0e961f8bed261/t/5720b849a3360c14b8702034/1461762122421/Programme
+-+Sans+serif.pdf) (PDF) (Speech). The Song of the Sans-serif. Birmingham City University.
61. Meggs 2011, p. 155.
62. Handover, Phyllis Margaret (1958). "Grotesque Letters" (http://up.stewf.com/0o400K3p302U). Monotype
Newsletter, also printed in Motif as "Letters without Serifs".
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ISBN 0-87923-333-8, p. 296.
64. Handbuch der Schriftarten. Leipzig: Seeman. 1926.
65. Behrens, Peter (1900), Feste des Lebens und der Kunst: eine Betrachtung des Theaters als hchsten
Kultursymbols (https://archive.org/details/festedeslebensun00behr) (in German), Eugen Diederichs
66. Meggs 2011, p. 242.
67. Rogers, Updike, McCutcheon (1939). The work of Bruce Rogers, jack of all trades, master of one : a catalogue of
an exhibition arranged by the American Institute of Graphic Arts and the Grolier Club of New York (https://archive.
org/stream/workofbruceroger00updi/workofbruceroger00updi_djvu.txt). New York: Grolier Club, Oxford University
Press. pp. xxxvxxxvii.
68. Updike, Daniel Berkeley (1922). Printing types : their history, forms, and use; a study in survivals vol 2 (https://arc
hive.org/stream/printingtypesth00updigoog/printingtypesth00updigoog_djvu.txt) (1st ed.). Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press. p. 243. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
69. Lawson, Alexander (1990). Anatomy of a typeface (1st ed.). Boston: Godine. p. 330. ISBN 9780879233334.

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70. Badaracco, Claire (1991). "Innovative Industrial Design and Modern Public Culture: The Monotype Corporation,
19221932" (http://www.thebhc.org/sites/default/files/beh/BEHprint/v020/p0226-p0233.pdf) (PDF). Business &
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76. Horn, Frederick A. (1936). "Type Tactics No. 2: Grotesques: The Sans Serif Vogue". Commercial Art. 20 (132-
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a. In this period and since, some sources have distinguished the nineteenth-century "grotesque/gothic" designs from
the "sans-serifs" (those now categorised as humanist and geometric both) of the twentieth, or used some form of
classification that emphasises a different between the groups.[25]
b. Mosley's book on early sans-serifs The Nymph and the Grot is named for the sculpture. The name is a dual
reference, also to "grotesque" being coincidentally a term also applied to early sans-serif fonts, although Mosley
suggests that the design does not seem to be a direct source of modern sans-serifs. Unfortunately, the inscription
was destroyed by mistake in 1967, and had to be replicated from Mosley's photographs.[45][43] The corporate font
of the National Trust of the United Kingdom, which manages Stourhead, was loosely designed by Paul Barnes
based on the inscription.
c. Similarly, the painter Joseph Farington wrote in his diary in 1805 of a memorial in to Isaac Hawkins Browne in
Trinity College, Cambridge engraved "in what is called Egyptian Characters which to my eye had a disagreeable
effect."[50][43]
d. Apparently based on traditions in his industry, master sign-painter James Callingham writes in his textbook "Sign
Writing and Glass Embossing" (1871) that "What one calls San-serif, another describes as grotesque; what is
generally known as Egyptian, is some times called Antique, though it is difficult to say why, seeing that the letters
so designated do not date farther back than the close of the last century. Egyptian is perhaps as good a term as
could be given to the letters bearing that name, the blocks being characteristic of the Egyptian style of
architecture. These letters were first used by sign-writers at the close of the last century, and were not introduced
in printing till about twenty years later. Sign-writers were content to call them block letters, and they are
sometimes so-called at the present day; but on their being taken in hand by the type founders, they were
appropriately named Egyptian. The credit of having introduced the ordinary square or san-serif letters also
belongs to the sign-writer, by whom they were employed half a century before the type founder gave them his
attention, which was about the year 1810."[54][43]
e. A few theories about early sans-serifs now known to be incorrect may be mentioned here. One is that sans-serifs
are based on either "fat face typefaces" or slab-serifs with the serifs removed.[61][62] It is now known that the
inspiration was more classical antiquity, and sans-serifs appeared before the first dated appearance of slab-serif
letterforms in 1810. A hint of the "classical" inspiration of sans-serifs is the fact that they for a long time only
appeared as capitals without a lower-case.[42] The Schelter & Giesecke foundry also claimed during the 1920s to
have been offering a sans-serif with lower-case by 1825.[63][64] Mosley describes this as "thoroughly discredited"
and Walter Tracy describes the claimed date as "forty years too early".[42]

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