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What are exceptions to workers compensation laws?

Most common are: domestic servants; casual (short term =,

temporary) laborers; agricultural or seasonal farm laborers;
volunteer workers, and workers who are covered by other
laws (railroad and maritime workers).

What is warranty of a product? Addresses the performance of a product regarding implied or

explicit claims made for it by the manufacturer or seller.

Warranty is part of contract law and the relationships

between buyers and sellers.

Negligence theory of liability? Involves the conduct or behavior of a person or corporate

body regarding something they did or failed to do.

Negligence and strict liability are part of tort law.

Strict liability theory of liability? Deals with the characteristics of products that are
unreasonably dangerous.

Negligence and strict liability are part of tort law.

What are two types of warranty? Implied and express warranty.

What is implied warranty? Divided into merchantability and fitness for a particular

1. Merchantability-means that a product is fit for the

ordinary purposes for which such goods are used.
Applies only to the sellers who normally deal in
particular goods.
2. Fitness for particular purpose-if the product
purchased on the basis of the sellers assistance does
not perform, the implied warranty of fitness for a
particular purpose is breached.

What is express warranty? When a seller makes expressed claims or representations for a
product that become a basis for the bargain . Plaintiff must
establish only that the product failed to meet the sellers
warranty or representations and that an injury resulted from
that failure.

Plaintiff does not have to prove that a defect or unreasonable

danger existed in the product.

Elements of strict liability? Plaintiff must prove the three elements evidence:

1. Product was defective

2. Defect existed at the time it left the defendants hands
3. That the defect caused the injury or harm or was the
proximate cause of the injury.

What is a design defect? Design defects are unreasonably dangerous characteristics of a

product resulting from decisions, calculations, drawings, or
specification of the design process.

What is a toxic material? It has a negative effect on a normal human function when it
is administered in a relatively small dose.
What is acute toxicity? Is experienced in a relatively short time span

What is chronic toxicity? Is the result of repeated exposure over a relatively long
period of time.

What is dosage? Amount of chemical administered per unit of body weight.

What is dose threshold? Is the minimum dosage of a chemical that can produce a
measurable adverse effect.

What is a lethal dose? It is the dosage of a chemical that can produce death in a
certain percentage of laboratory animals.

I.e. lethal dose 50 or LD50 is the dosage of a chemical that

can produce death in 50 percent (half) of lab animals when
entry is by ingestion or skin absorption.

Route of entry is by inhalation of a toxic chemical, lethal

dose is expressed as lethal concentration or LC. i.e. LC50 is
the dosage of a toxic chemical that can produce death in 50
percent of lab animals route is inhalation
What are corrosives? Chemicals that can cause irreversible alteration of a living

What are asphyxiants? Difference between simple and Substances that can cause suffocation by preventing oxygen
chemical asphyxiants? from reaching tissues.

Simple asphyxiants-gases/vapors that are not toxic by

themselves but can cause suffocation as a result of reducing
the oxygen concentration. i.e hydrogen and nitrogen

Chemical asphyxiants-interfere with the bodys capability to

absorb oxygen into the blood stream. i.e. carbon monoxide
and hydrogen cyanide

What is a hepatoxin? Chemicals that attack the liver

What is a nephrotoxin? Chemical that targets kidneys

What is a neurotoxin? Chemicals that attack the central nervous system

What are carcinogens? Chemicals that have the potential to cause cancer in humans
What are sensitizers? Chemicals that can cause an allergic reaction in the body after
repeated exposure.

What are irritants? Chemicals that can cause inflammation of living tissue as a
result of a chemical reaction.

What is a reproductive toxin? Any chemical that interferes in any way with the reproductive
process by the creation of mutations or tetratogenesis:

Mutagens-are chemicals that cause permanent

changes to genetic material (DNA), such that changes
will propagate through generational lines.
Teratogens are chemicals that cause damage to a
developing fetus, but the damage does not propagate
across generational lines.

What is a threshold limit value? Airborne concentrations of substances to which it is believed

that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after
day without adverse health effects

TLVs can be categorized into: TLV-Time weighted average;

TLV-C (threshold limit value ceiling); TLV-STEL (threshold
limit value short term exposure limit

Threshold limit value time weighted average? It is the time weighted average, in an 8 hour workday and a
40-hour workweek, to which nearly all workers may be
repeatedly exposed to without any adverse health effects.