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Neuroscience Presentation TESOL 2015

1. 1. Bridging the gap: Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training Carol Lethaby
clethaby@clethaby.com Patricia Harries pattiharries@hotmail.com
2. 2. Why are we interested in this? Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
3. 3. 1 Developments in neuroscience and neuromyths 2 What we found in our research 3
What this means for training teachersCarol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
4. 4. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
5. 5. misconception generated by a misunderstanding or misreading or a misquoting of
facts scientifically established (by brain research) to make a case for the use of brain
research in education or other contexts OECD in Howard-Jones, 2014 page 817 Carol
Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher
Training
6. 6. Can you spot the neuromyths? (Based on Howard-Jones, 2014) 1 We mostly only use
10% of our brain. 2 Individual learners show preferences for the mode in which they
receive information (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic). 3 Vigorous exercise can improve
mental function. 4 Learning problems associated with developmental differences in brain
function cannot be remediated by education. 5 Differences in hemispheric dominance
(left brain, right brain) can help explain individual differences amongst learners. 6 Short
bouts of co-ordination exercises can improve integration of left and right hemispheric
brain function. 7 Individuals learn better when they receive information in their preferred
learning style (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic). 8 Teaching to learning styles is more
important in language learning than in other types of learning. 9 Extended rehearsal of
some mental processes can change the shape and structure of some parts of the brain.
Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
7. 7. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
8. 8. Why do neuromyths exist? 1 sometimes theyre based on reality .. BUT myths are
perpetuated and go unchallenged eg in popular media 2 the evidence is hard to
understand / the evidence is hidden in technical journals lack of neuroscientific literacy
3 there can be no evidence the neuromyth is untestable Carol Lethaby and Patricia
Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
9. 9. Teacher from Pickering and Howard-Jones study, 2007 p 112 The snake oil sellers
are often gifted communicators Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
10. 10. ( An example of a neuromyth is that learning is enhanced if people are classified and
taught according to their preferred learning style. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries:
TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
11. 11. This misconception is based on a valid research finding, namely that visual,
auditory, and kinesthetic information is processed in different parts of the brain. (Dekker
et al, 2012) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning
Styles and Teacher Training
12. 12. However, these separate structures in the brain are highly interconnected and there is
profound cross- modal activation and transfer of information between sensory modalities
(Gilmore et al., 2007). Thus, it is incorrect to assume that only one sensory modality is
involved with information processing. (Dekker et al, 2012) Carol Lethaby and Patricia
Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
13. 13. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
14. 14. How does the belief in this neuromyth manifest itself in the classroom? 1 We
identify learning styles formal and informal assessment 2 We try to teach to preferred
learning styles to enhance learning 3 We teach on initial and in-service training courses
that this is important Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
15. 15. Recommendations Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
16. 16. Problems with learning styles 1. Definition and assessment Coffield et al (2004) look
at 13 models of learning styles! Learners have to assess themselves are they accurate?
Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
17. 17. Problems with learning styles: 2 There is no evidence that teaching to preferred
learning styles enhances learning. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
18. 18. Krtzig and Arbuthnott (2006) Two ways to identify learners: self-report and
questionnaire Less than 50% agreement between the learner and the questionnaire No
correlation between the learning style and objective test performance For example:
40% self-identified as visual learners 60% identified as visual learners on questionnaire
Only 23% performed best on the visual test Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL
2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
19. 19. Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., and Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning Styles and
Pedagogy in Post-16 Learning. A Systematic and Critical Review. London: Learning and
Skills Research Centre. Krtzig, G.P. and Arbuthnott, K.D. (2006). Perceptual learning
style and learning proficiency: A test of the hypothesis. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 98, 238-246. Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009).
Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest,
9(3), 105-119. Riener, C., & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles.
Change, Sept/Oct, 32-36. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
20. 20. Problems with learning styles 3.Research suggests that teaching to all styles - visual,
auditory, kinesthetic may actually be cognitive overload for the learner . (See: Butcher,
2006, Clark, 2014) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
21. 21. So, what about in language learning and teaching? How widespread is the use of
learning styles in our teaching and the belief that this helps learning? Carol Lethaby and
Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
22. 22. The Survey Howard-Jones (2014) 938 participants, 38 statements about the brain
Our survey (2015) - 128 participants, 9 statements mainly focusing on learning styles
Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
23. 23. neuromyths 1. We mostly only use 10% of our brains 4. Learning problems
associated with developmental differences in brain function cannot be remediated by
education 5. Differences in hemispheric dominance (left brain, right brain) can help
explain individual differences amongst learners 6. Short bouts of co-ordination exercises
can improve integration of left and right hemispheric brain function 7. Individuals learn
better when they receive information in their preferred learning style (e.g. visual,
auditory, kinaesthetic) 8. Teaching to learning styles is more important in language
learning than in other types of learning Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
24. 24. 30.47% 6.25% 65.63% 61.72% 88.28% 21.88% 1. 10% 4. Learning problems 5. Left
brain, right brain 6. Coordination exercises 7. VAK 8. Learning styles in language
learning % who agree with neuromyths (n = 128) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries:
TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
25. 25. % of teachers who agree with neuromyths' Our survey UK The Netherlands Turkey
Greece China 1. 10% 30 48 46 50 43 59 4. Learning problems 6 16 19 22 33 50 5.Left
brain, right brain 66 91 86 79 74 71 6. Coord. exercises 62 88 82 72 60 84 7. VAK 88 93
96 97 96 97 Howard-Jones (2014) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
26. 26. TESOL training courses taken 39 68 2 1 32 CELTA Other certificate TESOL
major/minor DELTA Masters in TESOL Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL
2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
27. 27. Spotlight on VAK Individuals learn better when they receive information in their
preferred learning style (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic) Perhaps the most popular and
influential myth.. Howard-Jones (2014) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL
2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
28. 28. Spotlight on VAK % of teachers who agree with the VAK neuromyth % of teachers
who said they received input on brain-based ideas on the teacher training course % of
teachers who say the input has influenced their teaching CELTA 90 64 (100) 80 Carol
Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher
Training
29. 29. Learning styles on the CELTA Candidates can demonstrate their learning by
teaching a class with an awareness of learning styles Cambridge English CELTA
syllabus Third Edition Teaching practice assessment criteria Observe your learner
during class. Identify their learning styleFind one activity that could help your
learner and say why it is helpful for your learner in particular. Cambridge English
CELTA Focus on the Learner assignment rubric (Teaching House) Carol Lethaby and
Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
30. 30. % of teachers who said they received input on brain- based ideas on the TESOL
training course % of teachers who say the input has influenced their teaching Cert
TESOL 46 97 Masters TESOL 66 86 Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015
Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
31. 31. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and
Teacher Training
32. 32. Some survey conclusions TESOL training courses may encourage beliefs in
neuromyths Teachers say their teaching is influenced by beliefs in neuromyths
Teachers also hear and read about neuromyths and brain- based ideas outside of their
teaching and training Teachers would like more discussion of brain- based ideas on
their TESOL training courses and in post-training professional development Carol
Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher
Training
33. 33. Recommendations Recommendations Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL
2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
34. 34. A Clark (2015) Dont waste your time and resources with learning styles
assessments Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning
Styles and Teacher Training
35. 35. If you total the expenditures on books, workshops, tests, teacher guides and other
adjunct resources, I suspect the investment goes into the millions. Clark , 2012
https://www.td.org/Publications/Blogs/L-and-D-Blog/2012/05/Stop-Wasting-Resources-
on-Learning- Styles Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
36. 36. The emphasis on learning styles, we think, often comes at the cost of attention to
. other important dimensions. Riener and Willingham (2010) Carol Lethaby and
Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
37. 37. B Why not focus on evidence-based ways that we know are more helpful to
learners? learn how to use visuals / text / audio better! (eg Butcher, (2006), or
Wouters et al (2008)) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
38. 38. Pashler et al, 2009 Pashler et al (2009)Pashler et al (2009) Carol Lethaby and
Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
39. 39. present information in the most appropriate manner for our content and for the
level of prior knowledge, ability, and interests of that particular set of students. Riener
and Willingham, 2010 Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
40. 40. C Consider whether teaching to all styles visual, auditory, kinesthetic may be
overload for the learner! See Clark (2012, 2014) (not to mention overload for teachers
trying to design lessons to all learning styles) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL
2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
41. 41. D Teacher training Pickering and Howard-Jones (2007) , Howard-Jones (2014),
Dekker et al (2012) Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
42. 42. 1 Stop teaching / perpetuating neuromyths! Talk about this overtly with trainees 2
Include neuroscience and psychology in initial teacher training 3 Help teachers to read /
evaluate and take advantage of scientific research 4 Hybrid professional to act as a
bridge between neuroscientists and educators Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL
2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training
43. 43. the importance of a dialog between teachers and neuroscience experts in order to
establish effective collaborations between the two fields Dekker et al, 2012 Carol
Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher
Training
44. 44. References Butcher, K.R. (2006). Learning from text with diagrams: Promoting
mental model development and inference generation. Journal of Educational Psychology,
98, 182-197 Clark, R C (2012) Stop wasting resources on learning styles ATD Learning
and Development Blog https://www.td.org/Publications/Blogs/L-and-D-Blog Clark,
R.C (2015) Evidence-based Training Methods ASTD Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall,
E., and Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning Styles and Pedagogy in Post-16 Learning. A
Systematic and Critical Review. London: Learning and Skills Research Centre.
Dekker,S., Lee, N.C., Howard-Jones, P., and Jolles, J. (2012). Neuromyths in education:
Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers. Frontiers in Psychology
3/429 1 - 8 Howard-Jones, P (2014) Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience Volume 15 December 2014 817-824 Krtzig, G.P. and
Arbuthnott, K.D. (2006). Perceptual learning style and learning proficiency: A test of the
hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 238-246. Pashler, H., McDaniel, M.,
Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological
Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105-119. Pickering, S. J., and Howard-Jones, P.
(2007). Educators views on the role of neuroscience in education: findings from a study
of UK and international perspectives. Mind Brain Educ. 1, 109113. Riener, C., &
Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change, Sept/Oct, 32-36. Wouters,
P., Paas, F. & van Merrienboer, J.J.G. (2008). How to optimize learning from animated
models: A review of guidelines based on cognitive load. Review of Educational
Research, 78, 645-675. Carol Lethaby and Patricia Harries: TESOL 2015 Neuroscience,
Learning Styles and Teacher Training
45. 45. Bridging the gap: Neuroscience, Learning Styles and Teacher Training Carol Lethaby
clethaby@clethaby.com Patricia Harries pattiharries@hotmail.com

The Neuroscience of Making Healthy Choices

1. 1. www.drbonci.com 1/159 The NeuroscienceThe Neuroscience of Making Healthyof


Making Healthy ChoicesChoices Andrew S. Bonci, BA, DCAndrew S. Bonci, BA, DC
Private PracticePrivate Practice
2. 2. www.drbonci.com 2/159 Carpe Lucem!Carpe Lucem!
3. 3. www.drbonci.com 3/159 Disclosures I stand before you withI stand before you with
NO conflicts of interest.conflicts of interest. I make my livingI make my living the way
you dothe way you do, by lifting the burden, by lifting the burden of human suffering
with the aid ofof human suffering with the aid of chiropracticchiropractic.. I haveI have
nothing to sellnothing to sell to you, so relax andto you, so relax and enjoyenjoy
yourselfyourself and your time with your peers.and your time with your peers.
4. 4. www.drbonci.com 4/159 Disclaimer This is not aThis is not a
PHILOSOPHYPHILOSOPHY seminar.seminar. Any references to the great Western
thinkers andAny references to the great Western thinkers and their contributions to
thetheir contributions to the PHILOSOPHY OFPHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, the
SCIENTIFIC METHOD, orSCIENCE, the SCIENTIFIC METHOD, or
NEUROSCIENCENEUROSCIENCE is intended only to add to theis intended only to
add to the scholarship, historical context, and academic rigor ofscholarship, historical
context, and academic rigor of this presentation.this presentation.
AstonishmentAstonishment is the root of philosophy. ~Paul Tillich~is the root of
philosophy. ~Paul Tillich~
5. 5. www.drbonci.com 5/159 Special ThanksSpecial Thanks Dr. Russ Matthias Dr. Rob
Riley Dr. Doran Nicholson The real problem of humanity is the following: we have
paleolithic emotions; medieval institutions; and god-like technology. ~E. O. Wilson~
6. 6. www.drbonci.com 6/159 Get theGet the NotesNotes Obtenga lasObtenga las
NotasNotas Akiru laAkiru la NotojnNotojn www.drbonci.comwww.drbonci.com oror
www.slideshare.net/drbonciwww.slideshare.net/drbonci
7. 7. www.drbonci.com 7/159 Lecture ObjectivesLecture Objectives Review the
neuroscience of volition and the bicameral brain. Discuss the neurological determinants
of healthy versus unhealthy choice in wellness. Examine the role of the mirror neuron
system and priming in tacit and implicit choice. Identify common obstacles and
impediments to making healthy choices. Explore strategies to use volition to achieve
high- level-wellness.
8. 8. www.drbonci.com 8/159 Many men go fishing all of their lives withoutMany men
go fishing all of their lives without knowing that it is not fish they are after.knowing that
it is not fish they are after. ~Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)~~Henry David Thoreau
(1817-1862)~ People are rarely aware of the real reasons which motivate their actions.
~Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda (1928)~
9. 9. www.drbonci.com 9/159 In Life We Must WeighIn Life We Must Weigh Will against
Wavering Power against Weakness Resolve against Indecision Discipline against
Waffling Action against Idleness We must do this as we navigate the neurological
determinants of healing, wholeness and wellness.
10. 10. www.drbonci.com 10/159 Are We In Charge ofAre We In Charge of Our
Choices?Our Choices?
11. 11. www.drbonci.com 11/159 To answer this question we mustTo answer this question
we must closely examine what we mean byclosely examine what we mean by Choice,
Health, and Wellness.Choice, Health, and Wellness.
12. 12. www.drbonci.com 12/159 ChoiceChoice Choice involves volition and
decisiondecision making. In the film The Matrix, Neo is offered the option of consuming
either the red pillred pill or the blue pillblue pill. Picking the red pillred pill would result
in the truth of Neo's world being revealed to him, while picking the blue pillblue pill
would allow him to continue in ignorance. Choice is a basic philosophicbasic philosophic
issue.
13. 13. www.drbonci.com 13/159 Now in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate there is a pool, called
in Hebrew Beth-zatha, which has five porticoes. In these lay many invalidsblind, lame,
and paralyzed. One man was there who had been ill for thirty-eight years. When Jesus
saw him lying there and knew that he had been there a long time, he said to him, Do
you want to be made well?Do you want to be made well? The sick man answered him,
Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up; and while I am
making my way, someone else steps down ahead of me. John 5:2-7
14. 14. www.drbonci.com 14/159 What is Choice?What is Choice? Choice is an act of
selecting or making a decision when faced with two or more possibilities. A good
decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers. ~Plato~
15. 15. www.drbonci.com 15/159 Speaking with colleagues, I have found thatSpeaking with
colleagues, I have found that we tend to reflexively blame peoplewe tend to reflexively
blame people for their illnesses, lack of wellness, andfor their illnesses, lack of wellness,
and bad choices.bad choices.
16. 16. www.drbonci.com 16/159 Is ill-health a question of not having: Self-Respect?
Responsibility? Will-Power?
17. 17. www.drbonci.com 17/159 Will-PowerWill-Power When people say, I have no will-
power, what they usually mean is, I have trouble saying no when my mouth, stomach,
heart wants to say yes. Will-power is about harnessing the three powersharnessing the
three powers of I willI will, I wontI wont, and I wantI want to help you achieve your
goals. McGonigal Ph.D., Kelly. The Willpower Instinct: How Self-Control Works, Why
It Matters, and What You Can Do to Get More of It (Kindle Locations 182-183). Penguin
Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
18. 18. www.drbonci.com 18/159 Is ill-health a question of not having: Self-Respect?
Responsibility? Will-Power?
19. 19. www.drbonci.com 19/159 We prefer to moralize instead of lookingWe prefer to
moralize instead of looking deeply into the lives of others for fear ofdeeply into the lives
of others for fear of confronting our own shortcomings.confronting our own
shortcomings.
20. 20. www.drbonci.com 20/159 Will-Power?Will-Power? Will-Power is the Power to
ActWill-Power is the Power to Act Outside ofOutside of ConditionedConditioned
Responses.Responses.
21. 21. www.drbonci.com 21/159 WillWill The faculty by which a person decidesdecides on
and initiatesinitiates action. Synonyms we use to mean Will: determination, will power,
strength of character, resolution, resolve, resoluteness, single-mindedness,
purposefulness, drive, commitment, dedication, doggedness, tenacity, tenaciousness,
staying power Control deliberately exerted to do something or to restrain one's own
impulsesrestrain one's own impulses.
22. 22. www.drbonci.com 22/159 VolitionVolition In the context of volition, researchers
study how action is planned, controlled, and modulated in the service of the agent's
needs, motives, desires, or goals. (Prinz, Dennett, and Sebanz. Disorders of Volition.
Bradford Books/MIT Press. 2006.) Volition is viewed as an inside-out process of how
actions are formed and informed by internal conditions. Volitional processes can be
applied consciouslyapplied consciously or they can be automatized as habitsautomatized
as habits over time. Is wellness a volitional act?
23. 23. www.drbonci.com 23/159 How Should We Understand Wellness?How Should We
Understand Wellness?
24. 24. www.drbonci.com 24/159 WellnessWellness The quality or state of being in good
health. The process of learning about and engaging in behaviors that are likely to result in
optimal health. A concept and practice poorly defined,A concept and practice poorly
defined, misunderstood, misinterpreted and misapplied.misunderstood, misinterpreted
and misapplied. Wellness is a state of being well; a state of well- being.
25. 25. www.drbonci.com 25/159 Well-BeingWell-Being Well (adv): Velle (Latin) "to
wish, to want, to willto will" Being (n): A condition, state, circumstances; presence,
fact of existing Well-being (n): Existing in a state of willingness/volition
26. 26. www.drbonci.com 26/159 Wellness as Well-BeingWellness as Well-Being Wellness
refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical, mental, and social well-well-
beingbeing that extend beyond the traditional definition of health. JAMA. 2015 Jul
14;314(2):121-2. It includes choices and activities aimed at achieving physical vitality,
mental alacrity, social satisfaction,physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a
sense of accomplishment, and personala sense of accomplishment, and personal
fulfillment.fulfillment. Disease is incompatible with health, but not withDisease is
incompatible with health, but not with wellness.wellness. For example, a dying patient
who has led a rewarding life and is surrounded by a loving family and friends may still
enjoy high level wellness.
27. 27. www.drbonci.com 27/159 Halbert Dunn, MD, PhDHalbert Dunn, MD, PhD (1896-
1975)(1896-1975) Dunn was the first to advance the concept of wellness in the American
consciousness back in the 1950s. He wrote that wellness is an integrated method of
functioning which is oriented toward maximizing theoriented toward maximizing the
potentialpotential of which the individual is capable, within the environment where he is
functioning. High Level Wellness, R. W. Beatty, Ltd., 1961
28. 28. www.drbonci.com 28/159 8 Points of High Level Wellness8 Points of High Level
Wellness Willingness to face inconsistencies in our thinking hear and examine the
other fellow's viewpoints with an open mind. encourage freedom of expression of those
around us. adjust our own views. make time for unhurried contacts with others when
such relationships are essential. give credit and recognition to others when it is due
them. serve others as opportunities arise. give freedom to those we love. High Level
Wellness, R. W. Beatty, Ltd., 1961
29. 29. www.drbonci.com 29/159 Well-Being is WellnessWell-Being is Wellness Wellness
is WillingnessWellness is Willingness Wellness, therefore, Implies Free-WillWellness,
therefore, Implies Free-Will
30. 30. www.drbonci.com 30/159 What is Free-Will?What is Free-Will? The popular
conception of free-will seems to rest on two assumptions: 1.that each of us could have
behaved differentlybehaved differently than we did in the past, and 2.that we are the
conscious sourceconscious source of most of our thoughts and actions in the present.
Harris, Sam. Free Will (p. 6). Free Press. Kindle Edition.
31. 31. www.drbonci.com 31/159 Are We Free to Choose Wellness?Are We Free to Choose
Wellness?
32. 32. www.drbonci.com 32/159 Benjamin LibetBenjamin Libet (1916-2007)(1916-2007)
Libet was a pioneering scientist in the field of human consciousness and a researcher in
the physiology department of the University of California, San Francisco. In the early
1980's, Libet's most famous work built on the pre-volitional brain potentialspre-volitional
brain potentials known as the Readiness Potential. These experiments came to be known
as the Free-Will Experiments.
33. 33. www.drbonci.com 33/159 Readiness PotentialReadiness Potential The Readiness
Potential (Bereitschaftspotential) also known as the pre-motor potential is a measure of
activity in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMASMA) that is the lead up
to voluntary muscle movement. It is a manifestation of the cortical contribution to the
pre-motor planning of volitional movement. It was first described Hans Helmut
Kornhuber and Lder Deecke at the University of Freiburg in Germany in 1964.
34. 34. www.drbonci.com 34/159
35. 35. www.drbonci.com 35/159 Readiness PotentialReadiness Potential
EEGActivityEEGActivity Libet asked,Libet asked, Where does the intentionWhere
does the intention to move fall in theto move fall in the Readiness Potential
Curve?Readiness Potential Curve?
36. 36. www.drbonci.com 36/159
37. 37. www.drbonci.com 37/159 When Does Intention Appear?When Does Intention
Appear?
38. 38. www.drbonci.com 38/159 Libet ExperimentLibet Experiment
39. 39. www.drbonci.com 39/159 Libet is Not AloneLibet is Not Alone We found that the
outcome of a decision can be encoded in brain activity of prefrontal and parietal cortex
up to 10 seconds before it entersup to 10 seconds before it enters awarenessawareness.
This delay presumably reflects the operation of a network of high-level control areas that
begin to prepare an upcoming decision long before it enters awareness. Nat Neurosci.
2008 May;11(5):543-5.
40. 40. www.drbonci.com 40/159 fMRI Support for LibetfMRI Support for Libet Using
fMRI scans cortical brain regions contained information about which button subjects
would press a full 7 to 10 seconds before the decision was consciously made. Ann N Y
Acad Sci. 2011 Apr;1224:9-21. The outcome of a free decision can already be decoded
from neural activity in medial prefrontalmedial prefrontal and parietal cortex 4 seconds
beforeand parietal cortex 4 seconds before they are consciously making their choice. Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 9;110(15):6217- 22
41. 41. www.drbonci.com 41/159 Does this Extend to Thought?Does this Extend to
Thought? Our results suggest that unconscious preparation of free choices is not
restricted to motornot restricted to motor preparation.preparation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S
A. 2013 Apr 9;110(15):6217-22. Instead, decisions at multiple scales of
abstractionmultiple scales of abstraction evolve from the dynamics of preceding brain
activity.
42. 42. www.drbonci.com 42/159 Could the Libet ExperimentCould the Libet Experiment be
Evidence for the Lack of Free-Will?be Evidence for the Lack of Free-Will?
43. 43. www.drbonci.com 43/159 The Free-Will IllusionThe Free-Will Illusion Free will is
an illusion. Our wills are simply not of our own making. Harris, Sam. Free Will (p. 5-6).
Free Press. Kindle Edition. Thoughts and intentions emergeemerge from background
causes of which we are unaware and over which we exert no conscious controlno
conscious control. Seeming acts of volition merely arise spontaneously and cannot be
traced to a point of origin in our conscious minds.
44. 44. www.drbonci.com 44/159 Free-Won't (?)Free-Won't (?) Libet did not interpretdid not
interpret his experiment as evidence for the lack of conscious free will. He points out
that although the tendency to press a button may be building up for 500 milliseconds, the
conscious mind retains the right to veto any action at the last moment. J Consciousness
Studies. 10 (12): 248. This conscious, volitional act to veto unconscious impulses to
perform a physical action is often referred to as Free-Won't.
45. 45. www.drbonci.com 45/159 Veto PowerVeto Power
46. 46. www.drbonci.com 46/159 Neuroscience of VolitionNeuroscience of Volition What
we call free will or volition appears to be localized to the frontal lobesfrontal lobes, the
medial most portions in particular. Joseph, R. . Free Will and the Frontal Lobes: Loss of
Will, Against the Will, Catatonia and the Alien Hand (Kindle Location 32). University
Press. Kindle Edition. Libet's original experiment in 1983 explicitly identified the frontal
motor circuitsfrontal motor circuits of the brain as the cause of conscious intention.
Disorders of Volition (Bradford Books) (Kindle Location 1128). Kindle Edition.
47. 47. www.drbonci.com 47/159 BasalBasal GangliaGanglia mPFCmPFC
SupplementalSupplemental MotorMotor AreaArea MotorMotor StripStrip NeuralNeural
DeterminantsDeterminants of Volitionof Volition
48. 48. www.drbonci.com 48/159 Basal GangliaBasal Ganglia Substantia NigraSubstantia
Nigra StriatumStriatum mPFCmPFC Motor ExecutionMotor Execution SMASMA *
Neural Model for VolitionNeural Model for Volition Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008
Dec;9(12):934-46.
49. 49. www.drbonci.com 49/159 Deep VolitionDeep Volition The basal ganglia plays a
significant role in voluntary motor control, procedural learningprocedural learning
relating to habits, emotional and motivational functioning, and transforming affective
states into movement. Joseph, R.. Basal Ganglia, Striatum, Thalamus: Caudate, Putamen,
Globus Pallidus, Limbic Striatum, Brainstem, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease,
Psychosis, ... & Disorders of Movement (Kindle Locations 63-64). University Press.
Kindle Edition. Neurons in the striatum begin firing prior to movement, 20 ms20 ms on
average. The immobility seen in Parkingson's disease is often described as a paralysis
of the willparalysis of the will.
50. 50. www.drbonci.com 50/159 Our Belief in Free-Will Rests inOur Belief in Free-Will
Rests in Our Ability to Consciously Set GoalsOur Ability to Consciously Set Goals and
Achieve Them.and Achieve Them.
51. 51. www.drbonci.com 51/159 Conscious GoalsConscious Goals As humans, we
generally have the feeling that wefeeling that we decidedecide what we want and what
we do. Our behaviors seem to originateseem to originate in our conscious decisions to
pursue desired outcomes, or goals. Science 329, 47 (2010)
52. 52. www.drbonci.com 52/159 Conscious or UnconsciousConscious or Unconscious
Goals direct attention and behavior, even in the absence of conscious awarenessabsence
of conscious awareness of the goal. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 61, 467 (2010). Psychol. Bull.
126, 925 (2000). The operation of higher cognitive processes supporting goal pursuit
does not caredoes not care much about the conscious state of the individual. Science 329,
47 (2010)
53. 53. www.drbonci.com 53/159 Does the Libet ExperimentDoes the Libet Experiment
Expose Unconscious Agency orExpose Unconscious Agency or Unconscious
Will?Unconscious Will?
54. 54. www.drbonci.com 54/159 Unconscious AgencyUnconscious Agency
UnconsciousUnconscious AgencyAgency
55. 55. www.drbonci.com 55/159 Unconscious InfluencesUnconscious Influences A man sits
in his office decidingdeciding what stocks to buy. He imagines, no doubt, that he is
planning his purchases according to his own judgmentown judgment. In actual fact his
judgment is a mlange of impressions stamped on his mind by outside influences which
unconsciously controlunconsciously control his thought. Bernays, Edward. (1928)
Propaganda (p. 25). Ig Publishing. Kindle Edition.
56. 56. www.drbonci.com 56/159 Edward BernaysEdward Bernays The systematic study of
mass psychology revealed to students the potentialities of invisible government of society
by manipulation of themanipulation of the motivesmotives which actuate man in the
group. If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not
possible to control andcontrol and regimentregiment the masses according to our will
without their knowing about it? Bernays, Edward. (1928) Propaganda (p. 24). Ig
Publishing. Kindle Edition.
57. 57. www.drbonci.com 57/159 We Must Widen Our ConceptWe Must Widen Our
Concept Libet's experiment does not tell us that we do not choose to initiate an action: it
just tells us that we have to widen our concept of who we arewiden our concept of who
we are to include our unconscious selves. Why should we not be our unconsciousbe
our unconscious, as well as our conscious, selves? McGilchrist, Iain. The Master and His
Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World (p. 188). Yale
University Press. Kindle Edition.
58. 58. www.drbonci.com 58/159 Unconscious WillUnconscious Will Scientific study of
goal pursuit has discovered that goal representation and goal pursuit also operateoperate
without conscious awarenesswithout conscious awareness, and hence, human behavior
may originate in a kind of unconsciousunconscious willwill. Science 329, 47 (2010)
Understanding this mechanism is especially important because unconscious goal pursuit
is proposed to play a key roleplay a key role in many aspects of social life, such as
consumer and health behavior,ealth behavior, moral behavior, and social discrimination.
Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 36, 147 (2006).
59. 59. www.drbonci.com 59/159 Can the mind ever be totally free, or is it theCan the mind
ever be totally free, or is it the very nature of the mind to be conditioned?very nature of
the mind to be conditioned? Jiddu KrishnamurtiJiddu Krishnamurti We live between free
choice andWe live between free choice and conditioned habits.conditioned habits. Bruce
DicksonBruce Dickson
60. 60. www.drbonci.com 60/159 What is Meant by theWhat is Meant by the Conscious and
Subconscious Minds?Conscious and Subconscious Minds?
61. 61. www.drbonci.com 61/159 ConsciousnessConsciousness Consciousness is a state of
mind in which there is knowledge of ones own existence and of theknowledge of ones
own existence and of the existence of surroundingsexistence of surroundings. Damasio,
Antonio. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain (Kindle Location 2439).
Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition. Damasio (1999) in The Feeling of
What Happens argues that our conscious awareness is based on sophisticated brain maps
of body states and memories. We only become aware or conscious of bodily emotional
states once the brain stem and higher centers map and then, remap these states.
62. 62. www.drbonci.com 62/159 Consciousness and a SelfConsciousness and a Self
The self can be considered that being which is the source of consciousness, the agent
responsibleresponsible for an individual's thoughts and actionsfor an individual's thoughts
and actions, or the substantial nature of a person which endures and unifies consciousness
over time. According to John Locke (1632 - 1704), the self is a product of episodic
memory Psychol Rev. 2000 Apr;107(2):261-88. Locke posits an "empty" mind, a
tabula rasatabula rasa, which is shaped by experience; sensations and reflections being
the two sources of all our ideas. Gazzaniga refers to this as the Interpreter.
63. 63. www.drbonci.com 63/159 Conscious ThoughtConscious Thought The qualities of
conscious thoughtqualities of conscious thought are: Intentionality Controllability
Linearity in natureLinearity in nature Accessibility to awareness, i.e.Accessibility to
awareness, i.e. verbally reportableverbally reportable Science. 2008;3(1):73-79.
64. 64. www.drbonci.com 64/159 Sub/Unconscious MindSub/Unconscious Mind The
sub/unconscious mind consists of the processes in the mind which occur
automaticallyautomatically and are not available to verbal introspectionand are not
available to verbal introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and
motivations. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1999 Fall;47(4):1061-106. Conscious processes
are expensive: They require not only a lot of time, but also a lot of memory. Unconscious
processes, on the other hand, are fast and rule-driven. Gazzaniga, Michael S.. Who's in
Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain (p. 79). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.
65. 65. www.drbonci.com 65/159 Defining MindDefining Mind A spectacular
consequence of the brains incessant and dynamic mappingincessant and dynamic
mapping is the mind. The mind is a subtle, flowingflowing combination of actual
imagesimages and recalled images. Damasio, Antonio (2010-11-09). Self Comes to
Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain (Kindle Location 1182). Knopf Doubleday
Publishing Group. Kindle Edition It appears to me that there is a tiering or stratification
of mind and its dispositional space: Conscious Mind Subconscious Mind
Autonomic Mind
66. 66. www.drbonci.com 66/159 Stratifications of MindStratifications of Mind
Autonomic MindAutonomic Mind First order maps of body states associated with
feelings of emotion, autonomic regulation and a protoself. There is body awareness, but
no self-awareness. Subconscious MindSubconscious Mind Second order maps of
neurohormonal states associated with a nonverbal, present moment narrative and a Core
Self. There is both awareness and self-awareness. Conscious Mind Third order maps of
neurohormonal states associated with a verbal narrative capable of time-travel and an
Autobiographical Self. There is both awareness and self- awareness.
67. 67. www.drbonci.com 67/159 Where are the ConsciousWhere are the Conscious and
Sub/Unconscious Minds Located?and Sub/Unconscious Minds Located?
68. 68. www.drbonci.com 68/159 CommissurotomyCommissurotomy In the early 1940s,
neurosurgeon William P. VanWilliam P. Van WagenenWagenen, performed
commissurotomies on twenty-six patients with severe uncontrollable epilepsy in order to
limit epileptic seizure activity to one half of their brains. The neurologist Andrew
Akelaitis had found that cutting through the corpus callosum in human subjects produced
no behavioral or cognitive effects. Gazzaniga, Michael S.. Tales from Both Sides of the
Brain (Enhanced Edition): A Life in Neuroscience (p. 15-20). HarperCollins. Kindle
Edition.
69. 69. www.drbonci.com 69/159 Split Brain StudiesSplit Brain Studies Twenty years after
the original commissurotomy surgeries, Roger Sperry, PhD and Michael Gazzaniga, PhD
reexamined a number of these split brain patients. There are two main findings of these
studies. The first is the discovery that two autonomous minds reside in each split-brain
patient. The second is that the left brain can speak; the right brain is mute. Schiffer,
Fredric. Of Two Minds: The Revolutionary Science of Dual-Brain Psychology (Kindle
Locations 457-458). Free Press (now out of print), rights with Fredric Schiffer. Kindle
Edition.
70. 70. www.drbonci.com 70/159 Split Brain Research VideoSplit Brain Research Video
71. 71. www.drbonci.com 71/159
72. 72. www.drbonci.com 72/159 All of Us are of Two MindsAll of Us are of Two Minds
Two separate realms of subjective awareness exists in each of us. Schiffer, Fredric. Of
Two Minds: The Revolutionary Science of Dual-Brain Psychology (Kindle Locations
1059-1061). one in each hemisphere and each in itself seems to be remarkably
whole, unified, and capable of supporting independent behavior and a separate world
view. Why do we have two hemispheres? Two brains? Two minds?
73. 73. www.drbonci.com 73/159 Why Two Brains?Why Two Brains? The right hemisphere
underwrites sustainedsustained attention and vigilanceattention and vigilance for
whatever is without preconception. The left hemisphere provides precisely
focused,precisely focused, attentionattention which enables us to get and grasp as it
controls the right hand. McGilchrist, Iain. The Divided Brain and the Search for Meaning
(Kindle Locations 143-145). Yale University Press. Kindle Edition.
74. 74. www.drbonci.com 74/159 Have You Ever EncounteredHave You Ever Encountered a
Split-Brain Patient?a Split-Brain Patient?
75. 75. www.drbonci.com 75/159 Before We Can SpeakBefore We Can Speak Prior to
linguistic expression children generally think in terms of visual images, songs, feelings,
desires, emotions, rhymes and may frequently engage in day dreaming as they do not yet
think in connected words and sentences. R. Joseph. The Right Brain and the Limbic
Unconscious: Emotion, Forgotten Memories, Self-Deception, Bad Relationships (Kindle
Locations 1265-1267). University Press Science Publishers. Kindle Edition.
76. 76. www.drbonci.com 76/159 Egocentric SpeechEgocentric Speech Egocentric speech
first appears around age 2-3 as a child monologues about his actions only after a behavior
has been completed. As the child ages, the egocentric monologue begins to occur at an
earlier point in the action. By age 6-7 he will announce what he will do before doing it.
R. Joseph. The Right Brain and the Limbic Unconscious: Emotion, Forgotten Memories,
Self-Deception, Bad Relationships (Kindle Locations 1277-1279). University Press
Science Publishers. Kindle Edition.
77. 77. www.drbonci.com 77/159 What are the Hemispheric Differences andWhat are the
Hemispheric Differences and How do They Play a Role in Consciousness?How do They
Play a Role in Consciousness?
78. 78. www.drbonci.com 78/159 Hemispheric Design DifferencesHemispheric Design
Differences The right hemisphere has more neural connections both within itself and
throughout the brain. It has strong connections to emotional centers like the amygdala
and to subcortical regions throughout the lower parts of the brain. The left side has far
fewer connections within itself and beyond to the rest of the brain. The left hemisphere
is made of neatly stacked vertical columns, which allows the clear differentiation of
separate mental functions, but less integration of those functions. Goleman, Daniel. The
Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights (Kindle Locations 185-188). More Than
Sound LLC. Kindle Edition.
79. 79. www.drbonci.com 79/159 Language and ConsciousnessLanguage and Consciousness
Language is almost exclusively considered the tool of consciousness. We usually think
in words and use language to label, describe, and communicate our experiences. It is
through linguistic thought that we are able to manipulate the world, describe our selves,
make predictions about the future, and symbolize aspects of the past in verbal memory
and in written form. R. Joseph. The Right Brain and the Limbic Unconscious: Emotion,
Forgotten Memories, Self-Deception, Bad Relationships (Kindle Locations 278-281).
University Press Science Publishers. Kindle Edition.
80. 80. www.drbonci.com 80/159 Consciousness Conflation Warning:Consciousness
Conflation Warning: Are you confusing language with consciousness?Are you confusing
language with consciousness? Are you confusing volition with language?Are you
confusing volition with language?
81. 81. www.drbonci.com 81/159 Left Brain ConsciousnessLeft Brain Consciousness It is
the left brain which controls the ability to talk and think in words. The ability to process
and express information in a temporal-sequential, grammatical, and rhythmical fashion,
are associated with the functional integrity of the left half of the brain in most of the
population. R. Joseph. The Right Brain and the Limbic Unconscious: Emotion, Forgotten
Memories, Self-Deception, Bad Relationships (Kindle Locations 285-286). University
Press Science Publishers. Kindle Edition.
82. 82. www.drbonci.com 82/159 Left Language AxisLeft Language Axis
83. 83. www.drbonci.com 83/159 Yakovlevian TorqueYakovlevian Torque Elongated
Language Axis:Elongated Language Axis: Broca's AreaBroca's Area Wernike's
AreaWernike's Area Angular Gyrus.Angular Gyrus.
84. 84. www.drbonci.com 84/159 Verbal Thinking: A ParadoxVerbal Thinking: A Paradox
Verbal thinking often serves the function of explaining things. Yet the need to
communicate and explain things to oneself seems paradoxical. This implies that some
forms of verbal thought are often based on information and knowledge that is already in
existence but in a tacit, non-linguistic, imaginal, emotional, sensory or in a non-organized
form. R. Joseph. The Right Brain and the Limbic Unconscious: Emotion, Forgotten
Memories, Self-Deception, Bad Relationships (Kindle Locations 1243-1244). University
Press Science Publishers. Kindle Edition.
85. 85. www.drbonci.com 85/159 Right Brain ConsciousnessRight Brain Consciousness The
right hemisphere is associated with non- linguistic environmental awareness, visual-
spatial perceptual functioning, the analysis of depth, figure-ground and stereopsis. It is
dominant for maintaining the body image and the expression of bodily emotions. It
participates in language processing by evoking or sensing feeling, context, and emotion.
Joseph, R.. Right Hemisphere, Left Hemisphere, Consciousness & the Unconscious,
Brain and Mind (Kindle Locations 87-88). University Press. Kindle Edition.
86. 86. www.drbonci.com 86/159 A Right Language AxisA Right Language Axis Just as
there are areas in the left frontal and temporal-parietal lobes which mediate the
expression and comprehension of the denotative, temporal-sequential, grammatical and
syntactical aspects of language, there are similar regions within the right hemisphere that
mediate emotional speech and comprehension. Joseph, R.. Right Hemisphere, Left
Hemisphere, Consciousness & the Unconscious, Brain and Mind (Kindle Locations 225-
227). University Press. Kindle Edition.
87. 87. www.drbonci.com 87/159 Right Language AxisRight Language Axis
88. 88. www.drbonci.com 88/159 Verbalizing Tacit KnowledgeVerbalizing Tacit Knowledge
For the left brain to gain an understanding of implicit, tacit or unconscious knowledge
requires that it be presented in a linear temporal sequence of language-related ideas and
images. Linguistic thought often serves to explain and communicate something that we
are already aware of non-linguistically and unconsciously. R. Joseph. The Right Brain
and the Limbic Unconscious: Emotion, Forgotten Memories, Self-Deception, Bad
Relationships (Kindle Location 1248). University Press Science Publishers. Kindle
Edition.
89. 89. www.drbonci.com 89/159 The Stranger WithinThe Stranger Within Rhawn Joseph,
PhD in his book, The Right Brain and the Unconscious, equates the right, non-linguistic
or non- dialogical brain with the Unconscious. The right brain embodies an emotional,
visual- spatial, geometric and tactual consciousness that assumes a nonverbal and
nonlinear narrative. The left brain embodies a temporal- sequential, analytical and
linguistic consciousness that assumes a verbal narration style. The two brains do not
share a common language and they do not code memories in the same manner.
90. 90. www.drbonci.com 90/159 Subconscious Mind GeneralizationsSubconscious Mind
Generalizations Resides largely in the Right Brain. This Consciousness is fully Aware
and Awake. It is Devoid of Dialogical Language. This Consciousness Can and Will Set
its Own Goals. The Desires, Will and Goals of the Sub/Unconscious Mind are Frequently
Determined Outside of Your Conscious, Linguistic Awareness.
91. 91. www.drbonci.com 91/159 Linguistic, Dialogical,Linguistic, Dialogical, Conscious
MindConscious Mind Non-Linguistic,Non-Linguistic, Non-Dialogical,Non-Dialogical,
Sub/Unconscious MindSub/Unconscious Mind
92. 92. www.drbonci.com 92/159 Who's in Charge?Who's in Charge? The Conscious or
Unconscious Mind?The Conscious or Unconscious Mind?
93. 93. www.drbonci.com 93/159 Which Mind is in Charge?Which Mind is in Charge?
NonlinguisticNonlinguistic MindMind LinguisticLinguistic MindMind
94. 94. www.drbonci.com 94/159 Life is Largely Non-DialogicalLife is Largely Non-
Dialogical The mind is designed for action, and continuously and largely unconsciously
processes behavioral- relevant information to readily tell its owner what she wants and
should do to deal with the opportunities and challenges presented by the environment.
Thus, setting, pursuing, and realizing goals can occur without conscious interventions.
The unconscious will: how the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness.
Science 329, 47 (2010)
95. 95. www.drbonci.com 95/159 The Interpreter/ConfabulatorThe Interpreter/Confabulator
When we set out to explain our actions, they are all post hoc explanations using post hoc
observations with no access to nonconscious processing. The left brain takes all the
input that it receives and builds the narrative. Gazzaniga, Michael S.. Who's in Charge?:
Free Will and the Science of the Brain (p. 77). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.
96. 96. www.drbonci.com 96/159 Conscious After the FactConscious After the Fact Goals
and their pursuit can be influenced by unconscious sources and these goals do not need to
be consciously set and adopted before their influence begins to operate. Science 329, 47
(2010) People may often become conscious of the actions they prepare and execute, but
their conscious knowledge of what exactly they do to reach a goal is surprisingly limited.
Neuropsychologia 36, 1133 (1998).
97. 97. www.drbonci.com 97/159 Right Brain InterpreterRight Brain Interpreter There is a
pattern-recognition system that involves high-level processing in the right hemisphere.
The right brain is good at apprehending complex patterns and gets automatic about it.
The right brain is a present moment, embodied, whole picture experience. Gazzaniga,
Michael S.. Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain (p. 94).
HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.
98. 98. www.drbonci.com 98/159 Two Minds Must CooperateTwo Minds Must Cooperate
The two minds can cooperate with each other in a deep, synergistic relationship fostering
creativity and maturity or they can sabotage each other leading to a plethora of
psychological and psychosomatic problems. Schiffer, Fredric. Of Two Minds: The
Revolutionary Science of Dual-Brain Psychology (Kindle Locations 626-628).
99. 99. www.drbonci.com 99/159 Can We Give Voice to theCan We Give Voice to the
Sub/Unconscious Mind?Sub/Unconscious Mind?
100. 100. www.drbonci.com 100/159 Somatization and ConversionSomatization and
Conversion Somatization is a tendency to experience and communicate psychological
distress in the form of somatic symptoms and to seek medical help for them. Conversion
disorder is sometimes applied to patients who present with neurological symptoms, such
as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or fits, which are not consistent with a well-established
organic cause, and which cause significant distress.
101. 101. www.drbonci.com 101/159 SortilegeSortilege This consists of the casting of
lotscasting of lots whether with sticks, stones, bones, beans, coins, animal entrails or
some other item. Modern playing cards and board games developed from this type of
divination. This depends on the geometric-spacial pattern recognition inherent in the
right brain. Jaynes, J. The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral
mind. Houghton Mifflin. 1977.
102. 102. www.drbonci.com 102/159 Explore Your Sinister SideExplore Your Sinister
Side It is the left hand that is controlled by the right hemisphere and which is most in
contact with the subconscious mind (vide supra R. Joseph). Latin sinister "left, on the
left side" (opposite of dexter) is from the Proto-Indo-European root in Sanskrit
(sanyn) meaning more useful or more advantageous.
103. 103. www.drbonci.com 103/159 Ideomotor PhenomenonIdeomotor Phenomenon
Ideomotor phenomenon is a psychological phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions
unconsciously. Carpenter WB. (March 12, 1852) "On the influence of Suggestion in
Modifying and directing Muscular Movement, independently of Volition" A
phenomenon whereby a thought or mental image brings about a seemingly "reflexive" or
automatic muscular reaction, often of minuscule degree, and potentially outside of the
awareness of the subject. As in reflexive responses to pain, the body sometimes reacts
reflexively with an ideomotor effect to ideas alone without the person consciously
deciding to take action.
104. 104. www.drbonci.com 104/159 Ideomotor ApplicationsIdeomotor Applications
Ideomotor applications may be a way to access the content of the implicit memories and
the tacit knowledge of the subconscious mind. These applications may include: Muscle
Testing Procedures as found in Applied Kinesiology, PSYCH-K and the work of both
Dr. John Diamond and Dr. David Hawkins. Subconscious communication with a
pendulum.
105. 105. www.drbonci.com 105/159 Right Brain is SympatheticRight Brain is
Sympathetic There is evidence that sympathetic nervous control is under greater
influence by the right hemisphere Ann Neurol. 2001 May;49(5):575-84. while
parasympathetic control is more under left-hemisphere control.Neuropsychologia. 1998
May;36(5):461-8. Of the two, the sympathetic is more important for modulating heart
rate and blood pressure in response to emotion. McGilchrist, Iain. The Master and His
Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World (p. 69). Yale
University Press. Kindle Edition.
106. 106. www.drbonci.com 106/159 Psychophysiological
TestingPsychophysiological Testing Heart Rate Variability HRV is related to emotional
arousal. Decreased PSNS activity or increased SNS activity will result in reduced HRV.
Electrodermal Activity Sweating is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and
skin conductance is an indication of psychological or physiological arousal. Voice Stress
Analysis This is based on the non-verbal content of the voice which carries information
about the physiological and psychological state of the speaker.
107. 107. www.drbonci.com 11:06:22 AM Sample HRVSample HRV
108. 108. www.drbonci.com 11:06:22 AM Sample EDASample EDA
109. 109. www.drbonci.com 11:06:22 AM Sample VSASample VSA
110. 110. www.drbonci.com 110/159 How are Unconscious GoalsHow are
Unconscious Goals Learned or Programmed?Learned or Programmed?
111. 111. www.drbonci.com 111/159 Implicit LearningImplicit Learning Implicit
learning is the learning of complex information in an incidental manner without
awareness of what has been learned. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 115(2), Mar 1994, 163-
196. e.g. language, bicycle riding, swimming A major evolutionary and neurological
mechanism that drives implicit learning is the mirror neuron system. Ramachandran, V.
S.. The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist's Quest for What Makes Us Human (Kindle
Locations 2128-2129). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.
112. 112. www.drbonci.com 112/159 Mirror Neuron SystemMirror Neuron System
The mirror neuron system is a group of specialized neurons that mirrors the actions and
behavior of others. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has
been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary
somatosensory cortex, the inferior parietal cortex, the temporal, occipital and parietal
visual areas. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009 Jul;33(7):975-80. Indian Journal of
Psychiatry. 2007;49(1):66-69
113. 113. www.drbonci.com 113/159 Learning with Mirror NeuronsLearning with
Mirror Neurons Mirror neurons allow us to first mimic and then imitate the actions that
we see. Mirror neurons are concerned with the intended goals of an action. Iacoboni,
Marco. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (p. 41).
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kindle Edition. Mirror Neurons allow you to as-if your
way through life.
114. 114. www.drbonci.com 114/159 Two Types of Mirror NeuronsTwo Types of
Mirror Neurons Mirror Neurons These neurons fire at the sight of [grasping] actions.
Canonical Neurons These neurons fire at the sight of certain [graspable] objects.
Iacoboni, Marco. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others
(p. 24). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kindle Edition.
115. 115. www.drbonci.com 115/159 MNS & Action UnderstandingMNS & Action
Understanding Mirror neurons transform observed behaviors through visual and auditory
perceptual pathways into knowledge by forming mapped representations in the
corresponding cortical regions. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;49(1):66-69. Iacoboni,
Marco. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (p. 14).
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kindle Edition.
116. 116. www.drbonci.com 116/159 MNS & ImitationMNS & Imitation Imitation
requires a perfect matching of the performed action onto the observed one. Mirror
neurons are able to recognize the actions of others and the intention associated with them.
So they can code for likely future actions of others, thereby observers are able to
anticipate the actions of others. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;49(1):66-69. Iacoboni,
Marco. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (p. 14).
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kindle Edition.
117. 117. www.drbonci.com 117/159 MNS Speech and LanguageMNS Speech and
Language The presence of mirror neurons in Broca's area of humans suggests that human
language may have evolved from a gesture performance strategy. Tasks like
spontaneous speech and reading activate the hand motor area on the left side. Language
mirror neurons seem to be lateralized to the left side involving the dominant hand motor
cortex and the left language axis. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;49(1):66-69.
Iacoboni, Marco. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others
(p. 14). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kindle Edition.
118. 118. www.drbonci.com 118/159 MNS & Theory of MindMNS & Theory of Mind
Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to recognize that someone else has a mind separate
from one's own. It involves the ability to infer someone else's mind- states by facial
expression, tone of voice and non- verbal communication. It involves the area
concerned with action imitation, face imitation and intention understanding. Indian
Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;49(1):66-69. Iacoboni, Marco. Mirroring People: The New
Science of How We Connect with Others (p. 14). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kindle
Edition.
119. 119. www.drbonci.com 119/159 MNS & EmpathyMNS & Empathy Empathy is a
process which involves the affective sharing between self and others, adopting the
perspective of others and the ability for self- agency and self-regulation. The more
people tend to imitate each other, the more they are able to develop an empathic
relationship. Social mirroring involves the interaction of the core mirror neuron system
with the limbic system. Rajmohan V, Mohandas E. Mirror neuron system. Indian Journal
of Psychiatry. 2007;49(1):66-69. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.31522. Iacoboni, Marco.
Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (p. 14). Farrar,
Straus and Giroux. Kindle Edition.
120. 120. www.drbonci.com 120/159 Mirror Neuron SimulatorsMirror Neuron
Simulators Mirror neurons are the ultimate as-if body device.Damasio, Antonio. Self
Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain (Kindle Locations 1671-1676). Knopf
Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition. If a complex brain can simulate someone
elses body state, than it would be able to simulate its own body states. A state that has
already occurred in the organism should be easier to simulate since it has already been
mapped by precisely the same somatosensing structures that are now responsible for
simulating it.
121. 121. www.drbonci.com 121/159 How are the Unconscious WillHow are the
Unconscious Will and its Goals Triggered?and its Goals Triggered?
122. 122. www.drbonci.com 122/159 PrimingPriming Priming refers to the
phenomenon that incidental stimuli influence behavioral outcomes without the
individuals awareness of this influence. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014;5:96. Priming is
an implicit memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus influences the response to
another stimulus. The effects of priming can be more powerful than simple recognition
memory. J Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. 1982; 8 (4). It
spreads along neural and semantic networks via spreading activation.
123. 123. www.drbonci.com 123/159 Implicit MemoryImplicit Memory Implicit
memory, a type of long-term memory, is acquired and used unconsciously, and can affect
thoughts and behaviors. J Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.
13: 501518. One of its most common forms is procedural memory, which helps people
performing certain tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Explicit memory or declarative memory refers to the conscious, intentional recollection
of factual information, previous experiences and concepts.Cognition. 2004 May-
Jun;92(1-2):231-70.
124. 124. www.drbonci.com 124/159 Priming for Goal AchievementPriming for Goal
Achievement Priming the goal immediately selects the actions themselves. People
automatically select and execute behaviors when a goal is primed and unconsciously
adjust their behaviors to reach it. Priming immediately increases the tendency to realize
a target behavior, even when this idea is triggered outside of conscious awareness.
Science 329, 47 (2010)
125. 125. www.drbonci.com 125/159 Perceptual PrimingPerceptual Priming Visual
Priming Advances in Cognitive Psychology. 2012;8(1):50-61. Auditory Priming PLoS
ONE. 2015;10(11):e0141791. Olfactory Priming Frontiers in Psychology. 2014;5:96.
Tactile (Haptic) Priming Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Dec 15;8:926. Movement Priming
Exp Psychol. 2013;60(6):403-9.
126. 126. www.drbonci.com 126/159 Priming Triggers ContingenciesPriming Triggers
Contingencies Priming triggers all manner of contingency programs stored in your
implicit or procedural memory. Reading words associated with aging will trigger old
age behaviors. Car, tire, carburetor, trunk f _ _ l Your brain works on predictive
contingencies.
127. 127. www.drbonci.com 127/159 What is the Biggest Threat toWhat is the Biggest
Threat to Wellness, Willingness and Well-Being?Wellness, Willingness and Well-Being?
128. 128. www.drbonci.com 128/159 The MemeThe Meme The word meme was
coined by Oxford biologist Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene. Brodie,
Richard. Virus of the Mind: The New Science of the Meme (p. 4). Hay House. Kindle
Edition. According to Dawkins, the meme is the basic unit of cultural transmission, or
imitation. Philosopher Daniel Dennett says: A wagon with spoked wheels carries not
only grain or freight from place to place; it carries the brilliant idea of a wagon with
spoked wheels from mind to mind. Memes both program and prime the brain.
129. 129. www.drbonci.com 129/159 MemeticsMemetics The most surprising and
most profound insight from the science of memetics: your thoughts are not always your
own original ideas. Brodie, Richard. Virus of the Mind: The New Science of the Meme .
Hay House. Kindle Edition. This includes all the words in your vocabulary, the stories
you know, the skills and habits you have, the games you play, the songs you sing and the
rules you obey. Blackmore, Susan. The Meme Machine (Popular Science) (p. 4). OUP
Oxford. Kindle Edition. more, Susan. The Meme Machine (Popular Science) (p. 4). OUP
Oxford. Kindle Edition. You catch thoughts you get infected with them, both directly
from other people and indirectly from viruses of the mind. Brodie, Richard. Virus of the
Mind: The New Science of the Meme . Hay House. Kindle Edition.
130. 130. www.drbonci.com 130/159 Implicit IndoctrinationImplicit Indoctrination
Memes enter our minds without our permission. They become part of our mental
programming and influence our lives without our even being aware of it. Brodie, Richard.
Virus of the Mind: The New Science of the Meme (p. 126). Hay House. Kindle Edition.
Memes include tunes, slogans, catchphrases, fashions, styles, and rituals that seem to
spread throughout cultures as if they had a mind and intention all their own. Van Praet,
Douglas. Unconscious Branding: How Neuroscience Can Empower (and Inspire)
Marketing (Kindle Locations 1207-1208). St. Martin's Press. Kindle Edition.
131. 131. www.drbonci.com 131/159 Virus of the MindVirus of the Mind Memes are
the building blocks of your mind, the programming of your mental computer. The
first way we get infected is through conditioning, or repetition. The second way is
through a mechanism known as cognitive dissonance. The third way new memes enter
our minds is by taking advantage of our genetic buttons in the manner of the Trojan
horse. Brodie, Richard. Virus of the Mind: The New Science of the Meme . Hay House.
Kindle Edition.
132. 132. www.drbonci.com 132/159 The Six S's of MemeticsThe Six S's of Memetics
The memes in our culture reflect our deepest, unconscious biological drives, or the Six
Ss: survival, safety, security, sustenance, sex, and status. Sometimes these are called
the three F's: fear, food and fornication. Van Praet, Douglas. Unconscious Branding:
How Neuroscience Can Empower (and Inspire) Marketing (Kindle Locations 1208-
1209). St. Martin's Press. Kindle Edition.
133. 133. www.drbonci.com 133/159 How to Willingly AchieveHow to Willingly
Achieve Wellness and Well-BeingWellness and Well-Being On Measures and
CountermeasuresOn Measures and Countermeasures
134. 134. www.drbonci.com 134/159 Eliminate. Engender. Exploit.Eliminate.
Engender. Exploit. 1.Eliminate priming triggers (memes) for both conscious negative
self-talk and unconscious, unhealthy contingency programs via mirror neuron cues.
2.Engender new learning (memes) for contingency programs that automatically foster
wellness, well-being and health. 3.Exploit new priming triggers (memes) for both
positive self-talk and new health engendering, contingency programs via mirror neuron
cues.
135. 135. www.drbonci.com 135/159 EliminateEliminate Eliminate the priming cues
from your old life: Visual (clutter, posters, photos, toys) Auditory (harmful music:
sad, sappy, self- destructive, abusive, unnatural sounds) Olfactory (foods, trash,
animals, colognes, incense) Tactile (clothing, blankets, lotions, hair care products)
Movement (stop being sedentary)
136. 136. www.drbonci.com 136/159 Engender ChangeEngender Change Active Goal
Setting Positive Autosuggestion Focused/Targeted Self-Talk
137. 137. www.drbonci.com 137/159 Emile CouEmile Cou (1857-1926)(1857-1926)
Our actions do not spring from ourOur actions do not spring from our WILL, but from
our imagination.WILL, but from our imagination.
138. 138. www.drbonci.com 138/159 AutosuggestionAutosuggestion All that is
necessary is to place oneself in a condition of mental passiveness, silence the voice of
conscious analysis, and then deposit in the ever-awake subconscious the idea or
suggestion which one desires to be realized. Everyday, in every way, I'm getting better
and better. (Repeat 20 times at bedtime.) Emile Cou (1922) Coue, Emile. SELF
MASTERY THROUGH CONSCIOUS AUTOSUGGESTION 1922.
139. 139. www.drbonci.com 139/159 Unconscious AutosuggestionUnconscious
Autosuggestion Autosuggestion is an instrument that we possess at birth, and with which
we play unconsciously all our life, as a baby plays with its rattle. It is however a
dangerous instrument; it can wound or even kill you if you handle it imprudently and
unconsciously. It can on the contrary save your life when you know how to employ it
consciously. Emile Cou (1922) Coue, Emile. SELF MASTERY THROUGH
CONSCIOUS AUTOSUGGESTION 1922.
140. 140. www.drbonci.com 140/159 The brain simply believes what youThe brain
simply believes what you tell it most. And what you tell it abouttell it most. And what
you tell it about you, it will create. It has no choice.you, it will create. It has no choice.
Shad Helmstetter, What To Say When You Talk To Your Self, 1988.Shad Helmstetter,
What To Say When You Talk To Your Self, 1988.
141. 141. www.drbonci.com 141/159 Self-TalkSelf-Talk Self-Talk is a way to override
our past negative programming by erasing or replacing it with conscious, positive new
directions. Self-Talk is a practical way to live our lives by active intent rather than by
passive acceptance. Helmstetter, Dr. Shad. What To Say When You Talk To Your Self
(Kindle Locations 874-875). Park Avenue Press. Kindle Edition.
142. 142. www.drbonci.com 142/159 Levels of Self-TalkLevels of Self-Talk 1.The
Level of Negative Acceptance (I cant...) 2.The Level of Recognition and Need To
Change (I need to I should...) 3.The Level of Decision to Change (I never...I no
longer) 4.The Level of The Better You (I am) 5.The Level of Universal Affirmation
(It is) Helmstetter, Dr. Shad. What To Say When You Talk To Your Self (Kindle
Locations 958-959). Park Avenue Press. Kindle Edition.
143. 143. www.drbonci.com 143/159 Level 4 Self-Talk ExampleLevel 4 Self-Talk
Example I am a winner! I believe in myself. I respect myself and I like who I am. I have
made the decision to win in my life and thats what Im doing! Level 4 Self-Talk
inspires, encourages, urges, and implores. It tugs at our hearts, touches our hopes, and
paints in the pictures that color our dreams. It excites, demands, and pushes us forward. It
strengthens the armor of our spirit and hardens the steel of our determination.
Helmstetter, Dr. Shad. What To Say When You Talk To Your Self (Kindle Locations
954-955). Park Avenue Press. Kindle Edition.
144. 144. www.drbonci.com 144/159 Level 5 Self-Talk ExampleLevel 5 Self-Talk
Example I am one with the true, healthy, qualities of my life, and they are one with me.
Life, to me, is a place of joyserenitypeaceand healthy well- being. Life is
uplifting and fulfilling in body, mind and spirit. This level of Self-Talk can be
beautiful, almost poetic, and it is generally life-affirming. Helmstetter, Dr. Shad. What To
Say When You Talk To Your Self (Kindle Locations 954-955). Park Avenue Press.
Kindle Edition.
145. 145. www.drbonci.com 145/159 Use Emotional LanguageUse Emotional
Language A listener comprehends not only what is said (descriptive language), but how it
is said --what a speaker feels (mirror neurons). R. Joseph. The Right Brain and the
Limbic Unconscious: Emotion, Forgotten Memories, Self-Deception, Bad Relationships
(Kindle Locations 466-467). University Press Science Publishers. Kindle Edition.
Feeling, intent, attitude and related emotional states are perceived, processed, and
expressed by the mental system of the right half of the cerebrum. Appeal to metaphor and
poetry, singing and music. McGilchrist, Iain. The Master and His Emissary: The Divided
Brain and the Making of the Western World (p. 188). Yale University Press. Kindle
Edition.
146. 146. www.drbonci.com 146/159 Metaphor and PoetryMetaphor and Poetry
Metaphoric (meta-across, pherein carry) thinking is fundamental to our understanding of
the world, because it is the only way in which understanding can reach outside the system
of symbols to life itself. Metaphor embodies thought and places it in a living context.
The gap across which the metaphor carries us is one that language itself creates.
McGilchrist, Iain. The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of
the Western World (pp. 115-116). Yale University Press. Kindle Edition.
147. 147. www.drbonci.com 147/159 Singing and MusicSinging and Music There is a
stronger affinity between the right hemisphere and the minor key. McGilchrist, Iain. The
Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World (p.
73). Yale University Press. Kindle Edition. Neurological research strongly supports that
our love of music reflects the ancestral ability of our mammalian brain to transmit and
receive basic emotional sounds, the prosody and rhythmic motion that emerge intuitively
from entrainment of the body in emotional expression: music was built upon the
prosodic mechanisms of the right hemisphere that allow us affective emotional
communications through vocal intonations.
148. 148. www.drbonci.com 148/159 ExploitExploit Exploit priming cues for your
new life: Visual (posters, photos, sculptures, art, eye contact) Auditory (positive, up-
beat, WWB, nature sounds) Olfactory (flowers, fruits, perfumes, incense) Tactile
(clothing, blankets, lotions, hair care products) Movement (exercise, dance, )
149. 149. www.drbonci.com 149/159 NAU Nursing Student VideoNAU Nursing
Student Video (2010)(2010)
150. 150. www.drbonci.com 150/159 Targeted Self-Talk AudioTargeted Self-Talk
Audio
151. 151. www.drbonci.com 151/159 Chiropractic MovieChiropractic Movie
152. 152. www.drbonci.com 152/159 How Do These Tools Change You?How Do
These Tools Change You?
153. 153. www.drbonci.com 153/159 Somatic Marker HypothesisSomatic Marker
Hypothesis The brain can simulate, within somatosensing regions, certain body states, as
if they were occurring; and because our perception of any body state is rooted in the body
maps of the somatosensing regions, we perceive the body state as actually occurring even
if it is not. Damasio, Antonio. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain
(Kindle Locations 1651-1653). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
154. 154. www.drbonci.com 154/159 Somatic MarkersSomatic Markers Somatic
markers are associations between reinforcing cognitive stimuli that induce an associated
physiological affective state. Within the brain, somatic markers are thought to be
processed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC; a subsection of the
orbitomedial PFC, OMPFC). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1996 Oct
29;351(1346):1413-20.
155. 155. www.drbonci.com 155/159 Somatic Markers Direct ActionSomatic Markers
Direct Action These somatic marker associations can recur during decision-making and
bias one's cognitive processing. When one has to make complex and uncertain
decisions, the somatic markers created by the relevant stimuli are summed to produce a
net somatic state. This overall state directs (or biases) one's decision of how to act.
Damasio, Antonio R. (2000). The Feeling of what Happens: Body, Emotion and the
Making of Consciousness. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-928876-3
156. 156. www.drbonci.com 156/159 For I do not understand my own actions.For I do
not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want,For I do not do what I want,
but I do the very thing I hate.but I do the very thing I hate. (Rom 7:15)(Rom 7:15)
157. 157. www.drbonci.com 157/159 ConclusionConclusion We truly live between
free choice and conditioned action. I can exercise genuine free-won't in the moment. I
can consciously learn new contingency responses today. I can act on these new
contingencies tomorrow.
158. 158. www.drbonci.com 158/159 Special ThanksSpecial Thanks MSCA-DII for
the opportunity to provideMSCA-DII for the opportunity to provide a forum for my
ideas.a forum for my ideas. Dr. Ragan Fairchild-Bonci for theDr. Ragan Fairchild-Bonci
for the editorial exchange and the wonderfuleditorial exchange and the wonderful
illustrations.illustrations. AJ Bonci for the musical and audioAJ Bonci for the musical
and audio guidance in the making of the self-talkguidance in the making of the self-talk
programs.programs.
159. 159. www.drbonci.com 159/159 QuestionsQuestions AndAnd AnswersAnswers