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BME 323

MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT 04

COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER


Objectives:

1. To evaluate the common-source amplifier using the small signal equivalent model.
2. To learn what effects the voltage gain.

Theory:

A self-biased n-channel JFET with an AC source capacitively coupled to the gate is shown in
Figure 1-a.The resistor, RG, serves for two purposes: it keeps the gate at approximately 0 V dc
(because IGSS is extremely small), and its large value (usually several megohms) prevents
loading of the ac signal source. The bias voltage is created by the drop across RS. The bypass
capacitor, C2, keeps the source of the FET effectively at ac ground.

The signal voltage causes the gate-to-source voltage to swing above and below its Q-point
value, causing a swing in drain current. As the drain current increases, the voltage drop across
RD also increases, causing the drain voltage to decrease. The drain current swings above and
below its Q-point value in-phase with the gate-to-source voltage. The drain-to-source voltage
swings above and below its Q-point value 180 out-of-phase with the gate-to-source voltage,
as illustrated Figure 1-b.

Figure 1

The operation just described for an n-channel JFET can be illustrated graphically on both the
transfer characteristic curve and the drain characteristic curve in Figure 2. Figure 2-a shows
how a sinusoidal variation, Vgs, produces a corresponding variation in Id. As Vgs swings from
the Q point to a more negative value, Id decreases from its Q-point value. As Vgs swings to a
less negative value, Id increases. Figure 2-b shows a view of the same operation using the
drain curves. The signal at the gate drives the drain current equally above and below the Q

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BME 323
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

point on the load line, as indicated by the arrows. Lines projected from the peaks of the gate
voltage across to the ID axis and down to the VDS axis indicate the peak-to-peak variations of
the drain current and drain-to-source voltage, as shown.

Figure 2

Small signal model of JFET is identical to that


of the MOSFET in Figure 3. Here, gm is given
by
2 IDSS VGS
gm = 1-
|Vp| Vp

or alternatively by

2 IDSS ID Figure 3
gm =
|Vp| IDSS

where VGS and ID are the DC bias quantities, and

|VA|
rO = and gmo = - 2 IDSS/ Vp
ID

At high frequencies, the equivalent circuit of Figure 4 applies


with Cgs and Cgd being both depletion capacitances.
Typically, Cgs=1..3 pF, Cgd=0.1..0.5 pF and fT=20..100 MHz; and also
there is a knowledge about the following: Figure 4

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BME 323
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

AV = gm (RD // RL) .... ....................... ...........(RS bypass)


AV = gmRd / (1 + gmRS) , Rd = (RD // RL) .....(normally)
ID = 2 IDSS [ (RSgmo+1) - (2RSgmo+1)1/2 ] / (RSgmo)2

For the n-channel JFET current-voltage characteristics described as follows:

Cutoff : VGSVp, iD=0


Triode region : VpVGS0, VDSVGS-Vp
2
VGS VDS VDS
iD= IDSS 2 1- -
Vp -Vp Vp

Saturation reg.: VpVGS0, VDSVGS-Vp


(pinch-off)
VGS 2
iD= IDSS 1- (1+VDS)
Vp

is the inverse of the Early voltage; =1/VA . VA and are positive for n-channel devices..

Preliminary Work: (Choose and solve at least one question in each part A,B,C-)
Please use the formulae above!

A. Find the values of ID, VGS and VDS and find gm in the circuit of Figure 7 then fill
the Table 1 in the report to compare the measured ones.

B. In following questions 1 to 4, let the n-channel JFET have Vp= -4V and
IDSS=10mA, and unless otherwise specified assume that in pinch-off (saturation)
the output resistance is infinite.

1. For VGS= -2V, find the minimum VDS for the device to operate in pinch-off.
Calculate iD for VGS= -2V and VDS= 3V.

2. For VDS= 3V, find the change in iD corresponding to a change in VGS from 2
to 1.6 V .

3. For small VDS, calculate the value of rDS at VGS= 0V and at VGS= -3V.

4. If VA= 100V, find the JFET output resistance rO when operating in pinch-off at
a current of 1 mA, 2.5 mA and 10 mA.
C.
1. The JFET in the circuit of Figure 5 has Vp= -3V, IDSS= 9 mA, and =0. Find
the values of all resistors so that VG= 5V, ID= 4 mA, and VD= 11V. Design for
0.05 mA in the voltage divider.

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BME 323
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER
2. For the JFET circuit designed in question 6, let an input signal vi be
capacitively coupled to the gate, a large bypass capacitor be connected
between the source and ground, and the output signal vO be taken from the

drain through a large coupling capacitor. The resulting common-source amplifier


is shown in Figure 6. Calculate gm and rO (assuming VA= 100V). Also find
Ri,AV=vO/vi, and RO.

Figure 5 Figure 6

Procedure:

1. Construct the circuit in Figure 7:

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BME 323
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

Figure 7

2. Measure the values of ID, VGS and VDS and find gm then fill the Table 1 in report
part with your calculated values and compare the results.

3. With oscillator, obtain a 5 KHz signal with 0.5 Vpp and connect to the circuit as
Vin, observe the Vout signal and find the voltage gain.

4. Measure the AC voltage at source point of FET as VS and write some comments
on this occurence.

5. Reduce the RL and find the voltage gain.

6. Reduce the bypass capacitor and find the voltage gain. (!Never ask which
capacitor?!)

7. Draw all graphs for Vin and Vout, indicate the phase differences if they exist.

Equipment List:

MPF102 FET transistor or equivalent

DC power supply (15 V)

Capacitors : 2*2.2 F, 1*100 F

Resistors: 2*1 k, 1*4.7 K, 1*100 K

Oscilloscope

References:

Microelectronic Circuits, Fourth Edition, Sedra&Smith, FET Small Signal Analysis

Electronic Devices, Third Edition, Floyd, JFET Amplifers

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BME 323
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
COMMON-SOURCE JFET AMPLIFIER

REPORT: Student ID # :
Name :
2.

TABLE 1

parameter measured calculated


ID
VGS
VDS
gm

3.
AV=

4.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................

5.
AV= (reduced RL)

6.
AV= (reduced Cbypass)

Drawings for 3, 5, 6: (Draw in different colors for Vin and Vout)

(3) (5)

(6)