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Concept for effective

integration of railway
hubs into TEN-T, regional
and local transport systems

The Railhuc project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF.

project Every railway
hub has its own
characteristics regarding
to its passenger flows and services.

Table of contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5
1. Reggio Emilia hub .........................................................................................................................................................................................6
2. Brno hub....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
3. Havlkv Brod and Jihlava nodes............................................................................................................................................................ 20
4. Central German Metropolitan area.......................................................................................................................................................... 24
5. Gyr hub....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
6. Venice hub................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38
7. Bratislava and ilina hubs ......................................................................................................................................................................... 46
8. Ljubljana hub............................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
9. Vienna hub................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Conclusion................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61


REGULATION (EU) No 1316/2013 O.J. L348 - 20/12/2013

Central Europe cities are origins and destinations of transna- In this perspective RAILHUC endeavours to enhance rail
tional transport chains. These chains consist of local, regional transport by improving the feeding functions on rail of major
and transnational transport systems. On the one hand high hub-cities and their respective regions. Moreover, functional
speed connections among railway hubs in the Central Europe integration and multimodal cooperation among transport
are being upgraded, especially on TEN-T networks and along hubs is vital for the desirable interconnectivity. Railhuc project
the main intercity lines. On the other hand nevertheless rail partners share the need of embedding the urban and regional
and in general public transport bound feeder lines need for transport system into the intercity rail transport. Only provi-
upgrade, strengthening and better organisation. That calls for sion of seamless public transport without waste of travel time
a multimodal integration of local/city transport networks, re- can be competitive with individual car transit. That calls for
gional transport systems and transnational transport axes, in harmonised joint strategies and concepts to be integrated into
particular TEN-T. City railways hubs have a role to integrate short, medium and long term policy actions.
these different transport levels as means of improved transport
interconnectivity and accessibility of Central Europe.
Although each of railway hub cities involved in the RAILHUC
RAILHUC (Railway Hub Cities and TEN-T network), stra- project faces a bit different deficiencies in rail transport and
tegic transnational project, join together 11 partners from in general in intermodal transport, all project partners are
7European countries to suggest complementary interventions strongly committed to increase rail use. The book presents
facing: several bottlenecks of each railway hub city resulting from
modelling activities. Considering experiences exchange, good
alleviation of infrastructural barriers for railway hubs practice analysis and peer review workshop several interven-
integration in the local/regional/TEN-T systems, tions in each railway hub have been suggested to enhance rail
harmonisation of transport services, transport in Central Europe.
development and governance of Public Transport



Reggio Emilia hub

When we developed the High Speed network

we paid a particular attention tointegration
withthe other transport networks and,
inparticular with the regional and metropolitan
railway systems and the local Public road
transport. This was done with major
attention tothe safety issues and to thekey
role thesmall and big railway stations will
play intheachievement of real intermodal
Vasco Errani
President Emilia-Romagna Region

Reggio Emilia hub

The national context The local context

The Mediopadana High Speed station has been opened on the Reggio Emilia, given its position and the infrastructural ser-
9th of June 2013. At the moment, daily, 16 High Speed trains vices already existing, was selected as the ideal spot for the
stop at the station. creation of an intermodal hub of key importance: the Medio-
The station has been built in the northern area of Reggio padana station will be the only stop between Milano and Bo-
Emilia, a city of about 160.000 inhabitants. The scope of this logna.
new infrastructure is serving a wide catchment area, which
includes the territory of Reggio Emilia and the surrounding Being an in line station, it will allow trains to run and stop
provinces of Modena, Parma and Mantova (roughly one mil- without big wastes of time.
lion inhabitants).
Reggio Emilia is also the only station to have a High Speed
The new station should be considered as one of the pillars Station close to the freeway (only 30-40 meters of distance be-
ofthe High Speed Line linking the north and the south of Italy tween the High Speed line and the freeway) and the freeway
(the station is located in the Turin Naples line). gate (only 1 km from the station). This can allow travellers to
reach the station directly from the freeway, without surcharg-
The new High Speed system in Italy redefines the national ing the existing road system.
railway transport by making the service faster and more ef-
ficient on the medium and long distances, making possible the In addition, Reggio Emilia is the hub for a ramification ofre-
traffic re-distribution: the metropolitan and regional transport gional railway lines reaching crucial points of the regional
remains on the historical lines while the long distance trains go territory. These lines count 50 stops which allow a capillary
on the high speed lines, together with freight traffic. territorial distribution and accessibility for passengers.

The investment for the Mediopadana station in Reggio Emilia

aims at making the Mediopadana area accessible to the High
Speed System in a easy and quick way.

comparison among catchment areas

The architectural project
The decision was to avoid the construction of a standardised station but taking
the opportunity to use this new transport infrastructure as a new distinctive
landmark for this area. For this reason, beside the specific considerations
regarding the advanced functional aspects of the new station, also its architectural
exclusiveness was considered in the planning.

Therefore the famous architect, Mr. Calatrava was appointed for conceiving
thearchitectural design of the station. He was also the designer of the three road
bridges in the surroundings of the new station.

Reggio Emilia hub

Flows models and future scenarios 2. Railway interchange scenario. Public transport is key to
Within the RAILHUC project, passengers flows models based bring users to the new station (in Italy 1/3 of population
on data and surveys have been elaborated to identify the po- does not own a car), but obviously the TPL feeding function
tential market share of the Mediopadana station. Starting depends form the frequency of the connections and the syn-
from the basic scenario (approximately coinciding with the chronization with the arrival/departure of HS trains
current situation), 3 boosting scenarios aiming at removing 3. It is a new extra urban bus interchange services. The extra
bottlenecks were developed: 1. the kiss&ride, parking spot urban new services provides a direct connection via high-
to strengthen the accessibility from the freeway; 2. the inte- way from Parma to Modena via Reggio Emilia HS station
gration / interchange of the regional rail service with the LPT; and vice versa and the integration and coordination of the
3. The extra urban bus interchange scenario (highway shut- two services (north and south direction). The extra urban
tle bus service) In brief , these are the main findings from the scenario will allow to reach more passengers thanks to the
modelling activities: possibility to easy access to the Mediopadana station with-
out any change of means of transport.
0. Basic scenario. Now the access to the station is mainly guar-
anteed through private cars, and this gives a strong impor- A possible fourth scenario is given by a variable mix of the
tance to the parking conditions and fares. three mentioned scenarios.
The current situation of the Mediopadana station, the past
What also appears is that the catchment area towards north choices and the foreseen scenarios show the hub has a great
ismuch wider than the catchment area toward south. potential and highlight two specific features: the Mediopadana
station is very close to the airport model and its catchment
The potential users basin toward north gathers more than the area is quite wide therefore not really comparable to a metro-
2/3 of the whole traffic (of which, the most has Milano as final politan area configuration.
The airport model means that the Mediopadana station can
1. Freeway interchange scenario- Kiss&ride. A dedicated free- be considered as a preliminary gate of the two neighbour-
way parking area would bring some more demand (itwill ing international airports (Bologna Marconi, Milano Linate/
allow some time saving to reach the station instead of using Malpensa).
the existing highway gate).

The Mediopadana intermodal node is deeply
rooted with the possibility to connect our new
High Speed station with the A1 highway [].
Developing the Mediopadana intermodal
node means opening a further perspective
forthewhole area. This also means the planning
ofseveral works and actions, in particular key
infrastructures, needed to connect Reggio
Emilia with the rest of Europe. It means also that
not only for the neighbouring towns of Modena
and Parma, but also from the wide surrounding
area [] it will be easy and convenient to take
thetrain in Reggio Emilia.
Mayor Graziano Delrio



Vital feeding lines necessary
condition for TEN-T network

Investments in the railway infrastructure

in the South Moravian Region and the Brno
hub including the Central Station, highspeed
connections on the TEN-T corridors
andthe regional railways in idlochovice,
Hustopee and Boskovice belong between
the important issues for the Region and the
City of Brno. Without them public transport
in the south Moravia will stepwise lose
importance andpassengers will move away
fromasustainable public transport towards
individual private transportation.
Ji Horsk
director of KORDIS JMK

Brno hub

The South Moravian Region is one of 14 self-governing Re- and the Supreme Public Prosecutors Office are located there.
gions in the Czech Republic. It has a population of 1,2 mil- Brno is an important centre for higher education too. It offers
lion, spread over an area of 7195 km2 and 673 municipalities. all kinds of university studies including the University of De-
The area of South Moravia is located in the southeast of the fence, agriculture and veterinary universities. There are more
Czech Republic and borders with Austria and Slovakia. The than 100,000 students of high schools and universities in Brno.
region enjoys excellent transport links and a strategic position Many university students commute on a weekly basis.
on the intersection of trans-European long-distance road and
rail TEN-T routes, which are important arteries connecting From the transport point of view, Brno is characterized by
the west of Europe with the east and the north with the south. a strong daily and weekly commuter flow from the region
In Brno Tuany is located an international airport. Togeth- as well as other regions of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
er with Vienna airport as the main international hub, other Most are commuting to/from their workplaces in Brno. From
important airports include Bratislava airport (both exactly 150,000 workers commuting every day in the South Moravian
143km from Brno) and Prague airport (230 km from Brno). Region, 100,000 of them are commuting to Brno. This leads
to a total of around 500,000 people present in Brno on a daily
The region is distinguished by a monocentric settlement sys- basis.
tem. Brno is the business and administrative centre of the re-
gion (a population of 380,000 + approx. 300,000 in the metro- The number of commuters has been growing over almost
politan area). Further important towns are Blansko, Znojmo, 20years since stagnation in the 90s. Important sources ofcom-
Hodonn and Vykov. Each of them has between 20,000 and muters are Hodonn, Znojmo or Beclav. About 60,000 passen-
40,000 inhabitants. gers are commuting daily by public transport, the rest commute
by private car. Cycling is not so popular in Brno with less than
Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic. It is 3% of residents commuting by bike on a regular basis.
the judicial centre of the Czech Republic. The Constitutional
Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court,

Brno is a crossroad on the highways and two TEN-T corridors.
There are highways leading to Prague Nurnberg / Berlin,
Ostrava KatowiceWarsaw, Bratislava Budapest and to Vienna.
Brno is also acrossroad of two TEN-T corridors. One leads from Germany
toSouth-East Europe, the other leads from Poland to Italy.
There are direct EC trains going at regular intervals to Vienna,
Bratislava, Budapest, Prague DresdenBerlin and Warsaw.

Brno hub

Public transport in the South Moravian Region is provided by lines are the railway lines to regional centres such as Blansko,
an integrated transport system (Czech abreviation: IDS JMK), Tinov, Beclav and Vykov. Transport output recorded in the
which includes local and national trains and regional bus lines South Moravian Region has been increasing since 2004 when
together with public transport in Brno and in another 7 towns. IDS JMK was established. Transport output in 2012 reached
Almost the whole region is accessible by public transport with- 41.4 million vehicle kilometres.
in 100 minutes. The only exception is an area west of the town
Znojmo. From a regional point of view, the most important



818 819
122 123
715 118
Millions of passenger-kilometres

225 223
215 219
421 43 42
41 42
400 38 84
348 84 85
81 83
300 119
115 119
240 108 111
98 105
200 46 47 48
46 44 45
148 44
118 42
100 177 180
145 161 155 166 169
118 127 136

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Analysis of the transport bottlenecks has shown that the most 2. Planning of the high-speed train line
important problem facing the South Moravian Region public At the moment the length of the track between Brno and
transport system is the infrastructure. The railway in the South Prague is 250 kilometres and trains going to Prague from
Moravian Region is outdated. The reconstructions finalized in the north of Moravia and Silesia overload the track. The con-
the 90s have not been sufficient. Underfinanced railway infra- nection between Brno and Prague on the highway is only
structure impedes full usage of the potential of railway trans- 200 kilometres. Due to this disproportion, the trains cannot
port in the South Moravian Region. Local trains together with compete with individual private transport in any western
long-distance trains are limited by lack of empty slots in the direction from Brno. A new high-speed line going from
Brno main station. The capacity of the Brno railway junction (Ostrava-) Brno to Prague and further to Germany could
is regularly exceeded as well as the capacity of the main track. solve both problems overloading the existing track and
No more new trains can be added to the system even if they shortening the travel times. According to research made in
are needed. The following are the most important investment the frame of the RAILHUC project, more than 15,000 pas-
requirements in Brno and the South Moravian Region: sengers could use this new high-speed line in one direction
between Brno and Prague per day. Additional passengers
1. Hub Brno Main train station would use it for other destinations. At the present time, only
The required investment for the station has been known for a few national transport specialists understand this prob-
a long time. On-going negotiations hinder progress. The ca- lem and are therefore acting to begin the necessary prepara-
pacity of the existing station is critically low and the facilities tion and project work.
are very old. The implementation of the necessary measures
could not only solve the infrastructure problem, but trav-
elling through Brno would be faster and provide a greater
capacity of the railway, which in turn would encourage the
general development of the city.

Amount of HSL users for travelling

between Brno and Prague






10 90
do 99
0 -1 105
10 99
2 00 9 120 in.]
Ma - 39 [m
xim 00 ime
um 3 49
9 135 el t
pric 0- T r av
e 40
;1 ce 150
= av
0,0 0
4 50

Brno hub

3. Reconstruction and electrification of the feeding tracks 5. Reconstruction of train stops

The feeding tracks have a very important function for the The towns in the southeast of Moravia have bad accessibil-
smaller towns they provide a connection with the TEN-T ity to the railway network because of the lack of, or badly
corridors. The lack of feeding tracks in South Moravia is one located train stops. They are too far away from the towns or
of the most serious problems on a regional level. There are simply dont exist at all. The study implemented in the frame
three missing connections between TEN-T corridors and of RAILHUC project encourages the examination of possi-
secondary lines: bilities and costs for improving the status quo.
akvice Hustopee
Hruovany u Brna idlochovice 6. New rolling stock and preparation for tendering process
Lhota Rapotina Boskovice The old rolling stock and a closed rail market have been
identified as bottlenecks in the area of adequate services.
The implementation of these three projects would enable a Therefore, studies for the use of hybrid rolling stock and
direct train connection to Brno for 50.000 residents, would preparation of technical requirements for new railway ten-
double the trains frequency on these tracks and shorten travel ders should be the part of the RAILHUC Project activity.
time by up to 15 minutes. According to the study made in the
frame of the RAILHUC project, these projects would bring
more then 8,000 new passengers to the TEN-T corridors.

4. Absence of quality and safe Park & Ride places

The Park & Ride places are important for connecting in-
dividual private car transport with public train transport.
Their lack does not motivate car users to take a train as a part
oftheir journey. There are plenty of unofficial parking places.

Identifed interventions in the area of brno hub

Opatovice Construcon of supra-regional importance

High-speed rail
Bystice n. P. Olenice
Opmizaon of the regional transport
Skalice nad Sv. New train stop
Nedvdice New feeding track
Lhota Rapotina

Rjec-Jesteb New Park & Ride facility

Kianov zast. Speov

Vel. Mezi Blansko

ebn obec Kuim
Kuim zast.
Blovice n.S.
BRNO zast..
Studenec Holubice
Zastvka Buovice Nesovice

Nemotice St. Msto
Oslavany u Uh. Hradit
Moravsk Moravsk
Mor. Krumlov idlochovice
Budjovice Brnice
Hruovany u Brna

Vranovice Vracov zast. Vesel n.Mor.-Miloko

Hustopee ej Bzenec zast.
u Brna
umn Miroslav Vnorovy-Lidovice
Znojmo-nemocnice Strnice-Skalick brna
Zaje Hodonn
Znojmo-Pmtice Znojmo-centrum
Znojmo Hruovany nad Jev.
Mikulov Vrbovce



The Vysoina Region, as the ordering party
of the regional railway transport, is strongly
interested in a high-quality railway. I hope that
the RAILHUC project encourages a number
ofinterventions leading to higher accessibility
ofour region by rail: not only small-scale
projects, but also the large ones,
suchashigh-speed railway.
Libor Joukl
vice-president of the Vysoina Region
in charge of transport and assets:

Havlkv Brod and Jihlava nodes

The Havlkv Brod node (25.000 inhabitants) is located age municipality has 730 inhabitants. Still, however, 50 % of the
in the highlands on the border of Bohemia and Moravia, population lives in cities over 5.000 inhabitants.
atthe TEN-T railway axis 22, connecting Athens to Dresden.
At present, however, no international passenger trains cross The Vysoina Region has elaborated a multimodal model
Havlkv Brod, as they all have been re routed via Pardubice of passenger transport for its territory. The model aims at
after 2000 due to reaching faster travel times. The node is simulating the real traffic process based on known facts. It is
served by the national fast train line R9 Brno-Havlkv Brod- a selective approximation that emphasizes crucial aspects of
Koln-Prague, which links it to railway hubs of transnational our environment and suppresses the insignificant or random
importance. The R9 line is operated in a basic 2 hours tact, ones, enabling us to forecast behaviour of a system in different
strengthened to a 60 minutes interval in peaks. The Havlkv conditions. The model has been constructed in the detail of
Brod node is, among others, the destination of the electrified transport zones at the level of municipalities, whereas the outer
track from the southern Bohemia. zones are detailed to municipalities with extended jurisdiction,
districts or regions. The model contains the complete transport
It is by this track that lies the Jihlava node, capital and ad- network and timetables of all public transport links. It works
ministrative centre of the Vysoina Region (50.000 inhabit- with an extensive database of statistical and socio-economical
ants). The city operates an urban transport network with elec- data and with results of the Population and Housing Census,
trical traction (trolley-buses) and is situated by the highway and it is calibrated to data from the car census, from the
D1, the arterial road of the Czech Republic. Therailway track passenger census in trains and to data about issued public bus
Havlkv Brod Jihlava Vesel nad Lunic is a single one, elec- transport tickets.
trified with alternating traction system 25 kV, characteristic
with lower track speed between 6080 kph. Unlike Havlkv The transport model has calculated the traffic relations.
Brod, the railway transport in Jihlava is of a more regional The traffic relation intensity means a number of people who
character, with the exception of the national fast train line R11 travel between 2 places in both directions within 24 hours of
Plze esk Budjovice Jihlava Brno. an average working day. In the Vysoina Region, the strongest
traffic intensity can be found between the microregional
The name Vysoina (a highland) is derived from the centres of Nov Msto na Morav and r nad Szavou
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, which covers all the 5.570 persons in all transport modes and for all trip purposes.
6.796 km2 of its territory. The Vysoina population reaches Lower intensity has been observed between Havlkv Brod
512.000 inhabitants, living in 704 municipalities. Thepopula- and Jihlava 4.268 passengers and between Humpolec and
tion density does not exceed 75 inhabitants/km2 and an aver- Pelhimov 3.549 persons. Generally, the most important

Trips over
100 people
for 24 hours
centres, 2012
(traffic model,
all modes and
trip purposes)

traffic relations develop between municipalities with extended in 2001, 57 % of trips to work were done by public transport,
jurisdiction and former district towns and also between while in 2012, it was only 15 %. As for commuting to school,
former district towns and the regional capital of Jihlava. the decrease has been enumerated from 97 % to 63 %.
Other significant links are transport relations with Brno. The
relations to Prague are weaker and rather fragmented, and the Travel times of public transport include waiting for the
relations to other national hubs are of a marginal character. connection, average travel time on board of the vehicle,
changes, access to the station of departure and transfer from
Traffic flows are transport relations associated to a transport the station of destination to the city centre. Travel times by car
network. As for the railway transport, we can observe interesting do not include searching for a parking place and delays due
traffic intensities (1.2502.500 passengers in 24 hours in both to traffic jams (these are only taken into account in the case
directions) at the tracks Havlkv Brod-Praha, Havlkv ofthe outer network). The comparison of travel times shows
Brod-Brno, Havlkv Brod-Jihlava, Nov Msto na Morav- that the public transport is not able to compete with individual
r nad Szavou, Teb-Brno. As for bus transport, great car transport. Therefore, interventions to improve attractivity
flows can be seen at the D1 highway and in relations Moravsk of public transport have to be proposed.
Budjovice-Teb, Teb-Jihlava, Tel-Jihlava, Humpolec-
Pelhimov. Evidently the city of Jihlava and the southern part Individual
of the region fall under a strong infrastructural influence of Bus Train
car transport
the D1 highway, while the northern part of the region around
Transport output/day 12,03 mil. km 1,21 mil. km 1,00 mil. km
Havlkv Brod is more in favour of the railway transport.
% from the total 84,5 % 8,5 % 7%

The overall transport output within the Vysoina regional

transport network reaches 14,24 million kilometres per day.
The table below shows the modal split of the transport output
in km/day:

The automobilisation degree increased from 331 vehicles per

1.000 inhabitants in 2001 to 426 in 2011, having had a negative
impact on the modal split to the disadvantage of public trans-
port. Within the analysis of commuting, a substantial drop
in regular travelling by public transport has been identified:

Passenger flows 2012:

green pentlograms
display passenger
intensities in trains
and blue ones
show intensities of
passengers in bus lines

CENTRAL represented
by City of Dresden
The Example of a Polycentric Region:
Central German Metropolitan
Region (CGMR)

RAILHUC stands for an innovative

andforward thinking project giving Europe
direction to more political integration as it
promotes an ever-growing high-speed rail
network aiming at the distribution of benefits
not only to the central hubs/agglomerations
butalso to the regions.

Dr. Albrecht Schrter

Mayor of the city of Jena
and Head of CGMRs Executive Committee


Regarding the transnational rail services, all four CGMR-based of the regional railway lines in the area are bundled and
RAILHUC hubs are integrated into the future TEN-T Network routed directly through the tunnel into the heart of Leipzigs
(TEN-T 1 and 22).Transnational rail services provided by city centre. On the local level, the main stations in the four
high-grade comfort long-distance trains are offered exclusively RAILHUC cities function as the central transfer point
on the link from Dresden to Prague. Additional regional rail in public transport connecting rail services of all levels with
services from Dresden to destinations in the Czech Republic the frequently running local public transport.
and Poland (Wroclaw) take the function of long-distance
services and complete transnational rail services. The four According to the evaluation, the strongest daily commuter
RAILHUC hubs (Halle, Leipzig, Dresden, Erfurt) are also fully flows in the CGMR occur between the RAILHUC cities
integrated into the long-distance rail network of Deutsche Halle(S.) and Leipzig (app. 8,700), Leipzig and Dresden (app.
Bahn providing connections to neighbouring economic 5,600), and Erfurt and Leipzig (app. 1,300) followed by flows
centres in Germany in both the east-west direction and north- of minor significance on the other links between the hub
south direction. cities. Here, commuters may choose between both national
long-distance and regional rail services. Beyond the hub city
Frequent rail services on regional level complete the intra-hub links, additional strong commuter flows exist along the densily
rail services and link the other member cities of the CGMR populated Saxony-Franconia line, the cities affiliating along the
tothe hubs, thus, providing a feeder function for long-distance east-west corridor in Thuringia and between the RAILHUC
rail services. A major step has been done with the completion hubs and other neighbouring urban centres. These flows are
of the City Tunnel in Leipzig (realized 12/2013), where most primarily served by regional rail services at present.

Daily commuter flows between the urban centres in the CGMR in 2010

The general conditions in the CGMR regarding the use RAILHUC cities show the lowest motorisation rates; values
of public transport are advantageous since the motorisation ranging from 350 cars per 1,000 capita in Leipzig to 470
rate is below the national average. Within the CGMR, thefour inHalle (S.) and Erfurt.

Motorisation rates of RAILHUC cities

In contrast to that, the numbers for the mode share of public share of long-distance public transport means is 0.5 percent.
transport in modal split are 7.3 percent of daily trips in 2008 The four RAILHUC cities attain only average numbers
(total CGMR), and, thus, lower than the average national of public transport modal share reflecting the importance
values with 8.5 percent percent of daily trips. Thereof, the ofpublic transport forof the local people.

Modal Split (share of all daily trips) of large cities in the CGMR


The even lower numbers for the other CGMR member cities of public transport in the CGMR are an estimated 450,000
show that the existing demand potentials are not yet exploited. to 500,000 passengers using regional rail services (incl.
Regarding the use of rail services, around 75 percent of people suburban rail services) representing almost 20 percent of all
use trains only occasionally or never. Amongst all daily users passengers.

Use of trains in long-distance transportation

The organisation of public transport in Germany reflects Public Transport Partnerships (PTP) are widely spread in the
the strict distinction between long-distance transportation CGMR, and also include the four RAILHUC cities and their
(distances 50 km, travel times 1 hour) by rail and coach surroundings although spatial gaps are still present. PTP tariffs
services, and transportation at short distances (distances (fares) are only designed for short-distance journeys even
<50km, travel times < 1 hour) by regional rail- and road-based ifthe tariff co-operation extends over a large area. Thetariffs
services: As long-distance rail services are provided by railway are valid for the use of regional rail services and road-based
operators on a commercial basis, the three federal states in the public transport but not for the use of long-distance rail
CGMR are responsible for the commissioning, organisation services. Through fares for a smooth CGMR wide travelling
and financing of regional rail services. They decided to assigne between the PTPs are rare.
this sovereign task to Public Transport Agencies (PTA).
Several public and private transport operators were awarded
by the PTAs with the right to operate regional rail service
after having been successful in public tendering processes. For
long-distance rail services German Rail (Deutsche Bahn AG)
is the most important transport operator at present. Following
aliberalization of the law, long-distance coach services are now
provided on a commercial basis by a vast number of operators
and compete with long-distance rail services.

Concerning the financing model for rail services, long-distance Rail infrastructure is provided by Deutsche Bahn AG and
rail services must be provided by rail operators on a commercial widely funded by the federal government being responsible
basis whereas regional rail services are commissioned by the for the financing of investments and maintenance costs.
federal states and financed by public funds. The three federal Railway companies have to pay cost-covering train path prices
states in the CGMR claim around 1.2 billion EUR in 2014 for andstation fees for the use of rail infrastructure and stations.
the financing of public transport services. Additional fundings,
grants and subsidies complete the current financing model but
resulting in a less-transparent system.

Present organisation and financing model in the CGMR

The results of the assessment of the present strategic & their position as railway interchanges at mid-term horizon
operational positioning of each hub in the CGMR at TEN-T resulting from the completion of the new national north-south
(MACRO), regional (MESO) and local (MICRO) level are as high-speed rail link (VDE 8) which also integrates the Halle
follows: (S.) hub. At regional level, all four CGMR-based RAILHUC
hubs function as nodes within the railway network of their
The Dresden hub takes an important position as an interchange catchment areas. Especially the Leipzig hub will upgrade its
for both national and transnational north-south (TEN-T position by the completion of the new City Tunnel Leipzig
22) and east-west rail links which does not comply with the atshort-term horizon whereas the Dresden and the Erfurt hub
current state of rail infrastructure. Improvement measures suffer from a comparatively low standard in the regional rail
are on the way, but scheduled for mid-term horizon (Dresden network. All of the four RAILHUC-hubs take an advanced
Leipzig rail link) or even long-term (Dresden Berlin position on the local level as the main stations have been
rail link as part of TEN-T 22). Compared to this, the Erfurt upgraded to main local intersections between all modes
and the Leipzig hub in particular will significantly improve ofpublic transport means.


Regarding the national and transnational rail services, all whereas the Erfurt hub will experience a significant upgrade as
CGMR-based RAILHUC hubs are fully integrated in the centrally located transfer point for north-south and east-west
national and concerning the Dresden hub the transnational passenger flows. Considering the current travel time, present
long-distance railway line network. Assuming the proposed train services at the four RAILHUC hubs have competitive
railway line network resulting from the completion of the travel times only for northbound and westbound journeys but
VDE 8 project, the Leipzig hub will strengthen its position not for eastbound or southbound journeys.
as an important transfer point for long-distance passengers,

Travel time ration Train vs. Car

for selected national / transnational rail links

This will significantly improve for southbound services after optimised and needs to be improved allowing larger parts
the completion of the VDE 8 project but not so for the poor ofthe population in the CGMR to benefit from the positioning
transnational rail services for Prague or Wrocaw. Long- of hubs in the national / transnational rail network. On the
distance coach services are available at all RAILHUC hubs and local level, the reachability of main stations at the four CGMR-
will bring a growing competition to rail services in the near based RAILHUC hubs is ensured by a wide range of local
future. At regional level, frequent long-distance rail services transport means providing frequent services during the day.
ensure mutual connections between the four RAILHUC
hubs (with direct rail services on all links in the future). The available data on passenger flows in rail services
Moreover, frequent and highly synchronised regional rail underline the feeder function of regional rail services and
services develop the CGMR area and, in particular, connect the advanced positioning of all four hubs in the CGMR with
the subordinate hubs to the main RAILHUC hubs which, thus, special regard to the exploitation of demand potentials in
function as a main gateway to national and transnational rail public transport. Thesituation in other parts of the CGMR
services. With respect to their time-related reachability in the is less optimal since the exploitation of demand potentials
region, the positioning of the four RAILHUC hubs is not yet seems tobe underperformed.

Regarding the existing organisational and funding model, idea of short and long-distance services does not meet the
the positioning of the CGMR, i.e. the four RAILHUC hubs, needs of people in the CGMR and does not comply with the
is not optimal. Split-up over three federal states and seven provided rail services. The current PTP structure ensures that
transport authorities responsible for the planning and pro- all CGMR-based RAILHUC hubs refer to a PTP area provid-
curement proceedures of regional rail services, it proofs diffi- ing direct and barrier-free access (in terms of ticketing and
cult to ensure a high degree of co-ordination between all public transport integration) to a connective point with national and
bodies resulting in a benefit for the whole CGMR.Moreover, transnational rail services for more than 40 percent of the total
afinancing model for rail services reflecting anout-of-time CGMR population.

Demand potential for rail services with direct access to the RAILHUC hubs

Preliminary findings on bottlenecks include an inadequate fare system and ticketing system for both, short and long-
state of rail infrastructure, concerning transnational and distance services.
regional rail links in particular, and a lack of reliability
regarding the provison of new / upgraded rail infrastructure. Based on the profound flows and services analysis and the
There is also a lack of strategic long-term timetable concepts strategic & operational positioning of each hub CGMR was
reflecting the basic characteristics of highly synchronised developing a transport model and as a further result proposed
regular interval timetable architecture (ITF). The applied a Passenger Rail Concept for Central Germany with the
planning methodology does not comply with the requirements following 4 modules: Central German Headway (based on
resulting from a strategic long-term timetable concept (form harmonized interval timetables; Module 1), Central German
follows function). Moreover, transparancy with stakeholders Network (based on rail infrastructure schemes; Module 2),
and decision makers regarding the allocation of fundings for Central German Tariff (based on cross-border integrated
constructing and upgrading rail infrastructure projects in the tariff schemes, Module 3), Central German Cooperation
long-term Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan (BVWP) is (based on overlapping/cross-administrative competences/
missing. An inadequate organisational and financing model responsabilities, Module 4).
for rail services reflects an out-of-time idea of short and long-
distance services and hamper the provision of seamless travel
chains. Last but not least, the CGMR lacks of an area wide
governance model and a PTP model including anintegrative


KTI Institute
for Transport

Gyr hub

The different development proposals

forinstance synchronisation of the local
&regional bus and railway transport,
includingpassenger information systems
oftheEU co-funded Railhuc project can
help toimprove theurban and suburban
transport inthe City of Gyr. InRailhuc
project weare trying to adapt toourlocal
needs thebest foreign practices gained
throughtheinternational cooperation
with 11 partner cities.
Mr. Zsolt RVI
Chief Architect of the Municipality of Gyr

Gyr hub

Smoothness transfers
from bus to rail

Have you ever tried to catch a bus when your train was delayed? western corner of Hungary, in an ideal position between
If your answer is yes for the question above you might be Vienna, Budapest and Bratislava. Gyr is the sixth largest city
interested in the Railhuc project activities in Gyr where KTI in Hungary with more than 130 thousand of inhabitants, it is
Institute for Transport Sciences together with its local partners also cultural, administrative, economic and university, centre
analysed the ways to always provide the most updated to the for Western Transdanubia region in Hungary.
passengers and the operator companies in order to avoid lost
of connections.

How many times have you run to catch you connecting service
without knowing if it will wait for you? Have you ever missed 2.252
the number of public transport stops included in the model
your connection? If you have ever did it in Gyr you might

be prepared for a new kind experience regarding public
transport. On the basis of the best practices analysed within
the framework of Railhuc project from other countries all directions from where railway line leads to Gyr
of the involved parties are looking for the ways to cooperate
much efficiently in order to offer a smoothness transport
alternatives. In the followings you will know some of the facts
from the background of this improved transport operational
the number of trains leaving from Gyr
process. on an average workday

Today the area of which was once the historical core of the
Habsburgs Austrian-Hungarian Empire has started to 3
public transport company cooperate together
cooperate much more than in the last almost hundred years
of independent states and communist countries separated by ca.daily70.000people using public transport around
hardly accessible borders. The so-called Centrope area includes the hub of Gyr
Vienna area, Southern Moravia, Bratislava area. The 4th, South-
eastern member of Centrope Region is Western Transdanubia
region with its centre, Gyr hub. Gyr is located in the North-

Gyr hub has a mono-centre organization structure. Currently towards Hungary and Austria too. However most of this new
there are 2 minor railway stops, one shunting station plus traffic volume is carried by private cars and only asmall portion
one main station, which is located close to the city centre and by local buses.
also adjacent to the local and regional bus terminal. The main
station is located on the TEN-T network (Corridor No. IV), on In its current state the rail passenger transport currently has
PP22. It has rail connections in 5 directions out of which 3 lines amajor role in long distance but only limited in suburban traf-
are highly important electrified main lines. In Gyr the railway fic. The location of the main hub within the city is good; how-
and bus (both local & regional) stations are located close to ever there is a strong need for the better cooperation between
each other and within a good position to the downtown and different transport providers: harmonisation of timetables,
public administration buildings. tariff and information systems and also the general conditions
of the infrastructure should be improved with the use of the
There is a strong local freight demand from and to the industrial results of the RAILHUC project.
areas and it handles also the main transit freight traffic from
South-East Europe towards Western Europe. Despite the most Furthermore it was assessed by using transport engineering
important and continuously growing demand towards Vienna models that in a reliable connecting system the citizens are
(both local Euroregio and long-distance Railjet), there is no willing to use more the whole public transport system which
direct passenger service to Bratislava due to the not so easily means (among many other benefits) less crowd on the roads
financeable cross-border passenger service rules. The traffic and less air pollution.
demand is strong as the suburban area of Bratislava isextending

volumes of public transport (pax/day)

Gyr hub

On the other hand several legal obstacles are identified which By this method it will possible to avoid running underfinanced
makes it difficult the fully integrated public transport system. parallel train and bus services concentrating on the more efficient
According to the current financial and legal background there service only that can be competitive to private transport.
is no regional or suburban finance level for public transport
services. Local services are financed and ordered by the As a first step integrated information panels are planned to im-
Municipality while regional service are ordered and financed plement at the main stations for helping connecting passengers
by the Central Government. This means different fares for the and also operators for ensuring fast and reliable connections.
passengers not just for trains and buses but also to local buses.
The aim is to promote the integrated system on the basis of a
clear division of tasks and responsibilities and their fair finance.


14 % 12 %
12 %
10 %
4% 3% 2%
2 % Car Intra Inter Rail

4 %
4 %
Modal split difference from the current level if the Syncronised Passenger Information and Traffic Management System are implemented
(priavet cars, intra urban/local bus, inter urban/regional & suburban bus, trains).

PuT assingment difference
(Complete information Departures from stop point, pax/day)

Public Transport assingment difference with high level of information.


veneto region
& City of Venice

Veneto Region & City of Venice

Ensuring customers an efficient

integration among train, tram and bus
is a strategic goal toimprove public transport
and multimodality.
Emanuele Battiston
ACTV / Venice Public Transport Company


The RAILHUC Project, developed together by the Veneto National Context

Region and the Municipality of Venice, is trying to fully assess The hub is located in a strategic position regarding two main
the level and quality of public transport services within the international railway axis: the Fifth Pan-European Corridor
hub of Venice with a particular focus on railway transport. Mediterraneo, which connects eastern Europe to Venezia,
The final goal is to understand the major bottlenecks of the along Venezia Trieste/Koper Ljubljana Maribor
system in order to identify and design some key interventions Budapest Uzgorod Lvov (Kiev), and the north-east axis,
that should be able to address these deficiencies. These key known as the Baltic Adriatic Corridor, connecting the hub
interventions are based upon a clear future scenarios analysis of Venice to Triste/Udine and then Wien till the Baltic sea.
based on the results of the transport model. Key regional and Thisvery specific metropolitan system embraces a great area
local stakeholders have also been engaged to share and discuss with three main urban centres Venezia Padova Treviso,
all together which concrete public transport measures should with more than 2million inhabitants.
be taken.

Regional Context System-Wide Station Access
The Hub has two main rail nodes: Mestre -Venezia and Venice Due to the peculiarity of the Venice transportation system,
Santa Lucia. The former represents the main node of the hub the arrival modes at the station are reduced to the walk, by far
whereas the latter is the gateway to the city of Venice. Moreover the main mean of moving throughout the city, and the boat,
there are two very important infrastructures: the Marco Polo both provided by the public transportation services (water-
Airport, the third airport in Italy in terms of passengers, bus) and by privates (i.e. taxis and touristic shuttles for large
and the Port of Venice which has a considerable freight and groups). Indeed walk is by far the main mode for leaving or
passengers flows. getting to the station (78%), followed by water-bus (21,2%)
and water-taxi (0,1%). In terms of trip related data, within the
Venezia-Mestre Station city centre the predominance of destinations are concentrated
Station Typology and Surrounding Land Use in the east of the island City Centre. Universities areas and
Venezia-Mestre station forms the physical border between the offices districts nearby the Railway station area have a notable
southern land of Mestre and Marghera district. The Mestre- attractive capacity. This causes a significant share of passengers
side station area (i.e. 1 km distance from the station) is heading within 1 km radius distance from the station (37,6%).
mostly devoted to residential, neighbourhood retail and office
functions while the central activities district with Institutional, Venezia S.Lucia and the Venezia-Mestre stations are currently
retail, entertainment and civic uses is 2 km further north. interested by a combination of upgrading measures. Venezia
S.Lucia is going to be upgraded with a restyling of the whole
System-Wide Station Access indoor areas (the main passenger hall, the pedestrian paths and
On the typical week-day all in all 26,174 people make use the retail areas) as well as with a new set-up of the southern
of the station. It serves primarily as trip destinations: within access including a shopping-mall and new pedestrian patterns.
the morning peak-hour people leaving the station (60%) are Venezia-Mestre station is also part of a wide process ofrede-
more than people entering (40%). Venezia-Mestre station has sign that will enhance the access to the station, the pedestrian
a notable function of stopover for trains transfer passengers: circulation and the rapid public transport transferring. Thein-
almost half (46,2 %) of the passengers get to the station by vestments include a new through tram line passing in tun-
another train. Excluding the Train, Walking (32,2 %) is the nel, theredesign of bus and coaches park area, a new bicycles
most common way to arrive at the station, followed by Bus/ indoor park and the restyling of the passengers main-hall.
Coach (27,9 %) and Cars (13,2 % driving themselves and
11,8% dropped off).

Venezia-S.Lucia station
Station Typology and Surrounding Land Use
As the unique railway terminal of the city island of Venice,
Venezia S.Lucia station serves a wide-city area of 2 km radius
with 60,000 inhabitants, 52,000 employees and a touristic
magnet attracting more than 20 millions of visitors in a year. In
such a contest, the station supplies a large share of commuters
both leaving and getting to the city-centre along with tourists
both commuting (i.e. daily visitors) and accommodating
within the city-centre. All in all, the station is used by around
40.000 riders per week-day, with seasonal touristic picks
of50.000 per day.


Main results of the project In order to have numerical evidences of the level of service,
The starting point, according to the methodology developed in hence the saturation, of this complex node of the station of
WP 3, has been the gathering of data concerning railway and Venezia Mestre, a method developed by Malavasi et al. has
road traffic converging to the hub of Venice. The entire regional been applied. The method uses matrices for analyzing the
territory has been included in the multi-modal model, given conflicting itineraries in the same node.
that the focus of the project is the analysis of the long-distance
movements using different means of transport. The results of the analysis show that with the SFMR the
saturation will decrease, but it will remain high (on Ponte
The main outputs of the model are in terms of flow, vehicles Nuovo 0.69 and on Ponte Vecchio 0.89). The result has a strong
or passengers, on links and saturation of the roads. The dependency on the itinerary traveltime inside the station.
macro assignment process use a Gradient Projection User
Equilibrium algorithm for the private model, while the public In the future scenario, it is hence possible to imagine that there
one has been made through a schedule-based approach, given wont be any residual space for new services, especially if the
that there isnt a frequency scheme on the actual timesheet. will to maintain a good standard prevails.

Together with the typical assignment model, which highlights The biggest problems along the network are:
the users trends and preferences, the identification of the Single track and small trains along the line from Castelfranco
weak spots of the railway service takes into account the results Veneto to Venezia
ofthree analysis: Low level of service on the trains (packed trains) between
saturation factor along a line, Padova and Venezia
level of service on the trains Bottleneck from Venezia Mestre to Venezia Santa Lucia.
the statistical analysis of delays.

Regional trains using the hub have been surveyed along the
studied lines for more than one week. The analysis collects
information about the time when the train has passed
through a point and the delay (in minutes) compared with the
scheduled timetable.

From the national and international point of view, the AV/AC SCENARIO 3: The Marco Polo airport management company
survey made by Regione Veneto in April 2013 has pointed out has a masterplan for its development, which
that the demand for this service is widespread in the regional includes an underground station for both
area and it is often supplied by a FrecciaBianca service, which SFMR trains and HC/HS trains. The local rail
isnt properly a modern high-speed rail service. The important service should reach the airport by using a new
aspect is that the long-distance transport demand is originated/ line, diverging from the line Venezia-Trieste
destinated not only to Venezia (both Mestre and Santa Lucia), of the regional railway network at the joint
but Padova and Verona play an important role too. From this named Bivio Dese, while the HS one should
point of view, the completion of the line towards Milano, hence use a completely new line from Venezia to
Torino, is a key-step for the future. Trieste.
 The project of a rail connection between
The future scenarios taken into account for the hub are the the airport and the railway hub would bring
following: Venezia closer to European standards. In order
SCENARIO 1: In December 2013 it is going to be adopted to achieve this result, the service conceived
anew regional operational timetable and it is along the new line should assure a frequency
going to increase the number of trains during of 20 minutes or 30 minutes.
the day along all directions, even if the biggest
change is going to occur in non-peak hours. SCENARIO 4: 
The idea of the extension of the railway
The new timetable should be easily memorized network towards Trieste, hence the Slovenia
and offer a stable service during the day. national border, has been widely discussed in
the last years. The first alternative analyzed
SCENARIO 2: Specific interventions between Venezia Mestre consists on building an entirely new railway
and Venezia Santa Lucia, overcoming the lim- line among Venezia and Trieste, using a belt
ited capacity of the line; of territory close to the sea. Another option,
which seems to have more chances given the
territorial response, is the doubling of the
railway line between Venezia and Trieste.


Concerning the contribution of the Municipality of Venice, The final goal was to get a comprehensive picture of the stations
this was all devoted to the land-side accessibility of the intermodal performances that allow to:
stations making part of the Venice hub (i.e. Venezia S.Lucia a) Assess the effects on the hub accessibility of the four above-
station and Venezia Mestre station). The analysis was carried- mentioned scenarios as they come from the RailHuc
out by dimensioning and evaluating station typology and intervention design process;
surrounding land use, the intermodal facilities supplying the b) Feed the integrated system of data supporting the stations
hub, the amount of passengers making use of the station, renewal that is currently ongoing alongside the Railhuc
passengers arrival modes and their trip related data (i.e. trip actions;
origin, alighting/boarding station, purpose and reason for

the main railway lines of the hub with the new Regional Railway

assigned flows on the rail
network (source: Veneto Region
multimodal model)

affecting the Hub


Railway Company
Slovakia, joint
stock company

One region one ticket

Integrated transport system is our generational

Ing. Pavol Freo
Chairman of the Bratislava Self-Governing Region

Bratislava and ilina hubs

Integrated transport system is a functional Based on the information collected in the transport hubs
of Bratislava and ilina concerning the situation in public
connection between several operators in a par- passenger transport services, it is clear that integration of
ticular region in order to improve the quality individual transport systems is not sufficient. In order to
and attractiveness of public transport service. achieve a higher degree of integration, it is necessary to spend
substantial investments into railway and road infrastructure,
IDS will offer to passengers the opportunity to into renewal of vehicle fleets and information technologies.
travel within an integrated area with one travel Only then we can expect a drop in individual car transport.
document by all modes of transport. We would All these steps should be directed to one core objective in
regional transport and this objective is creating of a functional
like to offer to our inhabitants this most effi- integrated transport system.
cient mode of transportation through the de-
velopment of functional integrated transport The project of Bratislava integrated transport already exists but
it is still just an experiment, but nevertheless we have seen an
system in hubs Bratislava and ilina. increase in sales of pre-paid coupons from 8,618 in 2001 to
17,462 in 2010. Currently the project is from 1.6.2013 in the
first stage, when there are available only subscription tickets.
These tickets are valid for 30, 90, or 365 days.

The main problem is that the organizer of an integrated

transport is not supported by legislation. Financial resources
for its full operation not exist, and therefore operators do not
want fully enter to this system.

ilina regional integrated transport system works in full Such a system will cover the territory of Bratislava at the local,
operation. Significant added value of this system is the but also at the regional level. The area currently covers the
temporal link between the connections of public transport and whole Bratislava and districts of Senec, Pezinok, Malacky. In
rail connections of link ilina - Rajec. The problem is that the the future, we are considering to extend this system to the self-
system works only between the city by public transport and governing region of Trnava and Nitra. The system offers only
only this one rail line. subscription tickets, it is necessary to introduce a common
interchange tickets for all modes of transport. This intervention
Fully functional integrated system of integrated transport, will ensure the creation of an integrated information system
which covers all area of Bratislava hub or ilina hub does covering all modes of transport and offers a passenger
not exist currently. This system should provide an integrated comprehensive information on journey from point A to point
ticketing and must to provide comprehensive information B in the shortest time with the fewest number of transfers.
inall levels.


of Ljubljana
Urban Region

Core network Ljubljanas shot
atsustainable transport

Without good connections Europe

will not grow or prosper.
Siim Kallas
Vice-President of the European Commission,
responsible for transport

Ljubljana hub

Core network Ljubljanas shot

atsustainable transport
New transeuropean transport network TEN-T backbone of urban, regional and international
presents Ljubljana with unique opportunity to passenger and freight transport. Construction
develop its advantages as a node lying on two of Southern Railway Vienna-Ljubljana in
core corridors and connecting five different 1849 sparked growth of passenger and freight
rail lines. Supporting Connecting Europe transport, now we should focus on doing it in
Facility (CEF) is a tool for implementation and asustainable manner.
we should use it to re-establish railway as the

2 Core network corridors through Ljubljana

(Mediterranean, Baltic-Adriatic)

The strategically important geographical position of Slovenia Trieste/Koper Ljubljana Maribor Vienna/Budapest
at the intersection of multiple European corridors plays an im- and Ljubljana Obreje) rail lines Trieste/Koper Divaa
portant role in establishing international railway connections Ljubljana Budapest Zidani Most and Pragersko Maribor
and is hence an important asset of Slovenia as well as for neigh- Zalalv. The railway core node in Ljubljana also includes
bouring and other countries. a link to the Airport Joe Punik Ljubljana. This means that
all three main rail lines going to Ljubljana are part of Core
Ljubljana is an important generator of passenger and transit Network.
freight flows, as it represents the final and the initial station of
three main and two regional rail lines. It is also an important Ljubljana is not only the main intersection of international
multimodal node with direct connection to urban and and main routes but is also a start/end point for regional rail
suburban bus system. lines Kamnik Ljubljana and Ljubljana Grosuplje. It has the
highest national passenger and freight transport flows.
The previous transeuropean transport network TEN-T (before
just finished revision) included 30 priority projects in the Ljubljana as capital city and political, financial, educational
field of road, rail, maritime and river transport and Ljubljana centre attracts a lot of passenger transport from the region and
was part of priority project 6 the railway axis Lyon Trieste further. According to statistical data there were 200.799 active
Divaa/Koper Divaa Ljubljana Budapest Ukrainian workplaces in the city (municipality) of Ljubljana in 2012 and
border. 91.285 local residents working there. This means that over
100.000 employees have to come to work to Ljubljana every
In 2009, the European Commission launched a review of day. Ljubljana is therefore by far the most important passenger
policy concerning Trans-European Transport Network that station in Slovenia as it has around 20.000 boarding and
proposed the concept of the design on two levels, first being alighting passengers on an average working day. This is around
comprehensive network which includes the entire Transeuro- 20% of all rail passenger traffic on national level. Additional
pean network, and second one the Core network, the back- 4.500 passengers per day use thirteen nearby stations.
bone of the system. In November 2013, the European Parlia-
ment confirmed proposal for a transeuropean Core Network There are three main directions for international rail lines
that includes part of the Slovenian network. coming to/going out of Ljubljana. Trains going east to Zidani
Most are split there in directions Maribor/Austria (Graz)
The European Commission defined the Port of Koper, and Croatia (Zagreb). Main line Ljubljana-Jesenice (Austrian
the capital city of Ljubljana and the border point between border) is single track and currently on verge of its capacity.
neighbouring countries in Dobova/Obreje as Core Nodes. There is a problem with direction towards Italy (Trieste)
The Core TEN-T Network includes (in addition to the Port as there are currently no cross-border trains at existing
of Koper, Airport Joe Punik Ljubljana and road connections connection Seana due to technical/interoperability problems.

Ljubljana hub

This means that trains going west must detour either through There are some important challenges for the regional railroads
Gorizia or even Villach (Austria). to work well in the Ljubljana urban region in the future. The
first is better passenger rail service, with short, fixed intervals
On regional /
suburban lines Litija-Ljubljana, Kamnik at least in the peak hours. But equally important is the
Ljubljana, Kranj Ljubljana, Borovnica Ljubljana and connectedness between all modes of regional and urban public
Grosuplje Ljubljana there is also quite intense public transportation. The problem with this is that all of the 5 radial
transport, which has potential for future increase. Passenger railroads are approaching the city in the corridors parallel but
railway station Ljubljana is connected with urban, suburban quite apart from the main arterial streets with bus service.
and regional bus lines, although the coordination is at very low None of the 11 rail stops in the city of Ljubljana apart from
level. the main railway station has clear connection to the urban bus
service and only few urban bus lines pass the main railway

station. Typical distance between train stop and bus stop on To provide for synchronised timetables with short and fixed
the arterial road is 400 m on unwalkable street. All regional intervals and regional trains going diametrically through
trains currently operate with Ljubljana main station as the the city some minor infrastructure improvements should be
final destination and the timetables are not synchronised, made, that are proposed in the RailHUC project. Proposed
so the possibility of changing trains at the main station is improvements include some interventions on the main railway
not attractive either. The lack of possibilities in choosing station of Ljubljana, some improvements at other stations and
destination within the city makes it inconvenient for many a short bypass, the so called Tivoli arch, that connects Trieste
commuters to use regional rail. and Villach railroads avoiding the main station and so freeing
the station of 60 freight trains daily. Interesting trivia is, that
The opportunities to tackle these issues are additional railway the Tivoli arch existed twice in the history, but was removed
stops, regional trains going through the city, connecting twice.
diametric suburbs through main station with synchronised
timetables, enabling and promoting the use of bikes in In the view of omnipresent crisis RAILHUC project aims
connection with regional trains, improving the walkability at designing solutions that will efficiently exploit existing
around train stops and adding new or diverting existing bus infrastructure (with necessary investments and improvements)
lines. The main railway station could also be more connected to provide better level of service for passenger (block timetable,
to the municipal bus system. efficient transfers, prolonged line routes, improved journey
times) and ensure capacity for freight.


of vieNna

The Vienna Mainstation Project

The main station is a key project for Vienna

and symbolises the pivotal role of our city
inthe heart of Europe. The station is of great
importance to Vienna not only as a modern
transportation hub, but also from the point
of view of city development policy and the
economy. It represents Viennas role
as a national centre and, at the same time,
enables the development of an attractive
new district of the city.
Michael Hupl
Mayor of Vienna


Facts & Figures Vienna Main Station: With the expansion of the European Union
5 roofed platforms 10 platform edges Vienna has taken on an important role. It is
Non-Stop barrier-free
Direct transport connection through rapid transit becoming a major European transport hub
(S1, S2, S3, S5, S6, S8, S9, S15, S60, S70, S80), in the next years. By constructing a new main
underground railway U1, tramways D, O, 18, station as a through station, trains will arrive in
buses 13A, 69A and the regional bus terminal
Bicycle garage for over 1.000 bicycles the capital from all directions to destinations
New urban district: 59 hectares in all directions for the first time.
with 5.000 accomodation units
4,9 km new road network
8 ha green area / park


Danube TEN 17
Paris Strasbourg Stuttgart Vienna Bratislava
TEN 23
Gdansk Warsaw Brno Vienna Trieste/Venice Bologna
TEN 22
Athens Sofia/Constance Budapest Vienna Prague Nuremberg/Dresden


W arsaw

Dresden POLAND

Prague Kattowitz
Nuremberg Br no

Stuttgart SLOV A KIA

Paris Strasbourg Bratislava

Budapest ROMANIA


ITALY Trieste




For passengers, this means faster train connections, greater Vienna Main Station is more than a station there will be a new
convenience when travelling, because changing trains is simple district located on the land formerly occupied by the South-
and connections are optimised, as well as accessibility in line East train station. When completed, the Sonnwendviertel will
with the latest standards. The new station brings the cities of provide a new home for around 13,000 people. Situated around
Europe closer together and makes borders disappear. It will the new eight-hectare park, the modern and ecologically
be possible to travel from Salzburg to Budapest directly via sophisticated residential buildings in the Sonnwendviertel
Viennas Main Station in five hours instead of the current time promise not only relaxation and an extremely high quality of
of approximately six hours. Speedy, direct connections will life, but also excellent facilities for children and teenagers up to
also be available for local and regional transportation. From the age of 14 thanks to the new education and training campus
Eisenstadt to St. Plten or from Wiener Neustadt to Bratislava in the centre of the district.
without changing.
In December 2012 the railway station has been partially opened
The new main station is being constructed on the site between and in summer 2013 the first tenants have moved into the
the former south and east stations and Sdtiroler Platz. first new flats in the Sonnwendviertel. The final construction
The design of the new station, with its main entrance on phase has started. Construction works on the remaining parts
Sdtiroler Platz, will be light and easily accessible. Escalators of the station will continue: the northern passenger hall, six
and elevators will take travellers to a total of five platforms. more platforms, and a new shopping centre are scheduled for
There will be around 100 shops and many catering facilities completion during the next two years. In September 2014
to pass the time in an area of 20,000 square metres. Below the three months before the stations full opening - about 100 shops
station area, a garage is being constructed that will hold more on a surface of 20,000 m2 will open their doors to customers.
than 600cars, as well as three bicycle garages with around From December 2014, Vienna Central Station will equally be
1,100spaces. part of the long-distance rail network. In 2015, once the entire
project is completed, the station will be served by trains into
In the new central through station, travellers and commuters all directions.
benefit from direct and rapid connections and will be able to
change trains quickly and conveniently on the same platform.
The U1 subway line connects the main station directly to
the citys subway system and the city centre. The Vienna
Main Station will connect suburban railway trains, currently
running along the main north-south stretch, with those which
will be running continuously in the east-west direction in the
future. The extended tram line D, bus lines 13A and 69A, tram
lines O and 18, as well as regional buses will guarantee local
connections. With the construction of a track connection in
Kledering, in future it will be possible for suburban trains
coming from the west and south stations, regional trains and
long-distance trains to be directed via Vienna Main Station to
Vienna Airport.


Since time immemorial transportation has been a necessity for Generally speaking the Western European hubs are close
trade, business and the exchange of information. In the past, (Central German Metropolitan Region) or already having
travelling across Europe by riding a horse took a long time. The connection to the high-speed network (Reggio Emilia), but on
19th century brought about comfort and speed. The age of the the other hand the Czech and Slovakian hubs just started to
train began. The next century saw cars and airplanes prevailing prepare the implementation of high speed network, while the
in passenger and goods transportation. But the trains were not Slovenian and Hungarian hubs are just planning it on a longer
defeated. Since Pegasus rising from the ashes, the high speed term. On local level the different motorisation rates of the hub
train has found its place in public transport and not only in cities are also different, but not as much as in the case of the
united Europe but also the rest of the world where it has estab- train services. This means that the share of public transport is
lished a new level of quality of service. lower in most cases both in commuting and feeder traffic for
the long-distance train services, which are not always a viable
In Europe regardless of time and political interference, tradi- option at the moment for travelling between the hubs. In some
tional routes have been established, which lead across Europe, specific cases the rural accessibility problem was identified and
connecting the most important areas across borders. The Eu- suggested to be resolved with an integrated regional transport
ropean Union calls them the TEN-T axes. But its not only the network with bus backbones leading to the main intermodal
long haul transportation and travelling between hubs thats im- stations of the region (Vysoina, Western Transdanubia).
portant for European Regions. Connections between hub and
region have equal importance. While in the Czech Republic and Slovakia new connections to
national and International nodes being planned, in Germany,
And that is the core of the RAILHUC project. Its aim is to find the focus is more on developing more harmonized services
possible ways for infrastructure and service improvements on and improving the existing transport network performance
four levels local, regional, national and international. The through operational interventions as the infrastructure is al-
Railhuc partners, from 7 different Central European countries, ready in place.
individually analysed the present situation in terms of railways
and public transport services in the respective hub cities and In the southern area of the Central Europe region, for instance
surrounding regions. in Italy, the situation is somehow a mix of the previous two.
There is, in fact, a disharmonic infrastructure level so, in certain
Analytical works which have been carried out resulted in di- areas, infrastructure developments are clearly needed (e.g. in
verse proposals of interventions corresponding with the local Veneto) while in other areas the infrastructure have been al-
and regional needs. Proposed measures relate each time one of ready constructed and now the focus is on taking advantage
the following category: Public Transport Partnerships, Servic- ofthis new setting (e.g. in Reggio-Emilia).
es Projecting and Management, Infrastructure Development,
Governance, and Financing of services and infrastructure. More detailed information about the RAILHUC project as
well about the acitvities concerning the single railway hub
Despite the diversity of interventions, all the proposals aim at and resprecitve regions are awailable on the official website
the common objective of the whole RAILHUC consortium of the project From the website, you may
to foster the railway transport more viable for passengers. As download for instance the catalogue of good practices and
well, better cooperation between different transport modes is the cluster reports which contain many good examples from
supposed provided the interventions are implemented. the RAILHUC hub cities as well as selected external examples
which can be implemented in other cities and regions. Also the
According to the local needs and possibilities in each rail hub positioning and modelling activities together with its method-
city, the differences among regions and countries can be sum- ology as an example can be employed elsewhere considering
marised as follows: the local conditions in order to identify areas of interventions
for attracting more passengers for public transport especially
railway services.

RAILHUC Concept for effective integration of railway hubs into TEN-T, regional and local transport systems

Publisher: KORDIS JMK, a.s.

Nov sady 30, 602 00 BRNO, Czech Republic

Graphic design: AO Agency, s.r.o.

Project Lead partner: Emilia-Romagna Region

General Directorate Infrastructural Networks, Logistics and Mobility Systems
Viale Aldo Moro, 30
40127 Bologna

Authors: Emilia Romagna Region

KORDIS JMK Kvtoslav Havlk, Vojtch Elstner, Tom Hladk
Vysoina Region Lenka Matoukov, Vclav Zikn
Central German Metropolitan Region
German Association for Housing, Urban and Spatial Development
KTI Institute for Transport Sciences Vilmos Oszter
City of Venice
Veneto Region
Railway Company Slovakia
Regional development agency of Ljubljana urban region
City of Vienna, Municipal Department 18

Photos: Collaborators of the Railhuc consortium except as stated otherwise.

Page Authors
Cover: 1. AO Agency, s.r.o., 2. Vilmos Oszter, 3. Vojtch Elstner, 4. Kvtoslav Havlk
23 AO Agency, s.r.o.
5 1.+3. Kvtoslav Havlk, 2. Vojtch Elstner,
611 Emilia Romagna Region
20 Martin Hark
21 1.+2. Vclav Zikn, 3. Martin Hark
24 Jrn Bergmann
3237 Vilmos Oszter
3845 Kvtoslav Havlk, Vojtch Elstner, Tom Hladk
4649 ZSSK
5055 Ante Kleina
5659 City of Vienna / BB
60 AO Agency, s.r.o.

ISBN 978-80-260-6662-0

The Railhuc project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF.

ISBN 978-80-260-6662-0