Determination of Density

© All Rights Reserved

10 tayangan

Determination of Density

© All Rights Reserved

- INTERPRETATION AND RELIABILITY OF LABORATORY TESTS MEASURING POROSITY, PORE COMPRESSIBILITY, AND VELOCITY ON UNCONSOLIDATED DEEP OFFSHORE RESERVOIRS
- cal Dairy Chemistry.manual
- Reservoir Rock Properties
- API 1104 e21_A2 May 2016
- SAP IS-OIL Silos Management
- Dual Water Model
- Aviation Fuel Quality Control Procedure_ASTM_JIM Gammon
- ASTM D2434.pdf
- Reservoir Rock
- 1st test science 2018.docx
- BGAS MATH.pdf
- John Giorgi-Math for Wastewater Treatment Operators Grades 1 & 2_ Practice Problems to Prepare for Wastewater Treatment Operator Certification Exams-American Waterworks Association (2009)
- Mete18 Pmv.doc
- A Treatise on Hydrostatics.jagjit Singh
- 2
- (ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001411
- 90_Recycling of Rubble From Building Demolition for Low-shrinkage Concretes
- 9789048126835-c2qwe
- Ch8_AngSanto_Densityofbeverages
- Tortuasity by Diffusion

Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Displacement Method

Jc Malenab Ancheta between particles within the bulk sample. While the

Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials second type is the bulk density where the volume

Engineering, College of Engineering includes total volume of the closed pore, open pore,

University of the Philippines Diliman and solid material. The third type, which was

Quezon City, Philippines determined in the experiment, is the apparent density

where the volume of the solid material and closed

Abstract- The main objective of the experiment is to pore are measured (Totten,G., Funatani, K., Xie,L,

determine the density of a 10% v/v acetic acid and an ore 2004).

sample using displacement method and pycnometry. The

density of the solid was determined first using the Density Determination is important in many

displacement volume of water in the graduated cylinder

industries. In agriculture, the density of grains, feeds,

and its preweighed mass. The other method was using the

fertilizer and soil samples are measured. In the

pycnometer where it uses water as working liquid and

displaced volume water when poured in apparatus will be pharmaceutical industry, density measurements are

used to calculate for its density. The calibrated volume is correlated with solubility rates of powders and

24.94 1.23 ml and the measured density acetic acid is tablets. In powder metallurgy, it permits distinction

1.0103 0.00001 with a 3.78 % error. While the density of between different materials as well as determination

the solid using the analytical balance and using the of inaccessible porosity of powder or a finished P/M

pycnometer was 4.98 6.10 g/ml and 3.22541.6940 g/ml part (Angelo; Subramanian,2008). Density can

respective. These data cant be compared and Its accuracy

influence mechanical strength, hardness,

cant be validated because of the unknown theoretical

density of the solid. The experiment is said to be a success electrical conductivity and magnetic and gas

since the densities were determined. permeability of PM compacts.

like Float-sink Method and microscopic

Density is a physical property of matter. It can be

examinations. In their experiment, Bateni et al.,

measured without changing the chemical identity of

they used In Situ X-ray radiography to porous

the substance. Density values which are unique in

pure substances can help identify that substance. The

samples and a relationship has been found

density of an object is the ratio of mass to volume: between the density of the radiographic film and

the surface density of the compacts (2011).

= (1) In the first part of the experiment, the

density of an ore sample was determined by

The units are usually expressed in g/cm3 for solids, measuring its mass using an analytical balance and

g/ml for liquids, and g/L for gases. (Boljanovic, volume displaced with the graduated cylinder which

2007). is called the displacement method.

Many materials have within their structures The next two parts are the density measurement of a

are pores made up of cracks, and crevices which liquid sample and of a particulate solid using a device

leads to three different kinds of density, each called pycnometer. The method uses distilled water

requiring different techniques for measurement. The for which temperature dependent values of density

first type is the true density where the volume H2O are shown in Table 1. The pycnometer is a glass

measured excludes the pores as well the void spaces flask with a close-fitting ground glass stopper with a

Page 1 of 8

capillary hole through it so that air bubbles may pycnometer with the sample. Water will be added and

escape from the apparatus. This enables given the its mass can be obtained.

volume of working liquid to be measured precisely.

(Kucerka, 2006). The density of the solid is given by:

= V (6)

between the volume of the added water in the

pycnometer with solid, 2 , and the calibrated

volume of the pycnometer, , which was

computed earlier in eq. 2.

V = = (7)

2

with distilled water. Basing from eq. 1, the volume of

the water filling the pycnometer can be written as:

Incorporating equation 7 to 8 we get:

2

V= (2)

2

= 2 (8)

2

The mass of the water can be determined by

subtracting the mass of the empty pycnometer to the The main objective of the experiment is to determine

mass of pycnometer filled with water. density of a liquid and non-soluble particulate

powder and to demonstrate the proper use of

To identify the unknown density of a liquid, which in

pycnometer.

this experiment is Acetic Acid, CH3COOH, the same

procedure will be repeated where the mass of the

liquid after filling the pycnometer will be the one that

is weighed. II. Methodology

Vl = (3) The first part of the experiment was the

determination of the density of a 5-gram Baguio ore

sample using the analytical balance. A 50ml

Equation 3 shows the volume of the liquid with

graduated cylinder was first filled with distilled water

unknown density and this volume obtained is just

up to the 30 ml mark before pouring the ore sample.

equal to the volume of water in eq. 2.

The sample was carefully transferred to avoid spilling

outside the cylinder. The final volume of the pulp

Combining Equations 2 and 3

was then recorded and the density of the material was

2 calculated using equation 1. Three trials were

(4)

2 =

performed.

Isolating the density of liquid gives The second part is the density measurement of a

liquid in the pycnometer. The pycnometer was first

= x 2 (5) preheated to 105 C in the oven for one hour and was

2

cooled in a dessicator before weighing in the

The pycnometer will also be used in determining the analytical balance. To calibrate, distilled water was

density of an ore sample by measuring the weight of used to fill the pycnometer up to the neck. The

capillary tube was then inserted and was made sure

Page 2 of 8

that no air bubble is trapped inside. Subsequently, the Table 3.Calibration Volume of Pycnometer

exterior of the was washed with ethanol and wiped Trial Mass of Density of Calibration

with lint-free tissue. The pycnometer was weighed water (g) water at 29 volume (ml)

when it was completely dry. The calibration volume C (g/ml)

1 24.8678 0.995943 24.9690.710

was computed using eq. 2.

2 24.8186 0.995943 24.9200.710

The steps were repeated but 10% v/v acetic acid was

3 24.8293 0.995943 24.9300.710

used to fill the pycnometer. The density of liquid was

calculated using eq. 5.

The average calibration volume is 24.94 1.23 ml

The last part was the density determination of the ore and has 0.24% error from the theoretical volume of

sample. The dry pycnometer was weighed before the 25 ml. The calibration step is important because this

non-soluble particulate sample was poured to fill value can be used to determine the density of the

about 1/3 of its volume. It was weighed again before liquid and solid. The occupied volume of the tested

filling it up with distilled water up to the neck. The liquid in the pycnometer is just the same as the

capillary tube was inserted and bubbles trapped calibration volume, therefore we can manipulate the

inside was avoided. The exterior was washed with formula to calculate for its density. And the distilled

ethanol and the final weight was recorded. Equation 8 water was used as the working liquid because it is

will be used to calculated for the density of the solid. accessible and its density at different temperature

values is well-known.

III. Results and Discussion

Table 4. Density of Acetic Acid

The calculated density of solid using the

Trial Temp Mass of Mass of Density of

displacement method on three trials are shown on (C) water CH3COOH CH3COOH

Table 2. (g) (g) (g/ml)

0.000006

Table 2. Density of Solid using Displacement Method 1 29 24.8678 25.2308 1.0081

Trial Mass of Initial Final

Solid (g) volume Volume Density 2 29 24.8186 25.2641 1.0115

0.1 mg 0.5 ml 0.5ml g/ml

1 4.933 30 31 4.93.49 3 29 24.8293 25.2662 1.0111

2 4.9982 30 31 5.03.53

3 4.9996 30 31 5.03.54 Table 4 shows the experimental density of the acetic

acid. It has a mean density of 1.0103 0.00001 g/ml

and a standard deviation of 0.001831. The mean

The density values have an average of 4.98 6.10

experimental density has a 3.78 % error from the

g/ml and standard deviation of 0.03805.

theoretical density of 1.05 g/ml.

The mean value has a high uncertainty. The error can On the determination of the density of solid

be attributed to the mass of sample poured in the using pynometer, the following data was tabulated in

graduated cylinder, since the amount was small, the Table 5.

change in volume or the displacement was also small

Table 5. Density Measurement of Solid using

which cant be measured by the scaling of the Pycnometer

graduated cylinder accurately. Another error maybe Temp Mass of Mass of Density of

in the reading of the measurement. Trial (C) solid water (g) solid (g/ml)

0.1 mg 0.1 mg

The next part was the calibration and the volume of 1 29 8.2049 22.30508 3.22541.6940

pycnometer as shown on Table 3.

We cannot compare which of the two methods is

more accurate since the theoretical density of the

solid is unkown.

Page 3 of 8

The data from the other groups was compared as IV. Conclusions and Recommendations

shown in Tables 6-8.

Table 6. density solid using displacement method from the theoretical value of 25 ml, therefore we can

Density (g/ml) Stddev say that the calibration was properly handled. The

group 1 4.98 1.131541 density of acetic acid is density 1.0103 0.00001 g/ml

and has 2.78% error. While the density of the solid

group2 3.43

using pycnometry and displacement method are

group 3 2.78 3.22541.6940 and 4.98 6.10, respectively. The

accuracy of the density measurements of the ore

sample and the validity of methods cant be

Table 7. density solid using pycnometer

determined because of the unknown theoretical density

Density (g/ml) Stddev of the solid.

group 1 3.23 0.52148

Basing on the uncertainty budgets (see

group2 2.49

appendix), the volume gives the highest contribution

group 3 2.79

of uncertainty which leads to inaccurate results. For

future experiments, it is recommended to use more

accurate apparatus to measure the volume and to

Table 8. density liquid using pycnometer

know the theoretical density of the ore sample.

Density (g/ml) Stddev

group 1 1.0103 0.004935 The experiment is a success since the

group2 1.0033 density of the liquid and solid was determined using

group 3 1.0173 pycnometry and displacement method.

measurements using the displacement method.

handling and weighing of the pycnometer. Constant

weighing of pycnometer was not done therefore the

mass of the pycnometer weighed may not be the real

mass. Another error is that the pycnometer was not

completely dried out before filing it up with water or

with the liquid, this extra moist can add to the

recorded mass of the sample.

One major source error is the failure to completely

eliminate the entrapped air in the pycnometer making

the recorded mass to be inaccurate.

Page 4 of 8

V. References

Boljanovic, Vukota. (2007). Applied Mathematical and Physical Formulas - Pocket Reference. Industrial Press.

http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpAMPFPR01/applied-mathematical/applied-mathematical accessed

(accesed October 10,2015).

http://novyweb.fpharm.uniba.sk/fileadmin/user_upload/english/Fyzika/Density_determination_by_pycno

meter.pdf (accessed October 7, 2015)

Totten, George, Kiyoshi Funatani, Lin Xie. (2004) Handbook of Metallurgical Process Design. (CRC Press). pp.373-

734

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=3zjfgq8pUvcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb#v=onepag

e&q&f=false (accessed October 4, 2015).

Angelo P., and R.Subramanian. (2008) POWDER METALLURGY: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS.

PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., pp. 79-81

D854-92e1 Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soils, AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND

MATERIALS (1997)

(accessed October 9, 2015).

Bateni,A; N. Parvin and M. Ahmadi. (2011)Density evaluation of powder metallurgy compacts using in situ X-ray

radiography.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/233545357_Density_evaluation_of_powder_metall

urgy_compacts_using_in_situ_X-ray_radiography. (accessed October 10, 2015).

Page 5 of 8

VI. Appendix

Source Value sensitivity, ci ui ciui fraction (ciui)2

mass 4.933 1 0.0001 0.0001 0.002027123 0.00000001

final volume 31 -4.933 0.5 2.4665 49.99898644 6.08362225

initial volume 30 4.933 0.5 2.4665 49.99898644 6.08362225

calibration factor 1 4.933 0 0 0 0

Summation 4.9331 12.1672445

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 3.488158

Source value sensitivity, ci ui ciui fraction (ciui)2

mass 4.9982 1 0.0001 0.0001 0.00200068 0.00000001

final volume 31 -4.9982 0.5 2.4991 49.99899966 6.24550081

initial volume 30 4.9982 0.5 2.4991 49.99899966 6.24550081

calibration factor 1 4.9982 0 0 0 0

summation 4.9983 12.4910016

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 3.534261

Source value sensitivity, ci ui ciui fraction uici^2

mass 4.9996 1 0.0001 0.0001 0.00200012 0.00000001

final volume 31 -4.9996 0.5 2.4998 49.99899994 6.24900004

initial volume 30 4.9996 0.5 2.4998 49.99899994 6.24900004

calibration factor 1 4.9996 0 0 0 0

summation 4.9997 12.4980001

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 3.535251

B. Calibration of Volume

Source value ci ui ciui fraction ciui^2

mass of pyc 21.1965 -1.004073526 0.5 0.502036763 50 0.252040912

Mass of pyc + water (W) 46.0643 1.004073526 0.5 0.502036763 50 0.252040912

density of water at T 0.995943 -25.07081192 0 0 0

Summation 1.00407352 0.0504081823

Page 6 of 8

Uncertainty of volume = ( 2 ) = 0.709987

Source value ci ui ciui fraction ciui^2

mass of pyc 21.1965 -1.004073526 0.5 0.502036763 50 0.252040912

Mass of pyc + water (W) 46.0151 1.004073526 0.5 0.502036763 50 0.252040912

density of water at T 0.995943 -25.02121027 0 0 0

Summation 1.004073526 0.504081823

Uncertainty of volume = ( 2 ) = 0.709987

Source value ci ui ciui fraction ciui^2

mass of pyc 21.1965 -1.004073526 0.5 0.502036763 50 0.252040912

Mass of pyc + water (W) 46.0258 1.004073526 0.5 0.502036763 50 0.252040912

density of water at T 0.995943 -25.03199762 0 0 0

Summation 1.004073526 0.504081823

Uncertainty of volume = ( 2 ) = 0.709987

Uncertainty Budget

Trial 1

Source value ci ui ciui fraction ciui^2

mass of pyc 21.1965 0.000583 0.0001 5.83266E-08 0.719358879 3.40199E-15

Mass of pyc + water 46.0643 -0.04054 0.0001 4.05407E-06 50 1.64354E-11

(W)

Mass of pyc + 46.4273 0.039957 0.0001 3.99574E-06 49.28064112 1.59659E-11

CH3COOH(S)

density of water at T 0.995943 1.012264 0 0 0

calibration factor 0.9977 1.010481 0 0 0 0

Summation 8.10813E-06 3.24048E-11

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 0.709987

Source value ci ui ciui fraction ciui^2

mass of pyc 21.1965 0.000719 0.0001 7.18667E-08 0.88168587 5.16482E-15

Mass of pyc + water 46.0151 -0.04076 0.0001 4.07553E-06 50 1.66099E-11

(W)

Mass of pyc + 46.4606 0.040037 0.0001 4.00366E-06 49.11831413 1.60293E-11

CH3COOH(S)

density of water at T 0.995943 1.015609 0 0 0 0

calibration factor 0.9977 1.01382 0 0 0 0

Page 7 of 8

Summation 8.15105E-06 3.26444E-11

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 0.709987

Source value ci ui ciui fraction ciui^2

mass of pyc 21.1965 0.000704 0.0001 7.04186E-08 0.864593805 4.95878E-15

Mass of pyc + water 46.0258 -0.04072 0.0001 4.07235E-06 50 1.65841E-11

(W)

Mass of pyc + 46.4627 0.040019 0.0001 4.00193E-06 49.13540619 1.60155E-11

CH3COOH(S)

density of water at T 0.995943 1.015256 0 0 0 0

calibration factor 0.9977 1.013468 0 0 0 0

Summation 8.14471E-06 3.26045E-11

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 0.709987

Mass of solid 8.2049 0.393111601 0.5 0.196555801 0.038634183 8.232525004

mass of water 22.30508 1.262814316 0.5 0.631407158 0.398674999 26.44579912

calibrated 24.93975 -1.267958424 1.23 1.559588861 2.432317416 65.32167588

volume

density of water 0.9959 -28.05290013 0 0 0 0

Summation 2.38755182 2.869626598

Uncertainty of density = ( 2 ) = 1.693997

Page 8 of 8

- INTERPRETATION AND RELIABILITY OF LABORATORY TESTS MEASURING POROSITY, PORE COMPRESSIBILITY, AND VELOCITY ON UNCONSOLIDATED DEEP OFFSHORE RESERVOIRSDiunggah olehari_si
- cal Dairy Chemistry.manualDiunggah olehkrish_any
- Reservoir Rock PropertiesDiunggah olehiscribdusername
- API 1104 e21_A2 May 2016Diunggah oleharcadiosco
- SAP IS-OIL Silos ManagementDiunggah olehIsaac Andrade
- Dual Water ModelDiunggah olehpahlawankemaleman
- Aviation Fuel Quality Control Procedure_ASTM_JIM GammonDiunggah olehGOPALJI SINGH
- ASTM D2434.pdfDiunggah olehRoy Franco Velasco
- Reservoir RockDiunggah olehMayang Bunga
- 1st test science 2018.docxDiunggah olehAthirahSulaiman
- BGAS MATH.pdfDiunggah olehAhmad Desouky
- John Giorgi-Math for Wastewater Treatment Operators Grades 1 & 2_ Practice Problems to Prepare for Wastewater Treatment Operator Certification Exams-American Waterworks Association (2009)Diunggah olehGiurcanas Andrei
- Mete18 Pmv.docDiunggah olehOliver Tabell
- A Treatise on Hydrostatics.jagjit SinghDiunggah olehcolordiamonds
- 2Diunggah olehPhạm Miều
- (ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001411Diunggah olehTanvirH.Chowdhury
- 90_Recycling of Rubble From Building Demolition for Low-shrinkage ConcretesDiunggah olehjcaldanab
- 9789048126835-c2qweDiunggah olehEmilioToapanta
- Ch8_AngSanto_DensityofbeveragesDiunggah olehSAMANTHA ANG SANTO
- Tortuasity by DiffusionDiunggah olehShamsUlislam
- 2.Aggregate 15marchDiunggah olehAneesa Jalil
- 8-1 maya ben k ben l julia liquid volume labDiunggah olehapi-384205703
- liquid volumeDiunggah olehapi-384346623
- NCRD2011 Presentation KolioDiunggah olehriku_lindholm
- Multi-Scale Soft Modeling Approach to Prediction of Rock Density. Step I: Mathematical Modeling of Natural Density on Specimen Scale Using Gene Expression ProgrammingDiunggah olehMostafa Asefi
- Basic Principles of Food Process EngineeringDiunggah olehShalehin Islam
- Res IP SM in Amethyst ValleyDiunggah olehSlamet Subiono
- 223_9238life0903_1532_1537.pdfDiunggah olehSandeeGuinguing
- 1_7Diunggah olehIda Timbol
- 224-235_Fire Protection OptionsDiunggah olehgifanta

- UV-Vis Exercise 1 - Food Dye AnalysisTeacher resource pack_ENGLISH.pdfDiunggah olehKizzy Anne Boatswain Carbon
- solid-CHM103-inter.pdfDiunggah olehSirawit Tachachaikulsiri
- Chiller optimisationDiunggah olehJonathan Wu
- IRC_Indian Highways Sep-2017_Habal and Singh.pdfDiunggah olehAyyanna Habal
- Enthalpy change of reaction between Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) using Coffee-cup CalorimetryDiunggah olehValentin-AngeloUzunov
- SCIENCE FORM 3 CHAPTER 6.5Diunggah olehPei Sing
- CSM-RE4040-BE-LDiunggah olehdalton2003
- Ventura Obesity 2010-Sugary BeveragesDiunggah olehGumilang Prakarsa
- Geotechnical InvestigationDiunggah olehDeepak Kumar Mallick
- BS en ISO 5817 2014 Welding. Fusion-welded Joints (Beam Welding Excluded) - Quality Levels for Imperfections Ref OnlyDiunggah olehshaggeruk
- SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KAOLINITE COATED WITH CU-OXIDE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE REMOVAL OF AQUEOUS MERCURY(II) IONS: PART IIDiunggah olehPremier Publishers
- 760dDiunggah olehsanvae123
- Virtual Screening and Evaluation of Ketol-Acid Reducto-Isomerase (KARI) as a Putative Drug Target for Aspergillosis.Diunggah olehVivek Morya
- Krones Vario CleanDiunggah olehcarherji1473
- ch6_Mechanical_pro_of_Metals.pptDiunggah olehSary Kilany
- ETP Operation ManualDiunggah olehM112
- StudyofResidualStressesandDistortionsafterSteelQuenchingwithVegetableOilsDiunggah olehEnriqe Puentes
- Moving normal ShockwaveDiunggah olehWaqas Shamraiz
- Qualitative RA LPGDiunggah olehDrGyenes Zsuzsanna
- Fixed Prosthodontics Provisional Materials: Making the Right Selection.Diunggah olehveloso.rossana
- NaeemDiunggah olehNAEEM MALIK
- MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM DESIGN by Kathleen Sales, Pia Libutan, Gem Cabanos & Pau PantonDiunggah olehKathleen Sales
- ANSI- ARI 430-99Diunggah olehAhsan Javed
- Experiment 3 What is in the Food You EatDiunggah olehDimitri Kandilas
- SAB Oil 1Diunggah olehMahmoud Mohamed
- SSC-CGL-Pre-Mock-3Diunggah olehAnonymous 1b3ih8zg9
- 42506a-INOA-080204-AN-FINALDiunggah olehMocanu Romeo-Cristian
- Intermediate PhasesDiunggah olehTommy Harza
- new vessel.docxDiunggah olehTri Agung
- T-xy Diagram for PEDDiunggah olehTehMarian