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FiberglassComponentsTF

Composites101
SteveRoberts
SouthernCompany

GalenFechtWeiChungLin JanosToth
RSTechnologiesMacleanPowerTransmissionInnovations
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FRPHistory1
DevelopmentofGlassFibreReinforced
PolymerCompositesstartedinthe1940
drivenbymainlymilitarypurposes.
In1942theU.S.Navyreplacedallelectrical
terminalboardswithfiberglassmelamine
compositeboards.
In1944thefirstairplanewithaGFRPfuselage
flownattheWrightPattersonAirForceBase.
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FRPHistory2
Polymerindustriesgrewrapidlyandtried
expandingtheirmarketusingplasticstomore
applications.Thearrivalofnew,lightweight
polymersofferedsolutionsformanydifferent
usesofferedopportunitiesincreasing
mechanicalpropertiesofplastics.
Extremelyhightheoreticalstrengthmaterials
forexampleglass werediscoveredfor
widespreaduse.
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FRPHistory3
Thefirstcompositepoleusedasa
transmissionstructurewasinstalledonthe
HawaiianislandofMauiintheearly1960s.
Thepolesweremadeoffiberglassand
replacedwoodandsteelpoles.
Thesefirstgenerationfiberreinforcedpoles
lastedabout45years.
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CurrentUse
Today,utilitiesallovertheworldareusingFRP
poles,crossarmsandothercomposite
materialsasstructuralcomponents.
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Whatisacomposite?
AccordingtoWebstersDictionary,a
compositeis:asolidmaterialwhichis
composedoftwoormoresubstanceshaving
differentphysicalcharacteristicsandinwhich
eachsubstanceretainsitsidentitywhile
contributingdesirablepropertiestothe
whole.Adobe,withmudandstraw,isan
exampleofasimplewidelyusedcomposite.
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WhatisFiberReinforcedPolymer
Composite?
Materialmadeofpolymerresinandfiber
reinforcement

Othercomponents:
1. Fillers
2. Ultra Violet (UV) inhibitors
3. Coatings
4. Other Additives
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FiberMaterials
GlassFiber(Eglass,SGlass,etc.)
CarbonFiber
BasaltFiber
AramidFiber(i.e.Kevlar)
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GlassFiber
ForTransmissionandDistributionStructures
Eglassisused
E glassdensity2.57
Ultimatetensilestrength3450MPa =500380psi
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ReasonsEGlassisUsedForT&D
Highproductionrates
Highstrength
Highstiffness
Relativelylowdensity
Nonflammable
Resistanttoheat
Goodchemicalresistance
Relativelyinsensitivetomoisture
Abletomaintainstrengthpropertiesoverawiderangeofconditions
Goodelectricalinsulation
Lowcostrelativetootherfiber options
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FiberTypes
Shortandlongfibers
Choppedstrand
Rovings
Wovenmats
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ResinSystems
Themostcommonlyusedresinsare
polyesters,epoxies,vinylesters,and
polyurethanes.
Vinylesterandpolyurethanearethetworesin
systemsthatarebeingusedforfibre
reinforcedpolymertransmissionand
distributionlinestructures.
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ResinSystems
Resinsaremajorpartoffibrereinforced
compositematerials.Dependingupon
requirements30to70%ofthevolumeofa
compositecouldberesin.
Therearetwomajorclassesofresins:
1.Thermoplastics
2.Thermosets
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ThermoplasticResin
Thermoplasticorthermosofteningresinisa
polymerthatremainssolidatroom
temperature,itsoftensandmeltsathigher
temperatureandbecomepliableor
mouldableandsolidifiesasbeingcooled
down.
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ThermosetResin
Thermosettingresinorbyothernamethermosetwillcure
permanentlybyirreversiblecrosslinking.
Oncehardenedathermosetresincannotbereheatedand
meltedtobeshapeddifferently.Thischaracteristicmakesthe
thermosetresincompositesverydesirableforstructural
applications.
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ThermosetVinylEster
ResinSystem
VinylEster,orVinylester,isaresinproduced
bytheprocesscalledesterificationofan
epoxyresinwithanunsaturated
monocarboxylicacid.
Acompositeproductcontainingavinylester
resincanwithstandhightoughnessdemand
andofferexcellentcorrosionresistance.
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ThermosetPolyurethaneResin
Systems
Workingwithpolyurethanesystemrequires
significantlybettercontrolofthe
manufacturingprocess.
Theresultingproducthassuperiorproperties
andmakesitpossiblecreatinglightdurable
andstiffstructuralcomponentsfor
transmissionlineapplications.
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Fillers
Fillersintheresincanchangeviscosity
(thickeningtheresin)andchangethefinal
propertiesofthematerialmatrixsuchas
abrasiveresistance,color,density,
machinability,smoothnessandstrength.
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Additives
Therearethreegroupsofadditives.
1. Catalysts, promoters and inhibitors
2. Pigments
3. Releasing agents

Theirnamesverymuchdescribetheirroles.
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Inhibitors:UVLightInhibitors
Ultraviolet(UV)lightinhibitorsareusedin
fibrereinforcedpolymerapplicationsto
preventandimpededegradationofmaterial
causedbyUVrays.Theycouldbepartofthe
resinorcouldbeappliedasseparatecoating.
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Inhibitor:FireRetardant
Fireretardantsareadditivesthatisaddedto
theresinimprovingitsresiliencyagainstfire
andhightemperature.Forexample,Antimony
Trioxideisoneofthemostwidelyusedflame
retardants.
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ManufacturingProcessesforFRP
Components
Pultrusion
Filamentwinding
Bladdermoulding
Compressionmolding
Vacuummolding
Mandrelwrapping
Wetlayup
Choppergun
Resininfusionresintransfermolding (RTM)
Vacuumassistedresintransfermolding (VARTM)
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Pultrusion
Constantdiameter
Cuttolength(canbespliced)
Longitudinal/axialfiberplacement
Continuousstrandmat
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FilamentWinding
Tapered
Setlength singlepieceormodular(canbestackable)
Circumferentialrovingwraps
Longitudinal/axialfiberplacement
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CostingforFRPComponents
Materialcostcanbeequaltoorgreaterthan
traditionalmaterials
FRPcharacteristicsenablelowerinstalled
costs
Duetolongservicelifeandlowmaintenance
requirements,lifecyclecostingisthelowest
withFRPcomponents
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LifeCycleCostComparison
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CostingEvaluationforFRP
Components
Inwhatapplicationsismytraditionalgrid
infrastructurenotachievingfullservicelife?
Whatinstallationshaveahighercost?
UsinghighperformanceFRPcomponents
lowercostsvirtuallyimmediately
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EnvironmentalBenefits
Inertcompositematerialwillnotleachharmfulchemicals
Nosoilremediationordisposalcosts
Nopreservativetreatmentsrequired
Safeinstallationinenvironmentallysensitiveareas
Recyclable,upcyclable ordisposalinlandfill
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FirePerformance
FRPcompositematerialsareselfextinguishingand
donotsupportcombustion
Ifaconstantflameisheldonthesurfacetherewill
besomecharringandmaterialloss
Commonly,anystrengthlossisstillwithinthe5%LEL
publishedvalues
Fireretardantadditivescanfurtherimprovefire
performance
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StrengthCharacteristics
Highestspecificstrengthofanypolematerial
Highelasticstrainenergyabsorption
Cantypicallyachieve23xdesignloadandremainin
linearelasticrangewithoutcatastrophicfailure
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ComparisonofFRPStructures
230 kV H-Frame Structure Component Weights

Steel Concrete Wood FRP


Poles,(80ft H1), lbs 4800 25400 10800 2500
Crossarm (40ft),lbs 1200 6500 600 400
CrossBraces(20 ft),lbs 2200 11000 400 160
Total,lbs 8200 42900 11800 3060
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StrengthEquivalency
Manyengineeredmaterialsarecomparedtowoodpole
equivalents(WPE)
BasedonANSIO5.1loadings
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ServiceabilityEquivalency
Stiffnessratioofcompositecomponentscanbeless
thantraditionalmaterials
Considerationneedstobegiventodeflection
ASCEhasdevelopedwoodpoledeflectiontablesasa
deflectionreference
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FRPCrossArms1

Typical Tangent Cross Arm

4 Phase Double Sided Dead End


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FRPCrossArmwithBracing
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FiberglassProducts Brackets
EquipmentMounts
HoldsupequipmentlikeArresters,cutouts,postinsulators,and
terminations
0and15degree
1,2,and3phase

Single,double,andtripleear
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FiberglassProducts Brackets
Pintype
Holdspininsulators,usedfor
armlessconstruction
15degreeandridgepins
1,2and3phase
Verticalandhorizontalthreadsinplastisol,nylon,orleadthread
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FiberglassProducts Brackets
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FRPCrossArmsforHFrames
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FRPCrossArmsforHframes
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FullFRPHframe
FRP Cross Arm
FRP Cross Bracing
FRP Pole
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FRPDistributionStructure
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FRPSwitchingStructure
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FRPAnchors
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FRPAnchors
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FRPGrillageFoundation
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FRPLatticeStructures
More designs in development
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FRPSheetPiles
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ModularPoles
Standardsizedmodulesareusedto
createcustomlengthandstrength
poles
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ModularPoles
Atadiscreetlength,differentpolediametersresult
indifferentstrengthpoles
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ModularPoles
Wallthicknessvariationsfurtheroptimizepoleson
astrengthandcostbasis
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DistributionPoles
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TransmissionPoles
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Questions?
SteveRoberts
SouthernCompany
SERobert@SouthernCo.com

GalenFecht WeiChungLin JanosToth


RSTechnologiesMacleanPowerTransmissionInnovations
Galen@RSpoles.com WLin@MacleanPower.com Janos@TIFRP.com