Anda di halaman 1dari 49

17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program,[4] created by
Microsoft PowerPoint
Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin[4] at a software company
named Forethought, Inc.[4] It was released on April 20, 1987,[5]
initially for Macintosh computers only.[4] Microsoft acquired
PowerPoint for $14 million three months after it appeared.[6] This
was Microsoft's first significant acquisition,[7] and Microsoft set
up a new business unit for PowerPoint in Silicon Valley where
Forethought had been located.[7]

PowerPoint became a component of the Microsoft Office suite,


first offered in 1989 for Macintosh[8] and in 1990 for Windows,[9]
which bundled several Microsoft apps. Beginning with PowerPoint
4.0 (1994), PowerPoint was integrated into Microsoft Office
development, and adopted shared common components and a
converged user interface.[10] Developer(s) Microsoft
Initial release May 22, 1990
PowerPoint's market share was very small at first, prior to
introducing a version for Microsoft Windows, but grew rapidly
Stable release 1707 (Build 8326.2062) /
with the growth of Windows and of Office.[11](pp402404) Since the
July 31, 2017[1]
late 1990s, PowerPoint's worldwide market share of presentation Operating system Microsoft Windows
software has been estimated at 95 percent.[12] Available in 102 languages[2]

PowerPoint was originally designed to provide visuals for group List of languages
presentations within business organizations, but has come to be Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian,
very widely used in many other communication situations, both in Assamese, Azerbaijani (Latin), Bangla
business and beyond.[13] The impact of this much wider use of (Bangladesh), Bangla (Bengali India), Basque
PowerPoint has been experienced as a powerful change (Basque), Belarusian, Bosnian (Latin), Bulgarian,
throughout society,[14] with strong reactions including advice that Catalan, Chinese (Simplified), Chinese
it should be used less,[15] should be used differently,[16] or should (Traditional), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dari,
be used better.[17] Dutch, English, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French,
Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Gujarati,
The first PowerPoint version (Macintosh 1987) was used to
Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Igbo,
produce overhead transparencies,[18] the second (Macintosh 1988,
Indonesian, Irish, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Italian,
Windows 1990) could also produce color 35mm slides.[18] The
Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Khmer,
third version (Windows and Macintosh 1992) introduced video
Kinyarwanda, KiSwahili, Konkani, Korean, Kyrgyz,
output of virtual slideshows to digital projectors, which would
Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Macedonian
over time completely replace physical transparencies and
(FYROMacedonia), Malay (Latin), Malayalam,
slides.[18] A dozen major versions since then have added many
Maltese, Maori, Marathi, Mongolian (Cyrillic),
additional features and modes of operation[10] and have made
Nepali, Norwegian (Bokml), Norwegian
PowerPoint available beyond Apple Macintosh and Microsoft
(Nynorsk), Odia, Pashto, Persian (Farsi), Polish,
Windows, adding versions for iOS, Android, and web access.[19]
Portuguese (Portugal), Portuguese (Brazil),
Punjabi (Gurmukhi), Quechua, Romanian,
Romansh, Russian, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 1/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Contents (Cyrillic, Serbia), Serbian (Latin, Serbia), Serbian


(Cyrillic, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Sesotho sa
History Leboa, Setswana, Sindhi (Arabic), Sinhala,
Creation at Forethought (19841987)
Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Tatar
Acquisition by Microsoft (19871992)
(Cyrillic), Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Turkmen (Latin),
Part of Microsoft Office (since 1993)
Ukrainian, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek (Latin), Valencian,
Sales and market share
Vietnamese, Welsh, Wolof, Yoruba
Operation
Cultural impact Type Presentation program
Business uses License Trialware
Uses beyond business
Website office.microsoft.com
Cultural reactions
Use it less /PowerPoint (http://office.mi
Use it differently crosoft.com/PowerPoint)
Use it better
U.S. military excess Microsoft PowerPoint for Mac
Artistic medium
PowerPoint Viewer
Versions
File formats
Binary (19872007)
Office Open XML (since 2007)
See also
References
PowerPoint for Mac 2016
Further reading
External links Developer(s) Microsoft
Initial release April 20, 1987
Stable release 2016 (15.24.0) / July 12,
History 2016[3]
Operating system macOS
Type Presentation program
Creation at Forethought (19841987)
License Proprietary commercial
PowerPoint was created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a
software
software startup in Silicon Valley named Forethought, Inc.[20]
Forethought had been founded in 1983 to create an integrated
environment and applications for future personal computers that would provide a graphical user interface, but it had run
into difficulties requiring a "restart" and new plan.[21]

On July 5, 1984, Forethought hired Robert Gaskins as its vice president of product development[22](p51) to create a new
application that would be especially suited to the new graphical personal computers, such as Microsoft Windows and
Apple Macintosh.[23] Gaskins produced his initial description of PowerPoint about a month later (August 14, 1984) in the
form of a 2-page document titled "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection."[24] By October 1984 Gaskins had
selected Dennis Austin to be the developer for PowerPoint.[25] Gaskins and Austin worked together on the definition and
design of the new product for nearly a year, and produced the first specification document dated August 21, 1985.[26] This
first design document showed a product as it would look in Microsoft Windows 1.0,[27] which at that time had not been
released.[28]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 2/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Development from that spec was begun by Austin in November 1985, for Macintosh first.[22](p104) About six months later,
on May 1, 1986, Gaskins and Austin chose a second developer to join the project, Thomas Rudkin.[22](p149) Gaskins
prepared two final product specification marketing documents in June 1986; these described a product for both Macintosh
and Windows.[29][30] At about the same time, Austin, Rudkin, and Gaskins produced a second and final major design
specification document, this time showing a Macintosh look.[31]

Throughout this development period the product was called "Presenter." Then, just before release, there was a last-minute
check with Forethought's lawyers to register the name as a trademark, and "Presenter" was unexpectedly rejected because
it had already been used by someone else. Gaskins says that he thought of "PowerPoint", based on the product's goal of
"empowering" individual presenters, and sent that name to the lawyers for clearance, while all the documentation was
hastily revised.[32]

Funding to complete development of PowerPoint was assured in mid-January, 1987, when a new Apple Computer venture
capital fund, called Apple's Strategic Investment Group,[33] selected PowerPoint to be its first investment.[22](pp169171) A
month later, on February 22, 1987, Forethought announced PowerPoint at the Personal Computer Forum in Phoenix;
John Sculley, the CEO of Apple, appeared at the announcement and said "We see desktop presentation as potentially a
bigger market for Apple than desktop publishing."[34]

PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh shipped from manufacturing on April 20, 1987, and the first production run of 10,000 units
was sold out.[35]

Acquisition by Microsoft (19871992)


By early 1987, Microsoft was starting to plan a new application to create presentations, an activity led by Jeff Raikes, who
was head of marketing for the Applications Division.[36] Microsoft assigned an internal group to write a specification and
plan for a new presentation product.[37] They contemplated an acquisition to speed up development, and in early 1987
Microsoft sent a letter of intent to acquire Dave Winer's product called MORE, an outlining program that could print its
outlines as bullet charts.[38] During this preparatory activity Raikes discovered that a program specifically to make
overhead presentations was already being developed by Forethought, Inc., and that it was nearly completed.[36] Raikes and
others visited Forethought on February 6, 1987, for a confidential demonstration.[22](p173)

Raikes later recounted his reaction to seeing PowerPoint and his report about it to Bill Gates, who was initially
skeptical:[36]

I thought, "software to do overheadsthat's a great idea." I came back to see Bill. I said, "Bill, I think we
really ought to do this;" and Bill said, "No, no, no, no, no, that's just a feature of Microsoft Word, just put it
into Word." ... And I kept saying, "Bill, no, it's not just a feature of Microsoft Word, it's a whole genre of how
people do these presentations." And, to his credit, he listened to me and ultimately allowed me to go forward
and ... buy this company in Silicon Valley called Forethought, for the product known as PowerPoint.

When PowerPoint was released by Forethought, its initial press was favorable; the Wall Street Journal reported on early
reactions: " 'I see about one product a year I get this excited about,' says Amy Wohl, a consultant in Bala Cynwyd, Pa.
'People will buy a Macintosh just to get access to this product.' "[39]

On April 28, 1987, a week after shipment, a group of Microsoft's senior executives spent another day at Forethought to
hear about initial PowerPoint sales on Macintosh and plans for Windows.[22](p191) The following day, Microsoft sent a
letter to Dave Winer withdrawing its earlier letter of intent to acquire his company,[40] and in mid-May 1987 Microsoft

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 3/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

sent a letter of intent to acquire Forethought.[41] As requested in that letter of intent, Robert Gaskins from Forethought
went to Redmond for a one-on-one meeting with Bill Gates in early June, 1987,[22](p197) and by the end of July an
agreement was concluded for an acquisition. The New York Times reported:[42]

... July 30 The Microsoft Corporation announced its first significant software acquisition today, paying
$14 million [$29.5 million in present-day terms[43]] for Forethought Inc. of Sunnyvale, Calif. Forethought
makes a program called PowerPoint that allows users of Apple Macintosh computers to make overhead
transparencies or flip charts. ... [T]he acquisition of Forethought is the first significant one for Microsoft,
which is based in Redmond, Wash. Forethought would remain in Sunnyvale, giving Microsoft a Silicon
Valley presence. The unit will be headed by Robert Gaskins, Forethought's vice president of product
development.

Microsoft's president Jon Shirley offered Microsoft's motivation for the acquisition: " 'We made this deal primarily
because of our belief in desktop presentations as a product category. ... Forethought was first to market with a product in
this category.' "[44]

Microsoft set up within its Applications Division an independent "Graphics Business Unit" to develop and to market
PowerPoint, the first Microsoft application group distant from the main Redmond location.[44] All the PowerPoint people
from Forethought joined Microsoft, and the new location was headed by Robert Gaskins, with Dennis Austin and Thomas
Rudkin leading development.[45] PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh was modified to indicate the new Microsoft ownership and
continued to be sold.[45]

A new PowerPoint 2.0 for Macintosh, adding color 35mm slides, appeared by mid-1988,[45] and again won good
reviews.[46] The same PowerPoint 2.0 product re-developed for Windows was shipped two years later, in mid-1990, at the
same time as Windows 3.0.[47] Much of the color technology was the fruit of a joint development partnership with
Genigraphics, at that time the dominant presentation services company.[48]

PowerPoint 3.0, which was shipped in 1992 for both Windows and Mac, added live video for projectors and monitors, with
the result that PowerPoint was thereafter used for delivering presentations as well as for preparing them. This was at first
an alternative to overhead transparencies and 35mm slides, but over time would come to replace them.[49]

Part of Microsoft Office (since 1993)


PowerPoint had been included in Microsoft Office from the beginning. PowerPoint 2.0 for Macintosh was part of the first
Office bundle for Macintosh which was offered in mid-1989.[50] When PowerPoint 2.0 for Windows appeared, a year later,
it was part of a similar Office bundle for Windows, which was offered in late 1990.[51] Both of these were bundling
promotions, in which the independent applications were packaged together and offered for a lower total price.[50][51]

PowerPoint 3.0 (1992) was again separately specified and developed,[52] and was prominently advertised and sold
separately from Office.[53] It was, as before, included in Microsoft Office 3.0, both for Windows and the corresponding
version for Macintosh.[54]

A plan to integrate the applications themselves more tightly had been indicated as early as February 1991, toward the end
of PowerPoint 3.0 development, in an internal memo by Bill Gates:[55]

Another important question is what portion of our applications sales over time will be a set of applications
versus a single product. ... Please assume that we stay ahead in integrating our family together in evaluating
our future strategiesthe product teams WILL deliver on this. ... I believe that we should position the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 4/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

"OFFICE" as our most important application.

The move from bundling separate products to integrated development began with PowerPoint 4.0, developed in 1993
1994 under new management from Redmond.[56] The PowerPoint group in Silicon Valley was reorganized from the
independent "Graphics Business Unit" (GBU) to become the "Graphics Product Unit" (GPU) for Office, and PowerPoint
4.0 changed to adopt a converged user interface and other components shared with the other apps in Office.[52]

When it was released, the computer press reported on the change approvingly: "PowerPoint 4.0 has been re-engineered
from the ground up to resemble and work with the latest applications in Office: Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, and Access 2.0. The
integration is so good, you'll have to look twice to make sure you're running PowerPoint and not Word or Excel."[57] Office
integration was further underscored in the following version, PowerPoint 95, which was given the version number
PowerPoint 7.0 (skipping 5.0 and 6.0) so that all the components of Office would share the same major version
number.[58]

Although PowerPoint by this point had become part of the integrated Microsoft Office product, its development remained
in Silicon Valley. Succeeding versions of PowerPoint introduced important changes, particularly version 12.0 (2007)
which had a very different shared Office "ribbon" user interface, and a new shared Office XML-based file format.[59] This
marked the 20th anniversary of PowerPoint, and Microsoft held an event to commemorate that anniversary at its Silicon
Valley Campus for the PowerPoint team there. Special guests were Robert Gaskins, Dennis Austin, and Thomas Rudkin,
and the featured speaker was Jeff Raikes, all from PowerPoint 1.0 days, 20 years before.[60]

Since then major development of PowerPoint as part of Office has continued. New development techniques[61] (shared
across Office) for PowerPoint 2016 have made it possible to ship versions of PowerPoint 2016 for Windows, Mac, iOS,
Android, and web access nearly simultaneously,[19] and to release new features on a nearly-monthly schedule.[62]
PowerPoint development is still located in Silicon Valley as of 2017.[63]

In 2010, Jeff Raikes, who had most recently been President of the Business Division of Microsoft (including responsibility
for Office),[64] observed: "of course, today we know that PowerPoint is often times the number twoor in some cases even
the number onemost-used tool" among the applications in Office.[36]

Sales and market share


PowerPoint's initial sales were about 40,000 copies sold in 1987 (nine months), about 85,000 copies in 1988, and about
100,000 copies in 1989, all for Macintosh.[65] PowerPoint's market share in its first three years was a tiny part of the total
presentation market, which was very heavily dominated by MS-DOS applications on PCs.[66] The market leaders on MS-
DOS in 1988-1989[67] were Harvard Graphics (introduced by Software Publishing in 1986[68]) in first place, and Lotus
Freelance Plus (also introduced in 1986[69]) as a strong second.[70] They were competing with more than a dozen other
MS-DOS presentation products,[71] and Microsoft did not develop a PowerPoint version for MS-DOS.[72] After three years,
PowerPoint sales were disappointing. Jeff Raikes, who had bought PowerPoint for Microsoft, later recalled: "By 1990, it
looked like it wasn't a very smart idea [for Microsoft to have acquired PowerPoint], because not very many people were
using PowerPoint."[36]

This began to change when the first version for Windows, PowerPoint 2.0, brought sales up to about 200,000 copies in
1990 and to about 375,000 copies in 1991, with Windows units outselling Macintosh.[65](p403) PowerPoint sold about
1 million copies in 1992, of which about 80 percent were for Windows and about 20 percent for Macintosh,[65](p403) and in
1992 PowerPoint's market share of worldwide presentation graphics software sales was reported as 63 percent.[65](p404) By
the last six months of 1992, PowerPoint revenue was running at a rate of over $100 million annually ($211 million in
present-day terms[43]).[65](p405)[73]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 5/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Sales of PowerPoint 3.0 doubled to about 2 million copies in 1993, of which about 90 percent were for Windows and about
10 percent for Macintosh,[65](p403) and in 1993 PowerPoint's market share of worldwide presentation graphics software
sales was reported as 78 percent.[65](p404) In both years, about half of total revenue came from sales outside the
U.S.[65](p404)

By 1997 PowerPoint sales had doubled again, to more than 4 million copies annually, representing 85 percent of the world
market.[74] Also in 1997, an internal publication from the PowerPoint group said that by then over 20 million copies of
PowerPoint were in use, and that total revenues from PowerPoint over its first ten years (1987 to 1996) had already
exceeded $1 billion.[75]

Since the late 1990s, PowerPoint's market share of total world presentation software has been estimated at 95 percent by
both industry and academic sources.[76]

Operation
The earliest version of PowerPoint (1987 for Macintosh) could be used to print black and white pages to be photocopied
onto sheets of transparent film for projection from overhead projectors, and to print speaker's notes and audience
handouts; the next version (1988 for Macintosh, 1990 for Windows) was extended to also produce color 35mm slides by
communicating a file over a modem to a Genigraphics imaging center with slides returned by overnight delivery for
projection from slide projectors. PowerPoint was used for planning and preparing a presentation, but not for delivering it
(apart from previewing it on a computer screen, or distributing printed paper copies).[77] The operation of PowerPoint
changed substantially in its third version (1992 for Windows and Macintosh), when PowerPoint was extended to also
deliver a presentation by producing direct video output to digital projectors or large monitors.[77] In 1992 video projection
of presentations was rare and expensive, and practically unknown from a laptop computer. Robert Gaskins, one of the
creators of PowerPoint, says he publicly demonstrated that use for the first time at a large Microsoft meeting held in Paris
on February 25, 1992, by using an unreleased development build of PowerPoint 3.0 running on an early pre-production
sample of a powerful new color laptop and feeding a professional auditorium video projector.[78](pp373375)

By about 2003, ten years later, digital projection had become the dominant mode of use, replacing transparencies and
35mm slides and their projectors.[78](pp410414)[79] As a result, the meaning of "PowerPoint presentation" narrowed to
mean specifically digital projection:[80]

... in the business lexicon, "PowerPoint presentation" had come to refer to a presentation made using a
PowerPoint slideshow projected from a computer. Although the PowerPoint software had been used to
generate transparencies for over a decade, this usage was not typically encompassed by common
understanding of the term.

In contemporary operation, PowerPoint is used to create a file (called a "presentation" or "deck"[81]) containing a sequence
of pages (called "slides" in the app) which usually have a consistent style (from template masters), and which may contain
information imported from other apps or created in PowerPoint, including text, bullet lists, tables, charts, drawn shapes,
images, audio clips, video clips, animations of elements, and animated transitions between slides, plus attached notes for
each slide.[82]

After such a file is created, typical operation is to present it as a slide show using a portable computer, where the
presentation file is stored on the computer or available from a network, and the computer's screen shows a "presenter
view" with current slide, next slide, speaker's notes for the current slide, and other information.[83] Video is sent from the
computer to one or more external digital projectors or monitors, showing only the current slide to the audience, with

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 6/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

sequencing controlled by the speaker at the computer. A smartphone remote control built in to PowerPoint for iOS
(optionally controlled from Apple Watch)[84] and for Android[85] allows the presenter to control the show from elsewhere
in the room.

In addition to a computer slide show projected to a live audience by a speaker, PowerPoint can be used to deliver a
presentation in a number of other ways:

Displayed on the screen of the presentation computer or tablet (for a very small group)[86]
Printed for distribution as paper documents (in several formats)[87]
Distributed as files for private viewing, even on computers without PowerPoint[88]
Packaged for distribution on CD or a network, including linked and embedded data[89]
Transmitted as a live broadcast presentation over the web[90]
Embeded in a web page or blog[91]
Shared on social networks such as Facebook or Twitter[92]
Set up as a self-running unattended display[93]
Recorded as video/audio (H.264/AAC), to be distributed as for any other video[94]
Some of these ways of using PowerPoint have been studied by JoAnne Yates and Wanda Orlikowski of the MIT Sloan
School of Management:[80]

The standard form of such presentations involves a single person standing before a group of people, talking
and using the PowerPoint slideshow to project visual aids onto a screen. ... In practice, however,
presentations are not always delivered in this mode. In our studies, we often found that the presenter sat at a
table with a small group of people and walked them through a "deck", composed of paper copies of the
slides. In some cases, decks were simply distributed to individuals, without even a walk-through or
discussion. ... Other variations in form included sending the PowerPoint file electronically to another site
and talking through the slides over an audio or video channel (e.g., telephone or video conference) as both
parties viewed the slides. ... Another common variation was placing a PowerPoint file on a web site for
people to view at different times.

They found that some of these ways of using PowerPoint could influence the content of presentations, for example when
"the slides themselves have to carry more of the substance of the presentation, and thus need considerably more content
than they would have if they were intended for projection by a speaker who would orally provide additional details and
nuance about content and context."[80]

Cultural impact
PowerPoint, more than most other personal computer applications, has been experienced as a powerful force producing
change throughout all of society. In 2016 an analyst summed up: "the real mystery is ... 'how come almost every
organisation in the world is using PowerPoint to communicate almost everything to almost everybody?'. That's the real
question. How come PowerPoint is everywhere?"[14]

Business uses
PowerPoint was originally targeted just for business presentations. Robert Gaskins, who was responsible for its design, has
written about his intended customers: "... I did not target other existing large groups of users of presentations, such as
school teachers or military officers. ... I also did not plan to target people who were not existing users of presentations ...
such as clergy and school children ... . Our focus was purely on business users, in small and large companies, from one
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 7/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

person to the largest multinationals."[95](pp7677) Business people had for a


long time made presentations for sales calls and for internal company
communications, and PowerPoint produced the same formats in the same style
and for the same purposes.[95](p420)

PowerPoint use in business grew over its first five years (1987-1992) to sales of
about 1 million copies annually, for worldwide market share of 63 percent.[96]
Over the following five years (1992-1997) PowerPoint sales accelerated, to a
rate of about 4 million copies annually, for worldwide market share of 85
percent.[97] The increase in business use has been attributed to "network A PowerPoint presentation in
effects," whereby additional users of PowerPoint in a company or an industry progress
increased its salience and value to other users.[98]

Not everyone immediately approved of the greater use of PowerPoint for presentations, even in business. CEOs who very
early were reported to discourage or ban PowerPoint presentations at internal business meetings included Lou Gerstner
(at IBM, in 1993),[99] Scott McNealy (at Sun Microsystems, in 1996),[100] and Steve Jobs (at Apple, in 1997).[101] But even
so, Rich Gold, a scholar who studied corporate presentation use at Xerox PARC, could write in 1999: "Within today's
corporation, if you want to communicate an idea ... you use PowerPoint."[102]

Uses beyond business


At the same time that PowerPoint was becoming dominant in business settings, it was also being adopted for uses beyond
business: "Personal computing ... scaled up the production of presentations. ... The result has been the rise of presentation
culture. In an information society, nearly everyone presents."[103]

In 1998, at about the same time that Gold was pronouncing PowerPoint's ubiquity in business, the influential Bell Labs
engineer Robert W. Lucky could already write about broader uses:[104]

... the world has run amok with the giddy power of presentation graphics. A new language is in the air, and it
is codified in PowerPoint. ... In a family discussion about what to do on a given evening, for example, I feel
like pulling out my laptop and giving a Vugraph presentation ... . In church I am surprised that the preachers
haven't caught on yet. ... How have we gotten on so long without PowerPoint?

Over a decade or so, beginning in the mid 1990s, PowerPoint began to be used in many communication situations, well
beyond its original business presentation uses, to include teaching in schools[105] and in universities,[106] lecturing in
scientific meetings[107] (and preparing their related poster sessions[108]), worshipping in churches,[109] making legal
arguments in courtrooms,[110] displaying supertitles in theaters,[111] driving helmet-mounted displays in spacesuits for
NASA astronauts,[112] giving military briefings,[113] issuing governmental reports,[114] undertaking diplomatic
negotiations,[115][116] writing novels,[117] giving architectural demonstrations,[118] prototyping website designs,[119]
creating animated video games,[120] creating art projects,[121] and even as a substitute for writing engineering technical
reports,[122] and as an organizing tool for writing general business documents.[123]

By 2003, it seemed that PowerPoint was being used everywhere. Julia Keller reported for the Chicago Tribune:[124]

PowerPoint ... is one of the most pervasive and ubiquitous technological tools ever concocted. In less than a
decade, it has revolutionized the worlds of business, education, science and communications, swiftly
becoming the standard for just about anybody who wants to explain just about anything to just about

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 8/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

anybody else. From corporate middle managers reporting on production goals to 4th-graders fashioning a
show-and-tell on the French and Indian War to church pastors explicating the seven deadly sins ...
PowerPoint seems poised for world domination.

Cultural reactions
As uses broadened, cultural awareness of PowerPoint grew and commentary about it began to appear. "With the
widespread adoption of PowerPoint came complaints ... often very general statements reflecting dissatisfaction with
modern media and communication practices as well as the dysfunctions of organizational culture."[125] Indications of this
awaremess included increasing mentions of PowerPoint use in the Dilbert comic strips of Scott Adams,[126] comic parodies
of poor or inappropriate use such as the Gettysburg Address in PowerPoint[127][128] or summaries of Shakespeare's
Hamlet and Nabokov's Lolita in PowerPoint,[129] and a vast number of publications on the general subject of PowerPoint,
especially about how to use it.[130]

Out of all the analyses of PowerPoint over a quarter of a century, at least three general themes emerged as categories of
reaction to its broader use: (1) "Use it less": avoid PowerPoint in favor of alternatives, such as using more-complex
graphics and written prose, or using nothing;[15] (2) "Use it differently": make a major change to a PowerPoint style that is
simpler and pictorial, turning the presentation toward a performance, more like a Steve Jobs keynote;[16] and (3) "Use it
better": retain much of the conventional PowerPoint style but learn to avoid making many kinds of mistakes that can
interfere with communication.[17]

Use it less
An early reaction was that the broader use of PowerPoint was a mistake, and should be reversed. An influential example of
this came from Edward Tufte, an authority on information design, who has been a professor of political science, statistics,
and computer science at Princeton and Yale, but is best known for his self-published books on data visualization, which
have sold nearly 2 million copies as of 2014.[131]

In 2003, he published a widely-read booklet titled The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint, revised in 2006.[15] Tufte found a
number of problems with the "cognitive style" of PowerPoint, many of which he attributed to the standard default style
templates:[15]

PowerPoint's convenience for some presenters is costly to the content and the audience. These costs arise
from the cognitive style characteristics of the standard default PP presentation: foreshortening of evidence
and thought, low spatial resolution, an intensely hierarchical single-path structure as the model for
organizing every type of content, breaking up narratives and data into slides and minimal fragments, rapid
temporal sequencing of thin information rather than focused spatial analysis, conspicuous chartjunk and PP
Phluff, branding of slides with logotypes, a preoccupation with format not content, incompetent designs for
data graphics and tables, and a smirky commercialism that turns information into a sales pitch and
presenters into marketeers [italics in original].

Tufte particularly advised against using PowerPoint for reporting scientific analyses, using as a dramatic example some
slides made during the flight of the space shuttle Columbia after it had been damaged by an accident at liftoff, slides which
poorly communicated the engineers' limited understanding of what had happened.[15](pp814) For such technical

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 9/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

presentations, and for most occasions apart from its initial domain of sales presentations, Tufte advised against using
PowerPoint at all; in many situations, according to Tufte, it would be better to substitute high-resolution graphics or
concise prose documents as handouts for the audience to study and discuss, providing a great deal more detail.[15]

Many commentators enthusiastically joined in Tufte's vivid criticism of PowerPoint uses,[132] and at a conference held in
2013 (a decade after Tufte's booklet appeared) one paper claimed that "Despite all the criticism about his work, Tufte can
be considered as the single most influential author in the discourse on PowerPoint. ... While his approach was not rigorous
from a research perspective, his articles received wide resonance with the public at large ... ." [133] There were also others
who disagreed with Tufte's assertion that the PowerPoint program reduces the quality of presenters' thoughts: Steven
Pinker, professor of psychology at MIT and later Harvard, had earlier argued that "If anything, PowerPoint, if used well,
would ideally reflect the way we think."[134] Pinker later reinforced this opinion: "Any general opposition to PowerPoint is
just dumb, ... It's like denouncing lecturesbefore there were awful PowerPoint presentations, there were awful scripted
lectures, unscripted lectures, slide shows, chalk talks, and so on."[135]

Much of the early commentary, on all sides, was "informal" and "anecdotal", because empirical research had been
limited.[136]

Use it differently
A second reaction to PowerPoint use was to say that PowerPoint can be used well, but only by substantially changing its
style of use. This reaction is exemplified by Richard E. Mayer, a professor of psychology at the University of California,
Santa Barbara, who has studied cognition and learning, particularly the design of educational multimedia, and who has
published more than 500 publications, including over 30 books.[137] Mayer's theme has been that "In light of the science,
it is up to us to make a fundamental shift in our thinkingwe can no longer expect people to struggle to try to adapt to our
PowerPoint habits. Instead, we have to change our PowerPoint habits to align with the way people learn."[16]

Tufte had argued his judgment that the information density of text on PowerPoint slides was too low, perhaps only 40
words on a slide, leading to over-simplified messages;[138] Mayer responded that his empirical research showed exactly the
opposite, that the amount of text on PowerPoint slides was usually too high, and that even fewer than 40 words on a slide
resulted in "PowerPoint overload" that impeded understanding during presentations.[139]

Mayer suggested a few major changes from traditional PowerPoint formats:[16]

replacing brief slide titles with longer "headlines" expressing complete ideas;
showing more slides but simpler ones;
removing almost all text including nearly all bullet lists (reserving the text for the spoken narration);
using larger, higher-quality, and more important graphics and photographs;
removing all extraneous decoration, backgrounds, logos and identifications, everything but the essential message.
Mayer's ideas are claimed by Carmine Gallo to have been reflected in Steve Jobs's presentations: "Mayer outlined
fundamental principles of multimedia design based on what scientists know about cognitive functioning. Steve Jobs's
slides adhere to each of Mayer's principles ... ."[140](p92) Though not unique to Jobs, many people saw the style for the first
time in Jobs's famous product introductions.[141] Steve Jobs would have been using Apple's Keynote which was designed
for Jobs's own slide shows beginning in 2003, but Gallo says that "speaking like Jobs has little to do with the type of
presentation software you use (PowerPoint, Keynote,etc.) ... all the techniques apply equally to PowerPoint and
Keynote."[140](pp14,46) Gallo adds that "Microsoft's PowerPoint has one big advantage over Apple's Keynote presentation
softwareit's everywhere ... it's safe to say that the number of Keynote presentations is miniscule in comparison with
PowerPoint. Although most presentation designers who are familiar with both formats prefer to work in the more elegant
Keynote system, those same designers will tell you that the majority of their client work is done in PowerPoint."[140](p44)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 10/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Consistent with its association with Steve Jobs's keynotes, a response to this style has been that it is particularly effective
for "ballroom-style presentations" (as often given in conference center ballrooms) where a celebrated and practiced
speaker addresses a large passive audience, but less appropriate for "conference room-style presentations" which are often
recurring internal business meetings for in-depth discussion with motivated counterparts.[142]

Use it better
A third reaction to PowerPoint use was to conclude that the standard style is capable of being used well, but that many
small points need to be executed carefully, to avoid impeding understanding. This kind of analysis is particularly
associated with Stephen Kosslyn, a cognitive neuroscientist who specializes in the psychology of learning and visual
communication, and who has been head of the department of psychology at Harvard, has been Director of Stanford's
Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and has published some 300 papers and 14 books.[143]

Kosslyn presented a set of psychological principles of "human perception, memory, and comprehension" that "appears to
capture the major points of agreement among researchers."[144] He reports that his experiments support the idea that that
it is not intuitive or obvious how to create effective PowerPoint presentations that conform to those agreed principles, and
that even small differences that might not seem significant to a presenter can produce very different results in audiences'
understanding. For this reason, Kosslyn says, users need specific education to be able to identify best ways to avoid "flaws
and failures":[144]

Specifically, we hypothesized and found that the psychological principles are often violated in PowerPoint
slideshows across different fields ... , that some types of presentation flaws are noticeable and annoying to
audience members ... , and that observers have difficulty identifying many violations in graphical displays in
individual slides ... . These studies converge in painting the following picture: PowerPoint presentations are
commonly flawed; some types of flaws are more common than others; flaws are not isolated to one domain
or context; and, although some types of flaws annoy the audience, flaws at the level of slide design are not
always obvious to an untrained observer ... .

The many "flaws and failures" identified were those "likely to disrupt the comprehension or memory of the material."
Among the most common examples were "Bulleted items are not presented individually, growing the list from the top to
the bottom," "More than four bulleted items appear in a single list," "More than two lines are used per bulleted sentence,"
and "Words are not large enough (i.e., greater than 20 point) to be easily seen." Among audience reactions common
problems reported were "Speakers read word-for-word from notes or from the slides themselves," "The slides contained
too much material to absorb before the next slide was presented," and "The main point was obscured by lots of irrelevant
detail."[144]

Kosslyn observes that these findings could help to explain why the many studies of instructional effectiveness of
PowerPoint have been inconclusive and conflicting, if there were differences in the quality of the presentations tested in
different studies that went unobserved because "many may feel that 'good design' is intuitively clear."[144]

In 2007 Kosslyn wrote a book about PowerPoint, in which he suggested a very large number of fairly modest changes to
PowerPoint styles and gave advice on recommended ways of using PowerPoint.[17] In a later second book about
PowerPoint he suggested nearly 150 clarifying style changes (in fewer than 150 pages).[145] Kosslyn
summarizes:[17](pp23,200)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 11/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

... there's nothing fundamentally wrong with the PowerPoint program as a medium; rather, I claim that the
problem lies in how it is used. ... In fact, this medium is a remarkably versatile tool that can be
extraordinarily effective. ... For many purposes, PowerPoint presentations are a superior medium of
communication, which is why they have become standard in so many fields.

In 2017, an online poll of social media users in the UK was reported to show that PowerPoint "remains as popular with
young tech-savvy users as it is with the Baby Boomers," with about four out of five saying that "PowerPoint was a great
tool for making presentations," in part because "PowerPoint, with its capacity to be highly visual, bridges the wordy world
of yesterday with the visual future of tomorrow."[146] Also in 2017, the Managerial Communication Group of MIT Sloan
School of Management polled their incoming MBA students, finding that "results underscore just how differently this
generation communicates as compared with older workers."[147] Fewer than half of respondents reported doing any
meaningful, longer-form writing at work, and even that minority mostly did so very infrequently, but "85 percent of
students named producing presentations as a meaningful part of their job responsibilities. Two-thirds report that they
present on a daily or weekly basisso it's no surprise that in-person presentations is the top skill they hope to
improve."[147] One of the researchers concluded: "We're not likely to see future workplaces with long-form writing. The
trend is toward presentations and slides, and we don't see any sign of that slowing down."[147]

U.S. military excess


Use of PowerPoint by the U.S. military services began slowly, because they were invested in mainframe computers, MS-
DOS PCs, and specialized military-specification graphic output devices, all of which PowerPoint did not support.[148] But
because of the strong military tradition of presenting briefings, as soon as they acquired the computers needed to run it,
PowerPoint became part of the U.S. military.[149]

By 2000, ten years after PowerPoint for Windows appeared, it was already identified as an important feature of U.S.
armed forces culture, in a front-page story in the Wall Street Journal:[150]

Old-fashioned slide briefings, designed to update generals on troop movements, have been a staple of the
military since World War II. But in only a few short years PowerPoint has altered the landscape. Just as
word processing made it easier to produce long, meandering memos, the spread of PowerPoint has
unleashed a blizzard of jazzy but often incoherent visuals. Instead of drawing up a dozen slides on a legal
pad and running them over to the graphics department, captains and colonels now can create hundreds of
slides in a few hours without ever leaving their desks. If the spirit moves them they can build in gunfire
sound effects and images that explode like land mines. ... PowerPoint has become such an ingrained part of
the defense culture that it has seeped into the military lexicon. "PowerPoint Ranger" is a derogatory term for
a desk-bound bureaucrat more adept at making slides than tossing grenades.

U.S. military use of PowerPoint may have influenced its use by armed forces of other countries: "Foreign armed services
also are beginning to get in on the act. 'You can't speak with the U.S. military without knowing PowerPoint,' says Margaret
Hayes, an instructor at National Defense University in Washington D.C., who teaches Latin American military officers how
to use the software."[150]

After another 10 years, in 2010 (and again on its front page) the New York Times reported that PowerPoint use in the
military was then "a military tool that has spun out of control":[151]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 12/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Like an insurgency, PowerPoint has crept into the daily lives of military commanders and reached the level
of near obsession. The amount of time expended on PowerPoint, the Microsoft presentation program of
computer-generated charts, graphs and bullet points, has made it a running joke in the Pentagon and in Iraq
and Afghanistan. ... Commanders say that behind all the PowerPoint jokes are serious concerns that the
program stifles discussion, critical thinking and thoughtful decision-making. Not least, it ties up junior
officers ... in the daily preparation of slides, be it for a Joint Staff meeting in Washington or for a platoon
leader's pre-mission combat briefing in a remote pocket of Afghanistan.

The New York Times account went on to say that as a result some U.S. generals had banned the use of PowerPoint in their
operations:[151]

"PowerPoint makes us stupid," Gen. James N. Mattis of the Marine Corps, the Joint Forces commander,
said this month at a military conference in North Carolina. (He spoke without PowerPoint.) Brig. Gen. H. R.
McMaster, who banned PowerPoint presentations when he led the successful effort to secure the northern
Iraqi city of Tal Afar in 2005, followed up at the same conference by likening PowerPoint to an internal
threat. "It's dangerous because it can create the illusion of understanding and the illusion of control,"
General McMaster said in a telephone interview afterward. "Some problems in the world are not bullet-
izable."

Several incidents, about the same time, gave wide currency to discussions by serving military officers describing excessive
PowerPoint use and the organizational culture that encouraged it.[152][153][154] In response to the New York Times story,
Peter Norvig and Stephen M. Kosslyn sent a joint letter to the editor stressing the institutional culture of the military: "...
many military personnel bemoan the overuse and misuse of PowerPoint. ... The problem is not in the tool itself, but in the
way that people use itwhich is partly a result of how institutions promote misuse.[155]

The two generals who had been mentioned in 2010 as opposing the institutional culture of excessive PowerPoint use were
both in the news again in 2017, when James N. Mattis became U.S. Secretary of Defense,[156] and H. R. McMaster was
appointed as U.S. National Security Advisor.[157]

Artistic medium
Musician David Byrne has been using PowerPoint as a medium for art for years, producing a book and DVD and showing
at galleries his PowerPoint-based artwork.[121] Byrne has written: "I have been working with PowerPoint, the ubiquitous
presentation software, as an art medium for a number of years. It started off as a joke (this software is a symbol of
corporate salesmanship, or lack thereof) but then the work took on a life of its own as I realized I could create pieces that
were moving, despite the limitations of the 'medium.' "[158]

In 2005 Byrne toured with a theater piece styled as a PowerPoint presentation. When he presented it in Berkeley, on
March 8, 2005, the University of California news service reported: "Byrne also defended its [PowerPoint's] appeal as more
than just a business toolas a medium for art and theater. His talk was titled 'I PowerPoint' ... . Berkeley alumnus Bob
Gaskins and Dennis Austin ... were in the audience ... . Eventually, Byrne said, PowerPoint could be the foundation for
'presentational theater,' with roots in Brechtian drama and Asian puppet theater."[159] After that performance, Byrne
described it in his own online journal: "Did the PowerPoint talk in Berkeley for an audience of IT legends and academics. I
was terrified. The guys that originally turned PowerPoint into a program were there, what were THEY gonna think? ...
[Gaskins] did tell me afterwards that he liked the PowerPoint as theater idea, which was a relief."[160]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 13/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

The expressions "PowerPoint Art" or "pptArt" are used to define a contemporary Italian artistic movement which believes
that the corporate world can be a unique and exceptional source of inspiration for the artist.[161][162] They say: "The pptArt
name refers to PowerPoint, the symbolic and abstract language developed by the corporate world which has become a
universal and highly symbolic communication system beyond cultures and borders."[163]

The wide use of PowerPoint had, by 2010, given rise to " ... a subculture of PowerPoint enthusiasts [that] is teaching the
old application new tricks, and may even be turning a dry presentation format into a full-fledged artistic medium,"[164] by
using PowerPoint animation to create "games, artworks, anime, and movies."[165]

PowerPoint Viewer
PowerPoint Viewer is the name for a series of small free application programs to be used on computers without
PowerPoint installed, to view, project, or print (but not create or edit) presentations.[166]

The first version was introduced with PowerPoint 3.0 in 1992, to enable electronic presentations to be projected using
conference-room computers and to be freely distributed; on Windows, it took advantage of the new feature of embedding
TrueType fonts within PowerPoint presentation files to make such distribution easier.[167] The same kind of viewer app
was shipped with PowerPoint 3.0 for Macintosh, also in 1992.[168]

Beginning with PowerPoint 2003, a feature called "Package for CD" automatically managed all linked video and audio files
plus needed fonts when exporting a presentation to a disk or flash drive or network location,[169] and also included a copy
of a revised PowerPoint Viewer application so that the result could be presented on other PCs without installing
anything.[170]

The latest version that runs on Windows "was created in conjunction with PowerPoint 2010, but it can also be used to view
newer presentations created in PowerPoint 2013 and PowerPoint 2016. ... All transitions, videos and effects appear and
behave the same when viewed using PowerPoint Viewer as they do when viewed in PowerPoint 2010." It supports
presentations created using PowerPoint 97 and later.[166] The latest version that runs on Macintosh is PowerPoint 98
Viewer for the Classic Mac OS and Classic Environment, for Macs supporting System 7.5 to Mac OS X Tiger (10.4).[171] It
can open presentations only from PowerPoint 3.0, 4.0, and 8.0 (PowerPoint 98), although presentations created on Mac
can be opened in PowerPoint Viewer on Windows.[172]

As of 2017, the latest versions of PowerPoint Viewer for Windows (2010)[173] and for Macintosh (1998)[174] remain
available for download. But in November, 2017, Microsoft announced that the PowerPoint Viewers for Windows (both the
2010 and 2007 versions) "will be retired in April, 2018" and "at that time, they will no longer be available for download
and will no longer receive security updates."[175] The recommended replacements: "On Windows 10 PCs, download the
free ... PowerPoint Mobile application from the Windows Store,"[175] and "On Windows 7 or Windows 8/8.1 PCs, upload
the file to OneDrive and view it for free using ... PowerPoint Online."[175]

Versions
Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Current stable version Latest preview version

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 14/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

PowerPoint release history


Date Name Version System Comments

April 1987[176] PowerPoint 1.0 Macintosh Shipped by Forethought, Inc.

October 1987[177] PowerPoint 1.01 Macintosh Relabeled and shipped by Microsoft

May 1988[178] PowerPoint 2.0 Macintosh

December 1988[179] PowerPoint 2.01 Macintosh Added Genigraphics software and services

Announced with Windows 3.0, numbered to


May 1990[180] PowerPoint 2.0 Windows
match contemporary Macintosh version

May 1992[181] PowerPoint 3.0 Windows Announced with Windows 3.1

September 1992[182] PowerPoint 3.0 Macintosh

February 1994[183] PowerPoint 4.0 Windows

October 1994[184] PowerPoint 4.0 Macintosh Native for Power Mac

Versions 5.0 and 6.0 were skipped on


July 1995[185] PowerPoint 95 7.0 Windows Windows, so all apps in Office 95 were
7.0[186]

January 1997[187] PowerPoint 97 8.0 Windows

Versions 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 were skipped on


March 1998[188] PowerPoint 98 8.0 Macintosh
Macintosh, to match Windows[189]

June 1999[190] PowerPoint 2000 9.0 Windows

August 2000[191] PowerPoint 2001 9.0 Macintosh

May 2001[192] PowerPoint XP 10.0 Windows

November 2001[193] PowerPoint v. X 10.0 Macintosh

October 2003[194][195] PowerPoint 2003 11.0 Windows

June 2004[196] PowerPoint 2004 11.0 Macintosh

PowerPoint Windows
May 2005[197] 11.0
Mobile Mobile 5

January 2007[198] PowerPoint 2007 12.0 Windows End of support October 10, 2017[199]
PowerPoint Windows
September 2007[200] 12.0
Mobile Mobile 6

January 2008[201] PowerPoint 2008 12.0 Macintosh

Version 13.0 was skipped for


June 2010[202] PowerPoint 2010 14.0 Windows
triskaidekaphobia concerns[203]
PowerPoint 2010
June 2010[204] 14.0 Web
Web App
PowerPoint Windows
June 2010[205] 14.0
Mobile 2010 Phone 7
Version 13.0 was skipped for
November 2010[206] PowerPoint 2011 14.0 Macintosh triskaidekaphobia concerns[203] End of
support October 10, 2017[207]

Date Name Version System Comments


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 15/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Date Name Version System Comments


PowerPoint Nokia
April 2012[208] 14.0
Mobile 2010 Symbian
PowerPoint Web
October 2012[209] 15.0 Web
App 2013
PowerPoint Windows
November 2012[210] 15.0
Mobile 2013 Phone 8
PowerPoint RT Windows
November 2012[211] 15.0
2013 RT

January 2013[212] PowerPoint 2013 15.0 Windows

PowerPoint
June 2013[213] Mobile 2013 for 15.0 iPhone
iPhone
PowerPoint
July 2013[214] Mobile 2013 for 15.0 Android
Android
PowerPoint 2013
February 2014[215] 15.0 Web
Online
PowerPoint 2013
March 2014[216] 15.0 iPad
for iPad
PowerPoint
November 2014[217] Mobile 2013 for 15.0 iOS
iOS
PowerPoint
June 2015[218] Mobile 2016 for 16.0 Android
Android

PowerPoint 2016 There had been no PowerPoint 2013 for


July 2015[219] 15.0 Macintosh
for Macintosh Mac.[220]
PowerPoint Windows
July 2015[221] 16.0
Mobile 2016 10 Mobile
PowerPoint
July 2015[222] Mobile 2016 for 16.0 iOS
iOS
PowerPoint 2016
September 2015[223] 16.0 Windows
for Windows
PowerPoint 2016 Windows
June 2017[224] 16.0
for Windows Store 10 S
Date Name Version System Comments

PowerPoint 1.0
For Macintosh: April 1987[176]
Innovations included: multiple slides in a single file, organizing slides with a slide sorter view
and a title view (precursor of outline view), speakers' notes pages attached to each slide,
printing of audience handouts with multiple slides per page, text with outlining styles and full
word-processor formatting, graphic shapes with attached text for drawing diagrams and
tables.[225] It also shipped with a hardbound book as its manual.[226]
"It produced overhead transparencies on a black-and-white Macintosh for laser printing.
Presenters could now directly control their own overheads and would no longer have to work
through the person with the typewriter. PowerPoint handled the task of making the overheads all
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 16/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

look alike; one change reformats them all. Typographic


fonts were better than an Orator typeball, and charts and
diagrams could be imported from MacDraw, MacPaint, and
Excel, thanks to the new Mac clipboard."[227]
System requirements: (Mac) Original Macintosh or better,
System 1.0 or higher, 512K RAM.[228]

PowerPoint 2.0
For Macintosh: May 1988;[178] for Windows: May 1990[180]
Part of Microsoft Office for Mac and Microsoft Office for
Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 running
Windows. Innovations included: color, more word
on Windows 7
processing features, find and replace, spell checking, color
schemes for presentations, guide to color selection, ability
to change color scheme retrospectively, shaded coloring for
fills.[225]
"It added color 35mm slides, transmitting the resulting file over a modem to
Genigraphics for imaging on Genigraphics' film recorders and photo
processing in Genigraphics' labs overnight. Genigraphics was the leading
Icon for
professional service bureau, having developed its own Digital Equipment
PowerPoint for
Corp. PDP-11-based computer systems for its artists. After a short time,
Mac 2008
though, Genigraphics itself switched to PowerPoint."[227]
System requirements: (Mac) Original Macintosh or better, System 4.1 or
higher, 1 MB RAM. (Windows) 286 PC or higher, Windows
3.0, 1 MB RAM.[228]

PowerPoint 3.0
For Windows, May 1992;[181] for Mac: September 1992[182]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 3.0 and Microsoft
Office for Mac 3.0. Innovations included: the first application
designed exclusively for the new Windows 3.1 platform, full
support for TrueType fonts (new in Windows 3.1),
presentation templates, editing in outline view, new drawing, Microsoft PowerPoint for Mac 2011
including freeform tool, autoshapes, flip, rotate, scale, align,
and transforming imported pictures into their drawing
primitives to make them editable, transitions between slides in slide show, progressive builds,
incorporating sound and video.[225] Animations included "flying bullets" where bullet points
"flew" into the slide one by one, and some degree of Pen Computing support was included.[226]
"It added video-out to feed the new video projectors, with effects that could replace a bank of
synchronized slide projectors. This version added fades, dissolves, and other transitions, as
well as animation of text and pictures, and could incorporate video clips with synchronized
audio."[227]
System requirements: (Windows) 286 PC or higher, Windows 3.1, 2 MB RAM. (Mac) Macintosh
Plus or better, System 7 or higher, 4 MB RAM.[228]

PowerPoint 4.0
For Windows: February 1994;[183] for Mac: October 1994[184]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 4.0 and Microsoft Office for Mac 4.2. Innovations included:
autolayouts, Word tables, rehearsal mode, hidden slides, and the "AutoContent Wizard."[226]
Introduced a standard "Microsoft Office" look and feel (shared with Word and Excel), with status
bar, toolbars, tooltips. Full OLE 2.0 with in-place activation.[225]
System requirements: (Windows) 386 PC or higher, Windows 3.1, 8 MB RAM. (Mac) 68020
Mac or better, System 7 or higher, 8 MB RAM.[228]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 17/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

PowerPoint 7.0
For Windows: July 1995[185]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 95. Innovations included: new animation effects, real
curves and textures, black and white view, autocorrect, insert symbol, meeting support features
such as "Meeting Minder."[226]
"A complete rewrite of the product from the ground up in C++, full object model with internal
VBA programmability."[225]
System requirements: (Windows) 386 DX PC or higher, Windows 95, 6 MB RAM.[228]

PowerPoint 8.0
For Windows: January 1997;[187] for Mac: March 1998[188]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 97 and Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition. Innovations
included: "Office Assistant," file compression, save to HTML, "Pack and Go," "AutoClipArt,"
transparent GIFs.[226]
System requirements: (Windows) 486 PC or higher, 8 MB RAM. (Mac) PowerPC Mac or better,
16 MB RAM.[228]

PowerPoint 9.0
For Windows: June 1999;[190] for Mac: August 2000[191]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2001. Innovations
included: three-pane "browser" view (selectable list of slide miniatures or titles, large single
slide, notes), autofit text, real tables, presentation conferencing, save to web, picture bullets,
animated GIFs, aliased fonts.[226]
System requirements: (Windows) Pentium 75MHz+, Windows 95 or higher, 20 MB RAM. (Mac)
PowerPC Mac 120MHz+ or better, MacOS 8.5 or higher, minimum 48 MB RAM.[228]

PowerPoint 10.0
For Windows: May 2001;[192] for Mac: November 2001[193]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows XP and Microsoft Office for Mac v.X. Innovations included:
install from web, most clipart on web, use of Exchange and SharePoint for storage and
collaboration.[192]
System requirements: (Windows) Pentium III, Windows 98 or higher, 40 MB RAM.[228] (Mac)
OS X 10.1 ("Puma") or later (will not run under OS 9).[229]

PowerPoint 11.0
For Windows: October 2003;[194] for Mac: June 2004;[196] for Mobile: May 2005[197]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2003 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2004. Innovations
included: tools visible to presenter during slide show (notes, thumbnails, time clock, re-order
and edit slides), "Package for CD" to write presentation and viewer app to CD.[196] "Microsoft
Producer for PowerPoint 2003" was a free plug-in from Microsoft, using a video camera, "that
creates Web page presentations, with talking head narration, coordinated and timed to your
existing PowerPoint presentation" for delivery over the web.[230] The Genigraphics software to
send a presentation for imaging as 35mm slides was removed from this version.[231]
System requirements: (Windows) Pentium 233Mhz+, Windows XP or later, 128 MB RAM.[232]
(Mac) Power Mac G3 or better, OS X 10.2.8 or later, 256 MB RAM.[196]

PowerPoint 12.0
For Windows: January 2007;[198] for Mobile: September 2007;[200] for Mac: January 2008[201]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2007 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2008. Innovations
included: new user interface ("Office Fluent") employing a changeable "ribbon" of tools across
the top to replace menus and toolbars, SmartArt graphics, many graphical improvements in text

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 18/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

and drawing, improved "Presenter View" (from 2003), widescreen slide formats. The
"AutoContent Wizard" was removed from this version.[233]
A major change in PowerPoint 2007 was from a binary file format, used from 1997 to 2003, to a
new XML file format which evolved over further versions.
System requirements: (Windows) 500 MHz processor or higher, Windows XP with SP2 or later,
256 MB RAM.[234] (Mac) 500 MHz processor or higher, MacOS X 10.4.9 or later, 512 MB
RAM.[235]

PowerPoint 14.0[203]
For Windows: June 2010;[202] for Web: June 2010;[204] for Mobile: June 2010;[205] for Mac:
November 2010,[206] for Symbian: April 2012[208]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2010 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2011. Innovations
included: Single document interface (SDI), sections within presentations, reading view, redesign
of "Backstage" functions (under File menu), save as video, insert video from web, embed video
and audio, enhanced editing for video and for pictures, broadcast slideshow.[236]
System requirements: (Windows) 500 MHz processor or higher, Windows XP with SP3 or later,
256 MB RAM, 512 MB RAM recommended for video.[237] (Mac) Intel processor, Mac OS X
10.5.8 or later, 1 GB RAM.[238]

PowerPoint 15.0
For Web: October 2012;[209] for Mobile: November 2012;[210] for Windows RT: November
2012;[211] for Windows: January 2013;[212] for iPhone: June 2013;[213] for Android: July
2013;[214] for Web: February 2014;[215] for iPad: March 2014;[216] for iOS: November 2014;[217]
for Mac: July 2015[219]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2013 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2016. Innovations
included: Change default slide shape to 16:9 aspect ratio, online collaboration by multiple
authors, user interface redesigned for multi-touch screens, improved audio, video, animations,
and transitions, further changes to Presenter View. Clipart collections (and insertion tool) were
removed, but available online.[239][240]
System requirements: (Windows) 1 GHz processor or faster, x86- or x64-bit processor with
SSE2 instruction set, Windows 7 or later, 1 GB RAM (32-bit), 2 GB RAM (64-bit).[241] (Mac) Intel
processor, Mac OS X 10.10 or later, 4 GB RAM.[242]

PowerPoint 16.0
For Android: June 2015;[218] for Mobile: July 2015;[221] for iOS: July 2015;[222] for Windows:
September 2015;[223] and Windows Store: June 2017[224]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2016. Innovations included: "Tell me" to search for program
controls, "PowerPoint Designer" pane, Morph transition, real-time collaboration, "Zoom" to
slides or sections in slideshow,[243] and "Presentation Translator" for real-time translation of a
presenter's spoken words to on-screen captions in any of 60+ languages, with the system
analyzing the text of the PowerPoint presentation as context to increase the accuracy and
relevance of the translations.[244][245]
System requirements: (Windows) 1 GHz processor or faster, x86- or x64-bit processor with
SSE2 instruction set, Windows 7 with SP 1 or later, 2 GB RAM.[246]

File formats
PowerPoint Presentation
Binary (19872007) Filename .pptx, .ppt[247]
extensions
Internet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 19/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Early versions of PowerPoint, from 1987 through media type application/vnd.openxmlformats-


1995 (versions 1.0 through 7.0), evolved through a officedocument.presentationml.presentation,

sequence of binary file formats, different in each application/vnd.ms-powerpoint[248]

version, as functionality was added.[250] That resulted Uniform Type com.microsoft.powerpoint.ppt[249]


in a stable binary format (called a .ppt file, like all Identifier (UTI)
earlier binary formats) that was shared as the default Developed by Microsoft
in PowerPoint 97 through PowerPoint 2003 for Type of Presentation
Windows, and in PowerPoint 98 through PowerPoint
format
2004 for Mac (that is, in PowerPoint versions 8.0
through 11.0).[251][252] The specification document is actively maintained and can be freely downloaded,[251] because,
although no longer the default, that binary format can be read and written by some later versions of PowerPoint, including
the current PowerPoint 2016.[247] After the stable binary format was adopted, versions of PowerPoint continued to be able
to read and write differing file formats from earlier versions.[250] But beginning with PowerPoint 2007 and PowerPoint
2008 for Mac (PowerPoint version 12.0), this was the only binary format available for saving; PowerPoint 2007 (version
12.0) no longer supported saving to binary file formats used earlier than PowerPoint 97 (version 8.0), ten years before.[253]

Binary filename extensions[247]

.ppt, PowerPoint 972003 binary presentation


.pps, PowerPoint 972003 binary slide show
.pot, PowerPoint 972003 binary template
Binary media types[248]

.ppt, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
.pps, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
.pot, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint

Office Open XML (since 2007)


The big change in PowerPoint 2007 and PowerPoint 2008 for Mac (PowerPoint version 12.0) was that the stable binary
file format of 972003 was replaced as the default by a new zipped XML-based Office Open XML format (.pptx files).[254]
Microsoft's explanation of the benefits of the change included: smaller file sizes, up to 75% smaller than comparable
binary documents; security, through being able to identify and exclude executable macros and personal data; less chance
to be corrupted than binary formats; and easier interoperability for exchanging data among Microsoft and other business
applications, all while maintaining backward compatibility.[255]

XML filename extensions[247]

.pptx, PowerPoint 2007 XML presentation


.pptm, PowerPoint 2007 XML macro-enabled presentation
.ppsx, PowerPoint 2007 XML slide show
.ppsm, PowerPoint 2007 XML macro-enabled slide show
.ppam, PowerPoint 2007 XML add-in
.potx, PowerPoint 2007 XML template
.potm, PowerPoint 2007 XML macro-enabled template
XML media types[248]

.pptx, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation
.pptm, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12
.ppsx, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 20/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

.ppsm, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12
.ppam, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12
.potx, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template
.potm, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12
The specification for the new format was published as an open standard, ECMA-376,[256] through Ecma International
Technical Committee 45 (TC45).[257] The Ecma 376 stardard was approved in December 2006, and was submitted for
standardization through ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 WG4 in early 2007. The standardization process was contentious.[258] It
was approved as ISO/IEC 29500 in early 2008.[259] Copies of the ISO/IEC standard specification are freely available, in
two parts.[260][261] These define two related standards known as "Transitional" and "Strict." The two standards were
progressively adopted by PowerPoint: PowerPoint version 12.0 (2007, 2008 for Mac) could read and write Transitional
format, but could neither read nor write Strict format. PowerPoint version 14.0 (2010, 2011 for Mac) could read and write
Transitional, and also read but not write Strict. PowerPoint version 15.0 and later (beginning 2013, 2016 for Mac) can read
and write both Transitional and Strict formats. The reason for the two variants was explained by Microsoft:[262]

... the participants in the ISO/IEC standardization process recognized two objectives with competing
requirements. The first objective was for the Open XML standard to provide an XML-based file format that
could fully support conversion of the billions of existing Office documents without any loss of features,
content, text, layout, or other information, including embedded data. The second was to specify a file format
that did not rely on Microsoft-specific data types. They created two variants of Open XMLTransitional,
which supports previously-defined Microsoft-specific data types, and Strict, which does not rely on them.
Prior versions of Office [that is, 2007] have supported reading and writing Transitional Open XML, and
Office 2010 can read Strict Open XML documents. With the addition of write support for Strict Open XML,
Office 2013 provides full support for both variants of Open XML.

The PowerPoint .pptx file format (called "PresentationML" for Presentation Markup Language) contains separate
structures for all the complex parts of a PowerPoint presentation.[263][264] The specification documents run to over
six thousand pages.[265] Because of the widespread use of PowerPoint, the standardized file formats are considered
important for the long-term access to digital documents in library collections and archives, according to the U.S. Library of
Congress.[266]

PowerPoint 2013 and PowerPoint 2016 provide options to set default saving to ISO/IEC 29500 Strict format, but the
initial default setting remains Transitional, for compatibility with legacy features incorporating binary data in existing
documents.[267] PowerPoint 2013 or PowerPoint 2016 will both open and save files in the former binary format (.ppt), for
compatibility with older versions of the program (but not versions older than PowerPoint 97).[247][268] In saving to older
formats, these versions of PowerPoint will check to assure that no features have been introduced into the presentation
which are incompatible with the older formats.[254]

PowerPoint 2013 and 2016 will also save a presentation in many other file formats, including PDF format, MPEG-4 or
WMV video, as a sequence of single-picture files (using image formats including GIF, JPEG, PNG, TIFF, and some older
formats), and as a single presentation file in which all slides are replaced with pictures. PowerPoint will both open and
save files in OpenDocument Presentation format (ODP) for compatibility.[247]

See also
Similar apps

Google Slides
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 21/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Keynote (presentation software)


LibreOffice Impress
OpenOffice Impress
Calligra Stage
Prezi
AppleWorks, a discontinued office suite that included a presentation program meant to compete with PowerPoint

Related topics

Microsoft Office password protection


Powerpoint-Karaoke

References
1. "Office 365 client update branch releases" (https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/office/mt465751). TechNet. Microsoft.
Retrieved August 1, 2017.
2. Microsoft Corp. (2017). "Language Accessory Pack for Office" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Language-Acc
essory-Pack-for-Office-82ee1236-0f9a-45ee-9c72-05b026ee809f). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/201708282
00853/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Language-Accessory-Pack-for-Office-82ee1236-0f9a-45ee-9c72-05b02
6ee809f) from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
3. "Description of the security update for Office 2016 for Mac: July 12, 2016" (https://support.microsoft.com/en-au/kb/317
0460). Support. Microsoft.
4. "Microsoft PowerPoint" (http://www.britannica.com/technology/Microsoft-PowerPoint). Encyclopaedia Britannica.
November 25, 2013. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZWsozvhk?url=http://www.britannica.com/technology/Mic
rosoft-PowerPoint) from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. "Microsoft PowerPoint, virtual
presentation software developed by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin for the American computer software company
Forethought, Inc. The program, initially named Presenter, was released for the Apple Macintosh in 1987."
5. Mace, Scott (March 2, 1987). "Presentation Package Lets Users Control Look" (https://books.google.com/books?id=1
TAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA5). InfoWorld. 9 (9). p. 5. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym2krMYP?url=https://filetea.me/t1sKNh0ZTl2S8xyckHWoi2ywg) from the
original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. "The $395 program will be shipped to dealers on April 20,
Forethought said."
6. "Microsoft PowerPoint" (http://www.britannica.com/technology/Microsoft-PowerPoint). Encyclopaedia Britannica.
November 25, 2013. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZWsozvhk?url=http://www.britannica.com/technology/Mic
rosoft-PowerPoint) from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. "... in 1987 ... [i]n July of that year,
the Microsoft Corporation, in its first significant software acquisition, purchased the rights to PowerPoint for
$14 million."
7. "Microsoft Buys Software Unit" (https://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/31/business/company-news-microsoft-buys-softwar
e-unit.html). Company News. New York Times. CXXXV (46,717). July 31, 1987. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldc
at.org/issn/0362-4331). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Xw6GNKyw?url=http://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/31/
business/company-news-microsoft-buys-software-unit.html) from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved August 25,
2017. "... the acquisition of Forethought is the first significant one for Microsoft, which is based in Redmond, Wash.
Forethought would remain in Sunnyvale, giving Microsoft a Silicon Valley presence."
8. Flynn, Laurie (June 19, 1989). "The Microsoft Office Bundles 4 Programs" (https://books.google.com/books?id=lzAEA
AAAMBAJ&pg=PA17). InfoWorld. 11 (25). p. 37. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym7SWz2j?url=https://filetea.me/t1s8ljg1ymETEWjSQxw5r2mMQ) from the
original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
9. Johnston, Stuart J. (October 1, 1990). "Office for Windows Bundles Popular Microsoft Applications" (https://books.goo
gle.com/books?id=VTwEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT17). InfoWorld. 12 (40). p. 16. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.or
g/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym8WVBD3?url=https://filetea.me/t1s24zfAGB3Qm6bLZB
2JeRKdg) from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 22/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

10. Austin, Dennis (2001). "PowerPoint Version Timeline (to PowerPoint 7.0, 1995)" (http://www.gbuwizards.com/files/po
werpoint-timeline-to-1995-dennis-austin.pdf) (PDF). GBU Wizards of Menlo Park. Archived (https://www.webcitation.o
rg/6sWbRP9tx?url=https://filetea.me/n3wNc4xaoNgRPCO0cpdXD8mng) from the original on August 6, 2017.
Retrieved August 24, 2017.
11. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170
624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-webpdf-isbn-9
780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
12. Thielsch, Meinald T.; Perabo, Isabel (May 2012). "Use and Evaluation of Presentation Software" (http://www.thielsch.o
rg/download/paper/Thielsch_Perabo_2012.pdf) (PDF). Technical Communication. Society for Technical
Communication. 59 (2): 112123. ISSN 0049-3155 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0049-3155). Archived (https://www.
webcitation.org/6bk3O2vuL?url=http://www.thielsch.org/download/paper/Thielsch_Perabo_2012.pdf) (PDF) from the
original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "For many years, Microsoft has led the market with its
program PowerPoint. Zongker and Salesin (2003) estimated a market share of 95% in 2003, and a Forrester study
(Montalbano, 2009) widely confirmed this number, stating that only 8% of enterprise customers use alternative
products."
13. "Microsoft PowerPoint" (http://www.britannica.com/technology/Microsoft-PowerPoint). Encyclopaedia Britannica.
November 25, 2013. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZWsozvhk?url=http://www.britannica.com/technology/Mic
rosoft-PowerPoint) from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "PowerPoint was developed for
business use but has wide applications elsewhere such as for schools and community organizations." Additional
archives: August 28, 2017 (https://web.archive.org/web/20170828152107/https://www.britannica.com/technology/Micr
osoft-PowerPoint).
14. Davies, Russell (May 26, 2016). "29 Reasons to Love PowerPoint" (http://www.wired.co.uk/article/powerpoint-birthday
-defence). Wired UK. Cond Nast Publications. ISSN 1758-8332 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1758-8332). Archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20170815170737/http://www.wired.co.uk/article/powerpoint-birthday-defence) from the
original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017. Additional archives: September 11, 2017 (https://web.arch
ive.org/web/20170911084850/http://www.russelldavies.com/writing/tuftepowerpoint/tuftepoint.html).
15. Tufte, Edward (2006) [1st ed. 2003, 24 pg.]. The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within (2nd
ed.). Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press LLC. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-9613921-6-1.
16. Atkinson, Cliff; Mayer, Richard E. (April 23, 2004). "Five ways to reduce PowerPoint overload" (https://www.researchg
ate.net/publication/228893840) (PDF). ResearchGate. Revision 1.1. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZMK2qM
Hz?url=https://filetea.me/t1sWlhUAjlwTqxmEj6Ds9ZT4Q) from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved
September 23, 2017.
17. Kosslyn, Stephen M. (2007). Clear and to the Point: Eight Psychological Principles for Compelling PowerPoint
Presentations. Oxford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-19-532069-5.
18. Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics" (http://www.academia.edu/1866305).
Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 17.
doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710 (https://doi.org/10.1145%2F1323688.1323710). ISSN 0001-0782 (https://www.worldca
t.org/issn/0001-0782). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YqhTteCm?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoi
nt-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-at-20-cacm-vol50-no12-dec-2007-p15-p17.pdf) (PDF) from the original on
May 27, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
19. Crowley, Terry (August 21, 2017). "Taking Office Cross-Platform from Inside the Windows Company" (https://hackerno
on.com/taking-office-cross-platform-from-inside-the-windows-company-42c39fa638f5). Hackernoon. Archived (https://
web.archive.org/web/20170826173608/https://hackernoon.com/taking-office-cross-platform-from-inside-the-windows-
company-42c39fa638f5) from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
20. Gomes, Lee (June 20, 2007). "PowerPoint Turns 20, As Its Creators Ponder A Dark Side to Success" (https://www.
wsj.com/articles/SB118228116940840904). Portals. Wall Street Journal. CCXLIX (143) (US ed.). p. B1. ISSN 0099-
9660 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0099-9660). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6sthPU4jp?url=https://filetea.
me/n3wpdnAIxrfQpWtQBrQFab9sg) from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017. "PowerPoint's
two creators ... Robert Gaskins was the visionary entrepreneur ... with major programming done by Dennis Austin, an
old chum ... ."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 23/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

21. Brock, David C. (October 31, 2017). "The Improbable Origins of PowerPoint" (https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/c
yberspace/the-improbable-origins-of-powerpoint). History. IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (published November 2, 2017). 54 (11): 4249. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2017.8093800 (https://doi.org/10.110
9%2FMSPEC.2017.8093800). ISSN 0018-9235 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0018-9235). Archived (https://web.arc
hive.org/web/20171102205858/https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/cyberspace/the-improbable-origins-of-powerpoi
nt) from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017. "PowerPoint was not at all in their original
plan. ... [the founders] Pohlman and Campbell's idea was to bring a graphical-software environment like the Xerox
Alto's to the hugely popular but graphically challenged [IBM] PC. ... Rather than liquidate the firm, management and
investors decided to "restart" Forethought ... ."
22. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170
624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-webpdf-isbn-9
780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
23. Brock, David C. (October 31, 2017). "The Improbable Origins of PowerPoint" (https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/c
yberspace/the-improbable-origins-of-powerpoint). History. IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (published November 2, 2017). 54 (11): 4249. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2017.8093800 (https://doi.org/10.110
9%2FMSPEC.2017.8093800). ISSN 0018-9235 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0018-9235). Archived (https://web.arc
hive.org/web/20171102205858/https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/cyberspace/the-improbable-origins-of-powerpoi
nt) from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017. "... Forethought began to develop a
software product of its own. This new effort was the brainchild of Robert Gaskins, an accomplished computer scientist
who'd been hired to lead Forethought's product development."
24. Gaskins, Robert (August 14, 1984). "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection" (http://www.robertgaskins.com/p
owerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-original-proposal-1984-aug-14.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint History
Documents. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6XzOYyUF1?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-histor
y/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-original-proposal-1984-aug-14.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015.
Retrieved August 21, 2017.
25. Austin, Dennis (2009). "Beginnings of PowerPoint: A Personal Technical Story" (http://archive.computerhistory.org/res
ources/access/text/2012/06/102745695-01-acc.pdf) (PDF). Computer History Museum, Archive. Archived (https://ww
w.webcitation.org/6XzPQeFGD?url=http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/access/text/2012/06/102745695-01-
acc.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. "In October ...I joined Forethought ... ."
26. Austin, Dennis; Gaskins, Robert (August 21, 1985). "Presenter [PowerPoint] Design" (http://www.robertgaskins.com/p
owerpoint-history/documents/austin-gaskins-powerpoint-design-1985-aug-21.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint History
Documents. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6XzPvpgAD?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/
documents/austin-gaskins-powerpoint-design-1985-aug-21.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved
April 22, 2015.
27. Foster, Edward (July 1, 1985). "Microsoft Ships Windows: Once Written Off Because of Delays, Windows Now Seen
as a Contender Against Topview" (https://books.google.com/books?id=EC8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA17). News,
Software. InfoWorld. 7 (26). p. 17. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://web.
archive.org/web/20170824182047/https://books.google.com/books?id=EC8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA17#v=onepage&q&f
=false) from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "'We're quite happy to have people know
our plan is to leverage our Mac experience with Microsoft Windows,' says Robert Gaskins, vice president of
development."
28. Trower, Tandy (November 20, 2010). "The Secret Origin of Windows" (http://www.technologizer.com/2010/11/20/the-s
ecret-origin-of-windows). Technologizer. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20110123114439/http://technologizer.c
om/2010/11/20/the-secret-origin-of-windows-2/comment-page-1/) from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved
August 23, 2017. "Windows 1.0 shipped on November 20th, 1985"
29. Gaskins, Robert (June 27, 1986). "Presenter [PowerPoint] Product Marketing Analysis" (http://www.robertgaskins.co
m/powerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-marketing-analysis-1986-jun-27.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint History
Documents. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0eU3DOh?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-histor
y/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-marketing-analysis-1986-jun-27.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015.
Retrieved August 24, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 24/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

30. Gaskins, Robert (July 15, 1986). "Presenter [PowerPoint] New Product Summary and Review" (http://www.robertgask
ins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-summary-and-review-1986-jul-15.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint
History Documents. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0eheeKi?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-
history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-summary-and-review-1986-jul-15.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 23,
2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
31. Austin, Dennis; Rudkin, Thomas; Gaskins, Robert (May 22, 1986). "Presenter [PowerPoint] Specification" (http://www.
robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/austin-rudkin-gaskins-powerpoint-spec-1986-may-22.pdf) (PDF).
PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0f0j6aZ?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/p
owerpoint-history/documents/austin-rudkin-gaskins-powerpoint-spec-1986-may-22.pdf) (PDF) from the original on
April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
32. Gaskins, Robert (August 13, 2012). "PowerPoint at 25: Conversation with Robert Gaskins" (http://blog.indezine.com/2
012/08/powerpoint-at-25-conversation-with.html#Named) (Interview). Interview with Geetesh Bajaj. Archived (https://
www.webcitation.org/6Y0fUpUMU?url=http://blog.indezine.com/2012/08/powerpoint-at-25-conversation-with.html)
from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
33. Ranney, Elizabeth (May 5, 1986). "Apple Proceeding With Strategic Investment Plans" (https://books.google.com/boo
ks?id=Qi8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA3). "Just Heard" column. InfoWorld. 8 (18). p. 3. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldc
at.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym7tmtXq?url=https://filetea.me/t1swkwPNQcNT1OV
xxWVGlbCeA) from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "[Strategic Investment Group head
Dan] Eilers stressed ... 'we are going to make minority investments in companies that add value to Apple computers
and thereby increase the sales of Apple computers over time.'"
34. Mace, Scott (March 2, 1987). "Presentation Package Lets Users Control Look" (https://books.google.com/books?id=1
TAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA5). InfoWorld. 9 (9). p. 5. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym2krMYP?url=https://filetea.me/t1sKNh0ZTl2S8xyckHWoi2ywg) from the
original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
35. Gaskins, Robert (May 25, 1987). "Forethought Restart Completed (A Brief History)" (http://www.robertgaskins.com/po
werpoint-history/documents/gaskins-history-of-forethought-1987-may-25.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents.
p. 9. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0s56e6A?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/docume
nts/gaskins-history-of-forethought-1987-may-25.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 24,
2017. "We completed PowerPoint so as to ship it on schedule on April 20. By early May, we had shipped about
$1,000,000 worth of PowerPoint and exhausted the first printing of 10,000 copies."
36. Microsoft Corporation (April 8, 2010). "The History of MicrosoftThe Jeff Raikes Story, Part Two" (http://channel9.ms
dn.com/series/history/the-history-of-microsoft-the-jeff-raikes-story-part-two). Channel9 videos, Microsoft Developer
Network. 05:42 to 07:18. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170824185801/https://channel9.msdn.com/Series/
History/The-History-of-Microsoft-The-Jeff-Raikes-Story-Part-Two) from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved
August 24, 2017. "Jeff Raikes talks ... about having an idea in 1987 for a presentation product before discovering
Forethought, which had a product called PowerPoint." A transcript (https://www.webcitation.org/6Yp0CXRBx?url=http
s://filetea.me/t1s6cpDUdxcROysEP9aBVOGHQ) of the relevant section is also available.
37. May, Trish (January 17, 2010). "The Road to the Cure" (https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/17/jobs/17boss.html). New
York Times (New York ed.). p. BU7. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Archived (https://ww
w.webcitation.org/6YonritGa?url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/17/jobs/17boss.html?_r=0) from the original on
May 26, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "I wrote and presented a proposal to Bill Gates for a new piece of software
for the personal computer, specifically to help people create presentations ... ."
38. Swaine, Michael (September 1, 1991). "Calling Apple's Bluff" (http://www.drdobbs.com/calling-apples-bluff/18440862
3). Dr. Dobb's Journal. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Zba5qXQj?url=https://filetea.me/t1sWOUvVIUxQ1q3s2
Yn7UdfxA) from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "I [Dave Winer] had a meeting with Bill
Gates in, I guess it was February of '87 ... We worked out a letter of intent."
39. Carroll, Paul B. (March 6, 1987). "New Software Simplifies Show and Tell" (https://secure.pqarchiver.com/wsj/doc/1
35282891.html). Technology. Wall Street Journal. p. 33. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0099-9660).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6stGJoV2i?url=https://filetea.me/n3wkyU6jExiTquT65RsohieMQ) from the
original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 25/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

40. Winer, Dave (April 10, 2010). "Microsoft rejection letter, 1987" (http://scripting.com/stories/2010/04/10/microsoftRejecti
onLetter19.html). Scripting News. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6XqDX2a6m?url=http://scripting.com/stories/
2010/04/10/microsoftRejectionLetter19.html) from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
41. Shirley, Jon (May 13, 1987). "[Microsoft] Letter of Intent [to acquire Forethought]" (http://www.robertgaskins.com/powe
rpoint-history/documents/microsoft-letter-of-intent-for-forethought-1987-may-13.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint History
Documents. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20140517183105/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-histor
y/documents/microsoft-letter-of-intent-for-forethought-1987-may-13.pdf) (PDF) from the original on May 17, 2014.
Retrieved August 21, 2017.
42. "Microsoft Buys Software Unit" (https://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/31/business/company-news-microsoft-buys-softwar
e-unit.html). Company News. New York Times. CXXXV (46,717). July 31, 1987. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldc
at.org/issn/0362-4331). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Xw6GNKyw?url=http://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/31/
business/company-news-microsoft-buys-software-unit.html) from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved August 21,
2017.
43. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800" (ht
tps://www.minneapolisfed.org/community/teaching-aids/cpi-calculator-information/consumer-price-index-1800).
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
44. Parker, Rachel (August 3, 1987). "Microsoft Acquires Forethought, Publisher of PowerPoint Package" (https://books.g
oogle.com/books?id=1zsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA8). News. InfoWorld. 9 (31). p. 8. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldc
at.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZVlHDCYN?url=https://filetea.me/t1sZ0YKQbIxQxKU
b7kT6fp3Xw) from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2017. "The Forethought group will become
Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit, forming a permanent Microsoft development and marketing facility in Sunnyvale,
California. With a site in California, Microsoft hopes to recruit programmers who might not want to relocate to
Washington, [Microsoft president Jon] Shirley said."
45. Gaskins, Robert (August 8, 1988). "Results of Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit after Our First Year" (http://www.rob
ertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-gbu-first-year-report-to-microsoft-1988-aug-08.pdf) (PDF).
PowerPoint History Documents (Microsoft Memo). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0vKRl0W?url=http://www.
robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-gbu-first-year-report-to-microsoft-1988-aug-08.pdf) (PDF)
from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
46. Pournelle, Jerry (January 1989). "To the Stars" (https://archive.org/stream/byte-magazine-1989-01/1989_01_BYTE_1
4-01_PC_Communications_and_Annual_Awards_and_Digitizing_Tablets#page/n151/mode/2up). BYTE. Vol. 14
no. 1. p. 120. ISSN 0360-5280 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0360-5280). Archived (https://archive.is/201709302226
15/https://archive.org/stream/byte-magazine-1989-01/1989_01_BYTE_14-01_PC_Communications_and_Annual_Aw
ards_and_Digitizing_Tablets%23page/n151/mode/2up#page/n151/mode/2up) from the original on September 30,
2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017. "I'll just say that if you're in the business of putting on briefings and otherwise
making presentations, you might want to seriously contemplate getting a Mac II just so you can use this program; it's
that good. Highly recommended."
47. Borzo, Jeanette (May 18, 1992). "PowerPoint users pleased by changes" (https://books.google.com/books?id=XlEEA
AAAMBAJ&pg=PA15). InfoWorld. 14 (20). IDG. p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnF6x0m9?url=https://filetea.me/t1s93DMYfS1T7Gs3VyxWzxRZw) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
48. Gaskins, Robert (August 8, 1988). "Results of Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit after Our First Year" (http://www.rob
ertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-gbu-first-year-report-to-microsoft-1988-aug-08.pdf) (PDF).
PowerPoint History Documents (Microsoft Memo). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0vKRl0W?url=http://www.
robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/gaskins-gbu-first-year-report-to-microsoft-1988-aug-08.pdf) (PDF)
from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2017. "We have learned a tremendous number of technical
insights through working with the Genigraphics engineering group ... ."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 26/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

49. Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics" (http://www.academia.edu/1866305).
Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 1517.
doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710 (https://doi.org/10.1145%2F1323688.1323710). ISSN 0001-0782 (https://www.worldca
t.org/issn/0001-0782). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YqhTteCm?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoi
nt-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-at-20-cacm-vol50-no12-dec-2007-p15-p17.pdf) (PDF) from the original on
May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. The first three versions are described in the sidebar, "Presentation
Formats and PowerPoint," p. 17.
50. Flynn, Laurie (June 19, 1989). "The Microsoft Office Bundles 4 Programs" (https://books.google.com/books?id=lzAEA
AAAMBAJ&pg=PA17). InfoWorld. 11 (25). p. 37. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym7SWz2j?url=https://filetea.me/t1s8ljg1ymETEWjSQxw5r2mMQ) from the
original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "A special promotion announced last week by Microsoft Corp.
enables Macintosh customers to buy four of the company's business applications at a 35 percent discount. The
special edition, called The Microsoft Office, includes Word 4.0, Excel 2.2, PowerPoint 2.01, and Mail 1.37. The
package sells for $849; if purchased separately, the programs would cost $1,310, the company said. The promotion is
available until the end of the year."
51. Johnston, Stuart J. (October 1, 1990). "Office for Windows Bundles Popular Microsoft Applications" (https://books.goo
gle.com/books?id=VTwEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT17). InfoWorld. 12 (40). p. 16. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.or
g/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym8WVBD3?url=https://filetea.me/t1s24zfAGB3Qm6bLZB
2JeRKdg) from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "Microsoft last week announced the release
of The Microsoft Office for Windows, which bundles three of the company's popular Windows applicationsWord,
Excel, and PowerPointfor significantly less than they would cost separately. The product brings to the Windows
environment basically the equivalent of The Microsoft Office for Macintosh, which was announced a year ago."
52. Austin, Dennis (2001). "PowerPoint Version Timeline (to PowerPoint 7.0, 1995)" (http://www.gbuwizards.com/files/po
werpoint-timeline-to-1995-dennis-austin.pdf) (PDF). GBU Wizards of Menlo Park. Archived (https://www.webcitation.o
rg/6sWbRP9tx?url=https://filetea.me/n3wNc4xaoNgRPCO0cpdXD8mng) from the original on August 6, 2017.
Retrieved August 24, 2017.
53. Microsoft Corporation (March 1993). "New PowerPoint 3.0. Because powerful tools make powerful presentations" (htt
ps://archive.org/stream/MacWorld_9303_March_1993#page/n1/mode/2up). MacWorld (advertisement). 10 (3).
pp. BA1BA2 (inside front cover spread). ISSN 0741-8647 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0741-8647). Archived (http
s://www.webcitation.org/6sxzJkfQc?url=https://filetea.me/n3wgT51xEYjRt6alx4riYE5fg) from the original on August
24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
54. "Microsoft Office now has Mail, PowerPoint" (https://books.google.com/books?id=EVEEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA15#v=one
page&q&f=false). Pipeline. InfoWorld. 14 (35). August 31, 1992. p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/iss
n/0199-6649). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161221124333/https://books.google.com/books/content?id=E
VEEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA15&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U0RcN93Pp_McbAK0yCLoIO3niurMw) from the
original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
55. Gates, Bill (February 19, 1991). "Market Share of Applications in the United States" (http://antitrust.slated.org/www.io
waconsumercase.org/011607/0000/PX00577.pdf) (PDF). Slated Antitrust (scanned court evidence files) (Microsoft
Memo). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y0zQem4h?url=http://antitrust.slated.org/www.iowaconsumercase.or
g/011607/0000/PX00577.pdf) (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
56. S&P Global Market Intelligence (2017). "Executive Profile: Vijay R. Vashee" (https://www.bloomberg.com/research/sto
cks/private/person.asp?personId=1123010&privcapId=1217370). Bloomberg.com. Archived (https://web.archive.org/w
eb/20170822230747/https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/person.asp?personId=1123010&privcapId=
1217370) from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017. "From 1982 ... Mr. Vashee served in
various senior marketing, product management and executive positions at Microsoft. ... and as the General Manager
for Power Point from 1992 to 1997 ... played a key role in the integration of PowerPoint into the Microsoft Office
suite."
57. Fridlund, Alan (June 6, 1994). "PowerPoint 4.0 makes it into the big time" (https://books.google.com/books?id=hzgEA
AAAMBAJ&pg=PA95). Reviews. InfoWorld. 16 (23). pp. 9598. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-
6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YmAg2aM9?url=https://filetea.me/t1sdT1vnOdpQOqyCVTgHxyljA)
from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 27/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

58. Lassesen, Ken (October 17, 1995). "Using Microsoft OLE Automation Servers to Develop Solutions" (http://www.lasse
sen.com/msdn/using%20microsoft%20ole%20automation%20servers%20to%20develop%20solutions.pdf) (PDF).
Archive of Articles from MSDN Technology Group. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y23bzFsW?url=http://www.
lassesen.com/msdn/using%20microsoft%20ole%20automation%20servers%20to%20develop%20solutions.pdf)
(PDF) from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "Note that version 7.0 of a product is the same
as a '95' designation, for example, Microsoft Excel 95 is the same as Microsoft Excel version 7.0."
59. Microsoft (May 2006). "Developer Overview of the User Interface for the 2007 Microsoft Office System" (https://msdn.
microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa338198(v=office.12).aspx). Microsoft Developer Network. Archived (https://web.archive.
org/web/20170707194202/https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa338198(v=office.12).aspx) from the original on
July 7, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
60. Gaskins, Robert (August 17, 2007). "Microsoft's 20-year PPT party" (http://www.robertgaskins.com/). Robert Gaskins
Home Page. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170824202650/http://www.robertgaskins.com/) from the original
on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
61. Crowley, Terry (July 17, 2017). "Taking Office Agile" (https://hackernoon.com/taking-office-agile-455f243e0978).
Hackernoon. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170826172707/https://hackernoon.com/taking-office-agile-455f
243e0978?gi=35cf5f3e003) from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
62. Microsoft (2017). "What's New in PowerPoint 2016 for Windows" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-s-new-
in-PowerPoint-2016-for-Windows-e8ef980c-5b12-4fff-ae3f-0819e6a21a1f). Microsoft Support. Archived (https://web.a
rchive.org/web/20170731220459/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-s-new-in-PowerPoint-2016-for-Window
s-e8ef980c-5b12-4fff-ae3f-0819e6a21a1f) from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
63. "Microsoft Careers: Senior Software Engineer (Job #1064262)" (https://careers.microsoft.com/jobdetails.aspx?ss=&p
g=0&so=&rw=1&jid=305962&jlang=EN&pp=SS). Microsoft Silicon Valley. August 17, 2017. Archived (https://web.arch
ive.org/web/20170821205245/https://careers.microsoft.com/jobdetails.aspx?ss=&pg=0&so=&rw=1&jid=305962&jlang
=en&pp=ss) from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017. "Come join the PowerPoint team ... in
the heart of the Silicon Valley in Mountain View, CA. The PowerPoint team has the responsibility for the design,
implementation, and testing ... ."
64. Microsoft Corp. (January 10, 2008). "Microsoft Announces Retirement and Transition Plan for Jeff Raikes, President
of the Microsoft Business Division" (http://news.microsoft.com/2008/01/10/microsoft-announces-retirement-and-transit
ion-plan-for-jeff-raikes-president-of-the-microsoft-business-division/). Microsoft News Center. Archived (https://www.w
ebcitation.org/6ZGU3ZJi8?url=http://news.microsoft.com/2008/01/10/microsoft-announces-retirement-and-transition-p
lan-for-jeff-raikes-president-of-the-microsoft-business-division/) from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved
August 25, 2017. "MBD has grown to include ... the Microsoft Office system ... ."
65. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170
624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-webpdf-isbn-9
780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017. Rounded unit sales figures
are from the revenue tables (p. 403) adjusted to calendar years (p. 170) with the transfer pricing indicated (p. 182).
66. Reimer, Jeremy (December 14, 2005). "Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures" (https://arst
echnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share). Ars Technica. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZMafB7qq?url=htt
p://www.360doc.com/content/12/0124/10/28217_181627497.shtml) from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved
August 25, 2017. "... the IBM PC platform ... an 84% share in 1990. The Macintosh stabilized at about 6% market
share ... ."
67. "Egghead Software Sales: ... Graphics/DOS" (https://books.google.com/books?id=uzsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT33&lpg=P
T33). InfoWorld. 11 (1). January 2, 1989. p. 32. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived
(https://archive.org/stream/Infoworld-1989-01-02#page/n31/) from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved
September 9, 2017. "Graphics/DOS ... 1 Harvard Graphics (Software Publishing), 2 Freelance + (Lotus) ... ."
68. Watt, Peggy (January 27, 1986). "Software Publishing adds graphic package to Harvard line" (https://books.google.co
m/books?id=33QfOHT69aMC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10). Computerworld. XX (4). IDG Communications. p. 10.
ISSN 0010-4841 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0010-4841). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6tM1bxeaU?url=ht
tps://filetea.me/n3wKciph2t9QxChZDY7ePKACg) from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9,
2017. "... graphics presentation program, Harvard Presentation Graphics, introduced last week. ... will be available in
March ... ."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 28/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

69. Schemenaur, PJ (October 27, 1986). "Lotus to Unveil Revision of Freelance" (https://books.google.com/books?id=mT
wEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3). InfoWorld. 8 (43). p. 3. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-664
9). Archived (https://archive.org/stream/Infoworld-1986-10-27#page/n1) from the original on September 9, 2017.
Retrieved September 9, 2017. "... Freelance Plus, the first new release of Freelance since Lotus acquired the
graphics package from Graphics Communications Inc. in June."
70. Howard, Bill; Kunkel, Gerard (September 27, 1988). "More Than Meets the Eye: Designing Great Graphics" (https://b
ooks.google.com/books?id=UenCawr7OowC&pg=PA95&lpg=PA95). PC Magazine. 7 (16). Ziff Davis. p. 95.
ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0888-8507). Archived (https://archive.org/stream/PC-Mag-1988-09-27
#page/n95/) from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017. "Harvard Graphics gained the top
spot this year, and now outsells Freelance Plus by a three-to-two margin."
71. "Designing Great Graphics: Desktop Solutions" (https://books.google.com/books?id=UenCawr7OowC&pg=PA109&lp
g=PA109). PC Magazine. 7 (16). Ziff Davis. September 27, 1988. pp. 109179. ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldca
t.org/issn/0888-8507). Archived (https://archive.org/stream/PC-Mag-1988-09-27#page/n109/) from the original on
September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017. "18 ... software packages reviewed ... ."
72. Parker, Rachel (August 3, 1987). "Microsoft Acquires Forethought, Publisher of PowerPoint Package" (https://books.g
oogle.com/books?id=1zsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA8). News. InfoWorld. 9 (31). p. 8. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldc
at.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZVlHDCYN?url=https://filetea.me/t1sZ0YKQbIxQxKU
b7kT6fp3Xw) from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. "[Microsoft president Jon] Shirley ...
said that Microsoft has no firm plans currently to develop an MS-DOS version of PowerPoint."
73. Gates, Bill (August 16, 1993). "Free market economicsnot interventiondrives innovation" (https://books.google.co
m/books?id=qjsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA44). Letters to the Editor. InfoWorld. 15 (33). p. 44. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://ww
w.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YmBkekB0?url=https://filetea.me/t1sRyyL0aA
KRemuy8x8TwCfww) from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2017. "Data from the Software
Publishers Association and other sources show that in 1992, while overall sales of application products grew only 12
percent, sales of Windows-based applications grew by nearly 100 percent. At least a dozen companies besides
Microsoft have sold more than 1 million units of Windows applications."
74. Ziff Davis Market Intelligence (September 1998). "The 800-Pound Gorilla of the Presentation Market" (https://www.we
bcitation.org/6bxj2eryp?url=https://filetea.me/t1sEVBHlotISPCAVUKpeg2F5A). Mobile Computing and
Communications [later, Mobile Office]. Petersen Publishing. 9 (9): 95. ISSN 1047-1952 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/
1047-1952). Archived from the original (https://filetea.me/t1sEVBHlotISPCAVUKpeg2F5A) on October 1, 2015. "... in
1997, without question the market leader was Microsoft Corp.'s PowerPoint, which sold more than 4 million copies
and controls 85 percent of the market." Additional archives: August 26, 2017 (https://www.webcitation.org/6t0tlDVeT?
url=https://filetea.me/n3wiYbSzCLuStyw3hl7fDW0dA).
75. Belleville, Catherine; Peterson, Lucy; Somogyi, Aniko (April 1997). "PowerPoint: The First Ten Years" (http://www.robe
rtgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/documents/belleville-peterson-somogyi-gbu-10-year-reunion-1997-apr.pdf) (PDF).
PowerPoint History Documents. pp. 2, 8. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y6rvoetr?url=http://www.robertgaski
ns.com/powerpoint-history/documents/belleville-peterson-somogyi-gbu-10-year-reunion-1997-apr.pdf) (PDF) from the
original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 29/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

76. Thielsch, Meinald T.; Perabo, Isabel (May 2012). "Use and Evaluation of Presentation Software" (http://www.thielsch.o
rg/download/paper/Thielsch_Perabo_2012.pdf) (PDF). Technical Communication. Society for Technical
Communication. 59 (2): 112123. ISSN 0049-3155 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0049-3155). Archived (https://www.
webcitation.org/6bk3O2vuL?url=http://www.thielsch.org/download/paper/Thielsch_Perabo_2012.pdf) (PDF) from the
original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. "For many years, Microsoft has led the market with its
program PowerPoint. Zongker and Salesin (2003) estimated a market share of 95% in 2003, and a Forrester study
(Montalbano, 2009) widely confirmed this number, stating that only 8% of enterprise customers use alternative
products. ... we confirm the prior estimates ... ." Embedded citations: (1) Zongker, Douglas E.; Salesin, David H.
(2003). "On Creating Animated Presentations" (http://grail.cs.washington.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/zongker-2
003-oca.pdf) (PDF). SCA '03 Symposium on Computer Animation 2003. Eurographics/SIGGRAPH Symposium on
Computer Animation, San Diego, CA, July 2627, 2003 (http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=846276). Aire-la-Ville,
Switzerland: Eurographics Association. pp. 298308. ISBN 978-1-58113-659-3. Archived (https://www.webcitation.or
g/6bk2fHC1g?url=http://grail.cs.washington.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/zongker-2003-oca.pdf) (PDF) from the
original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. (2) Montalbano, Elizabeth (June 4, 2009). "Forrester:
Microsoft Office in No Danger From Competitors" (http://www.pcworld.com/article/166123). PC World. ISSN 0737-
8939 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0737-8939). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20160816143250/http://www.
pcworld.com/article/166123/article.html) from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
77. Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics" (http://www.academia.edu/1866305).
Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 1517.
doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710 (https://doi.org/10.1145%2F1323688.1323710). ISSN 0001-0782 (https://www.worldca
t.org/issn/0001-0782). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YqhTteCm?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoi
nt-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-at-20-cacm-vol50-no12-dec-2007-p15-p17.pdf) (PDF) from the original on
May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2017. The first three versions are described in the sidebar, "Presentation
Formats and PowerPoint," p. 17.
78. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170
624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-webpdf-isbn-9
780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
79. "The End of the Carousel Slide Projector?" (https://www.edwardtufte.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg?msg_id=0000n
8). Edward Tufte Forum. July 14, 2003. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20111103030333/http://www.edwardtuft
e.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg?msg_id=0000n8) from the original on November 3, 2011. Retrieved August 20,
2017. "Eastman Kodak Company has confirmed plans to discontinue the manufacture and sales of slide projection
products and accessories in June of 2004."
80. Yates, JoAnne; Orlikowski, Wanda (2007). "Chapter 4: The PowerPoint Presentation and Its Corollaries: How Genres
Shape Communicative Action in Organizations" (http://seeit.mit.edu/publications/yatesorlikowski_powerpoint_2006.pd
f) (PDF). In Zachry, Mark; Thralls, Charlotte. Communicative Practices in Workplaces and the Professions: Cultural
Perspectives on the Regulation of Discourse and Organizations. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Publishing Co. pp. 6791.
ISBN 978-0-89503-372-7. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YIufUdMc?url=http://seeit.mit.edu/publications/yate
sorlikowski_powerpoint_2006.pdf) (PDF) from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
81. Lyndersay, Sean (June 8, 2010). "What is the non-branded term for a PowerPoint that you use at your company?" (htt
ps://www.quora.com/What-is-the-non-branded-term-for-a-PowerPoint-that-you-use-at-your-company). Quora.
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Xw0uhsdb?url=https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-non-branded-term-for-a-P
owerPoint-that-you-use-at-your-company/) from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2017. "We (the
PowerPoint team) most often use the term deck. When we have to write formal[ly] or semi-formally (e.g. on a blog
post), we use the term presentation (which I believe is what all of our online documentation uses) ... we never, even
informally, use the phrase 'a PowerPoint' to refer to a presentation (or deck :)."
82. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Basic tasks for creating a PowerPoint presentation" (https://support.office.com/en-us/ar
ticle/Basic-tasks-for-creating-a-PowerPoint-presentation-efbbc1cd-c5f1-4264-b48e-c8a7b0334e36). Microsoft Office
Support. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170709192522/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Basic-tasks-f
or-creating-a-PowerPoint-presentation-efbbc1cd-c5f1-4264-b48e-c8a7b0334e36) from the original on July 9, 2017.
Retrieved August 18, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 30/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

83. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Start the presentation and see your notes in Presenter view" (https://support.office.co
m/en-us/article/Start-the-presentation-and-see-your-notes-in-Presenter-view-4de90e28-487e-435c-9401-eb49a38012
57). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818222229/https://support.office.com/en-u
s/article/Start-the-presentation-and-see-your-notes-in-Presenter-view-4de90e28-487e-435c-9401-eb49a3801257)
from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
84. "Microsoft PowerPoint, Version 2.4" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/microsoft-powerpoint/id586449534). Apple
iTunes Store. August 14, 2017. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818182030/https://itunes.apple.com/us/a
pp/microsoft-powerpoint/id586449534) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. "Start the
slide show with your Apple Watch and easily navigate to the next and previous slides."
85. "Microsoft PowerPoint" (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.microsoft.office.powerpoint). Google Play
Store. August 14, 2017. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818181821/https://play.google.com/store/apps/d
etails?id=com.microsoft.office.powerpoint) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
86. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Choose the right view for the task in PowerPoint" (https://support.office.com/en-us/artic
le/Choose-the-right-view-for-the-task-in-PowerPoint-21332d8d-adbc-4717-a2c6-e25a697b40e9). Microsoft Office
Support. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818223414/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Choose-the-r
ight-view-for-the-task-in-PowerPoint-21332d8d-adbc-4717-a2c6-e25a697b40e9) from the original on August 18,
2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. (This mode of operation was available since version 1.0.)
87. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Print your handouts, notes, or slides" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Print-your
-handouts-notes-or-slides-91c62c83-9032-497c-ab76-cae8f3e1a402). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://web.
archive.org/web/20170818223841/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Print-your-handouts-notes-or-slides-91c62c
83-9032-497c-ab76-cae8f3e1a402) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. (This mode of
operation was available since version 1.0.)
88. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "View a presentation without PowerPoint" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/View-
a-presentation-without-PowerPoint-2f1077ab-9a4e-41ba-9f75-d55bd9b231a6). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (htt
ps://web.archive.org/web/20170818224151/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/View-a-presentation-without-Powe
rPoint-2f1077ab-9a4e-41ba-9f75-d55bd9b231a6) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
89. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Package a presentation for CD" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Package-a-pre
sentation-for-CD-52d431bf-01e2-44db-bc40-49777b7cf55a). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://web.archive.o
rg/web/20170818232256/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Package-a-presentation-for-CD-52d431bf-01e2-44db
-bc40-49777b7cf55a) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
90. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Present online using the Office Presentation Service" (https://support.office.com/en-us/
article/Present-online-using-the-Office-Presentation-Service-c1fd3f16-97c0-4f96-91c3-79e147e7e574). Microsoft
Office Support. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818225610/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Prese
nt-online-using-the-Office-Presentation-Service-c1fd3f16-97c0-4f96-91c3-79e147e7e574) from the original on August
18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. "This feature was known as the 'presentation broadcast service' in previous
versions of PowerPoint."
91. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Embed a presentation in a web page or blog" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/E
mbed-a-presentation-in-a-web-page-or-blog-19668a1d-2299-4af3-91e1-ae57af723a60). Microsoft Office Support.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818225838/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Embed-a-presentation
-in-a-web-page-or-blog-19668a1d-2299-4af3-91e1-ae57af723a60) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved
August 18, 2017.
92. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Post a presentation to Facebook, Twitter, or other social network" (https://support.offic
e.com/en-us/article/Post-a-presentation-to-Facebook-Twitter-or-other-social-network-d0692c2c-5154-43df-994e-9455
c1ad69dd). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170818230412/https://support.office.co
m/en-us/article/Post-a-presentation-to-Facebook-Twitter-or-other-social-network-d0692c2c-5154-43df-994e-9455c1ad
69dd) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
93. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Create a self-running presentation" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Create-a-s
elf-running-presentation-57fc41ae-f36a-4fb5-94a3-52d5bc466037). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://web.ar
chive.org/web/20170818230619/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Create-a-self-running-presentation-57fc41ae-f
36a-4fb5-94a3-52d5bc466037) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 31/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

94. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Turn your presentation into a video" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Turn-your-
presentation-into-a-video-c140551f-cb37-4818-b5d4-3e30815c3e83). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://web.
archive.org/web/20170818230906/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Turn-your-presentation-into-a-video-c14055
1f-cb37-4818-b5d4-3e30815c3e83) from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
95. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170
624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-webpdf-isbn-9
780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
96. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170
624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-webpdf-isbn-9
780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017. Rounded unit sales figures
are from the revenue tables (p. 403) adjusted to calendar years (p. 170) with the transfer pricing indicated (p. 182).
97. Ziff Davis Market Intelligence (September 1998). "The 800-Pound Gorilla of the Presentation Market" (https://www.we
bcitation.org/6bxj2eryp?url=https://filetea.me/t1sEVBHlotISPCAVUKpeg2F5A). Mobile Computing and
Communications [later, Mobile Office]. Petersen Publishing. 9 (9): 95. ISSN 1047-1952 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/
1047-1952). Archived from the original (https://filetea.me/t1sEVBHlotISPCAVUKpeg2F5A) on October 1, 2015.
Retrieved September 29, 2017. "... in 1997, without question the market leader was Microsoft Corp.'s PowerPoint,
which sold more than 4 million copies and controls 85 percent of the market." Additional archives: August 26, 2017 (ht
tps://www.webcitation.org/6t0tlDVeT?url=https://filetea.me/n3wiYbSzCLuStyw3hl7fDW0dA).
98. Gaskins, Robert (October 2016). "The Man Who Invented PowerPoint" (http://bento.hult.edu/the-man-who-dreamed-o
f-powerpoint/). Bento (Interview) (7). Interview with Clay Chandler. Hult International Business School. Archived (http
s://web.archive.org/web/20170922214245/http://bento.hult.edu/the-man-who-dreamed-of-powerpoint/) from the
original on September 22, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2017. "PowerPoint succeeded so quickly because it
spread rapidly by viral transmission from user to user ... every time early adopters used our product effectively, they
demonstrated its value to other potential customers. PowerPoint made it especially easy for colleagues within the
same company to share materials and incorporate one anothers slides into their presentations with automatic
formatting. This created networks of cooperation that benefited everyone."
99. Gerstner, Louis V., Jr. (2002). Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround. HarperCollins.
p. 43. ISBN 978-0060523794. "[Gerstner:] By that afternoon an email about my hitting the Off button on the overhead
projector was crisscrossing the world. Talk about consternation! It was as if the President of the United States had
banned the use of English at White House meetings."
100. Rae-Dupree, Janet, ed. (January 27, 1997). "Sun Microsystems' Chief: A Mission Against 'Dark Side' (Q & A With
Scott McNealy)" (http://www.mercurynews.com/archive-search/). Business Monday. San Jose Mercury News
(Morning Final ed.). p. 8E. ISSN 0747-2099 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0747-2099). Archived (https://www.webcita
tion.org/6thZDfDfy?url=https://filetea.me/n3wHzDE7FZKSFqqS6e5Vl8ICw) from the original on September 23, 2017.
Retrieved September 23, 2017. "[McNealy:] ' ... we've had three unbelievable record-breaking fiscal quarters since we
banned PowerPoint. Now, I would argue that every company in the world, if they would just ban PowerPoint, would
see their earnings skyrocket. Employees would stand around going, "What do I do? Guess I've got to go to work." '"
Additional archives: September 23, 2017 (https://archive.is/20170923220156/https://filetea.me/n3wHzDE7FZKSFqqS
6e5Vl8ICw).
101. Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. Simon and Schuster. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9. "[Jobs:] 'People would
confront a problem by creating a presentation. I wanted them to engage, to hash things out at the table, rather than
show a bunch of slides. People who know what they're talking about don't need PowerPoint.'"
102. Gold, Rich (2002) [Syposium paper 1999]. "Chapter 14: Reading PowerPoint" (https://faculty.washington.edu/farkas/T
C510-Fall2011/GoldReadingPowerpoint.pdf) (PDF). In Allen, Nancy. Working with Words and Images: New Steps in
an Old Dance. New Directions in Computers and Composition Studies. Westport, Conn.: Ablex Publishing. pp. 256
270. ISBN 978-1-56750-608-2. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170923165414/https://faculty.washington.ed
u/farkas/TC510-Fall2011/GoldReadingPowerpoint.pdf) (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved
September 23, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 32/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

103. Robles-Anderson, Erica; Svensson, Patrik (January 15, 2016). " 'One Damn Slide After Another': PowerPoint at Every
Occasion for Speech" (http://computationalculture.net/article/one-damn-slide-after-another-powerpoint-at-every-occas
ion-for-speech). Computational Culture. 1 (5). ISSN 2047-2390 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/2047-2390). Archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20170906030606/http://computationalculture.net/article/one-damn-slide-after-another-po
werpoint-at-every-occasion-for-speech) from the original on September 6, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
104. Lucky, Robert W. (January 1998). "The World According to PowerPoint" (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/64601
0/). Reflections. IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 35 (1): 17.
doi:10.1109/MSPEC.1998.646010 (https://doi.org/10.1109%2FMSPEC.1998.646010). ISSN 0018-9235 (https://www.
worldcat.org/issn/0018-9235). Archived (https://archive.is/20171110173630/http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6460
10/) from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017. Additional archives: November 12, 2017
(https://web.archive.org/web/20171112175741/http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=00646010).
105. Guernsey, Lisa (May 31, 2001). "PowerPoint Invades the Classroom" (https://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/31/technolog
y/31POWE.html). Technology. New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331).
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170606211756/http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/31/technology/powerpoint-i
nvades-the-classroom.html) from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "PowerPointthe
must-have presentation software of the corporate worldhas infiltrated the schoolhouse. In the coming weeks,
students from 12th grade to, yes, kindergarten will finish science projects and polish end-of-the-year presentations on
computerized slide shows ... . Software designed for business people has found an audience among the spiral
notebook set."
106. Levasseur, David G.; Sawyer, J. Kanan (August 19, 2006). "Pedagogy Meets PowerPoint: A Research Review of the
Effects of Computer-Generated Slides in the Classroom" (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1535859060
0763383). Review of Communication. Taylor and Francis. 6 (12): 101123. doi:10.1080/15358590600763383 (http
s://doi.org/10.1080%2F15358590600763383). ISSN 1535-8593 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1535-8593). Archived
(https://www.webcitation.org/6YM4kjvL0?url=http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15358590600763383) from
the original on May 7, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "Higher education has certainly not been immune from
the growing influence of presentation software. ... Five years ago, none of our department's classrooms were
equipped to show multimedia slides. At present, all of our classrooms have been upgraded with such technology, and
faculty are actively encouraged to incorporate slides into their lectures. Our institution is certainly not alone in this
trend. A large number of educators in the United States use PowerPoint in their classrooms ... [with 84 references to
earlier studies]."
107. Pinker, Steven (June 10, 2010). "Mind Over Mass Media" (https://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/11/opinion/11Pinker.htm
l). Opinion Pages. New York Times (New York ed.). p. A31. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-433
1). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170910050739/http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/11/opinion/11Pinker.htm
l) from the original on September 10, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "These days scientists ... cannot lecture
without PowerPoint."
108. "Making a Large Format Scientific Poster Using PowerPoint" (http://www.umt.edu/ugresearch/documents/make_poste
rs.pdf) (PDF). University of Montana. February 1, 2001. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20131231122843/htt
p://www.umt.edu/ugresearch/documents/make_posters.pdf) (PDF) from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved
September 23, 2017. "PowerPoint ... can do all the basics [using PowerPoint 2000]."
109. Watson, Jeremy (August 12, 2005). "Presentation softwareworship at the click of a mouse" (http://www.brnow.org/R
esources/Archives-2000-2007/August-2005/Presentation-software-worship-at-the-click-of-a-mo). BRNow.org.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170923182647/https://brnow.org/Resources/Archives-2000-2007/August-200
5/Presentation-software-worship-at-the-click-of-a-mo) from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved
September 23, 2017. "According to LifeWay, 'Statistics show that around 90 percent of churches that show
multimedia during worship use Microsoft PowerPoint.'"
110. Armstrong, Ken (December 23, 2014). "The Sneakiest Way Prosecutors Get a Guilty Verdict: PowerPoint" (https://ww
w.wired.com/2014/12/prosecutors-powerpoint-presentations/). Wired Magazine. ISSN 1059-1028 (https://www.worldc
at.org/issn/1059-1028). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20141223195616/http://www.wired.com/2014/12/prose
cutors-powerpoint-presentations) from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "The use
of sophisticated visuals in the courtroom has boomed in recent years, thanks to research on the power of show-and-
tell. ... In one civil case in Los Angeles County, a plaintiff spent $60,000 on a PowerPoint slide show."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 33/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

111. Gordon, David (2015). "David Gordon Choral Supertitles" (http://www.gordonsupertitles.com/tech.html). David Gordon
Supertitles. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161023022014/http://gordonsupertitles.com/tech.html) from the
original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "... supertitles are simple PowerPoint presentations,
completely compatible with PCs or Macs."
112. Bortman, Henry (October 13, 2005). "Making a List, Checking It Twice" (https://www.astrobio.net/moon-to-mars/makin
g-a-list-checking-it-twice/). Astrobiology Magazine. NASA. ISSN 2152-1239 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/2152-123
9). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170923193329/https://www.astrobio.net/moon-to-mars/making-a-list-chec
king-it-twice/) from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "... They're mounted in the
helmet so that when you turn and look, there's this little screen that shows the checklist. Now in this case, I've written
the checklists and put them in PowerPoint, so we just launch a PowerPoint slide show. ... It's a real treat to use."
113. Jaffe, Greg (April 26, 2000). "What's Your Point, Lieutenant? Please, Just Cut to the Pie Charts" (https://www.wsj.co
m/articles/SB956703757412556977). A-Hed. Wall Street Journal (US ed.). p. A1. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.world
cat.org/issn/0099-9660). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ta1rPrxK?url=https://filetea.me/n3wWd80E7jUQBunx
1dNjWUTBg) from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017. "Old-fashioned slide briefings,
designed to update generals on troop movements, have been a staple of the military since World War II. But in only a
few short years PowerPoint has altered the landscape."
114. Pece, Gregory S. (May 10, 2005). The PowerPoint Society: The Influence of PowerPoint in the U.S. Government and
Bureaucracy (https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05202005-065041/unrestricted/PecePPthesis.pdf) (PDF)
(M.A. Thesis). Blacksburg, Virginia: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Archived (https://www.webcitati
on.org/6XxuLGyJj?url=http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05202005-065041/unrestricted/PecePPthesis.pdf)
(PDF) from the original on April 21, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "The standard method for presenting
information in the military and political establishments of the US government is through the projection of data in bullet
style and/or graphical formats onto an illuminated screen, using some sort of first analogue, or now, digital media.
Since the late 1990s, the most common and expected form of presentation is via the most commonly pre-installed
software of presentation genre: Microsoft PowerPoint. This style of presentation has become the norm of
communication ... ."
115. Powell, Colin (February 5, 2003). "Iraq: Failing to Disarm (U.S. Secretary of State Powell's Presentation to the UN
Security Council" (https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB234/Powell_slides.pdf) (PDF). The National Security
Archive (George Washington University). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Zc5njBRj?url=http://nsarchive.gwu.e
du/NSAEBB/NSAEBB234/Powell_slides.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved September 23,
2017.
116. Peterson, Scott (July 9, 2012). "Iran makes its nuclear casewith PowerPoint" (https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Mid
dle-East/2012/0709/Iran-makes-its-nuclear-case-with-PowerPoint). Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729 (http
s://www.worldcat.org/issn/0882-7729). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170923225938/https://www.csmonito
r.com/World/Middle-East/2012/0709/Iran-makes-its-nuclear-case-with-PowerPoint) from the original on September
23, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "The complete set of PowerPoint slides that Iran used during a meeting
with world powers are now public."
117. Egan, Jennifer (2010). A Visit from the Goon Squad. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 176251. ISBN 978-0-307-59283-5.
118. Stark, David; Paravel, Verena (February 2007). PowerPoint Demonstrations: Digital Technologies of Persuasion
(Working Paper 07-04) (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237291359_PowerPoint_Demonstrations_DIGITAL
_TECHNOLOGIES_OF_PERSUASION) (Report). Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy, Columbia
University. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6bt9xmP7K?url=https://filetea.me/t1shl0UDrmOR925XRRrRzWB6
w) from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
119. Kelly, Maureen (August 7, 2007). "Interactive Prototypes with PowerPoint" (http://boxesandarrows.com/interactive-pro
totypes-with-powerpoint/). Boxes and Arrows. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6aLJEBP78?url=http://boxesand
arrows.com/interactive-prototypes-with-powerpoint/) from the original on July 27, 2015. Retrieved September 23,
2017. "... many designers ... use PowerPoint for blocking out screens without ever discovering the interactive features
for creating hyperlinks, buttons, and dynamic mouseover effects. Yes, PowerPoint can do all that."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 34/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

120. Greenberg, Andy (May 11, 2010). "The Underground Art Of PowerPoint" (https://www.forbes.com/2010/05/10/microso
ft-software-iphone-technology-powerpoint.html). Forbes. ISSN 0015-6914 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0015-6914).
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170630132845/https://www.forbes.com/2010/05/10/microsoft-software-iphon
e-technology-powerpoint.html) from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017. "... a subculture of
PowerPoint enthusiasts is teaching the old application new tricks, and may even be turning a dry presentation format
into a full-fledged artistic medium."
121. Vienne, Veronique (August 17, 2003). "David Byrne's Alternate PowerPoint Universe" (http://www.nytimes.com/2003/
08/17/books/art-architecture-david-byrne-s-alternate-powerpoint-universe.html). Art/Architecture. New York Times.
ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20121114105710/
http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/17/books/art-architecture-david-byrne-s-alternate-powerpoint-universe.html) from
the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2017. "With his newest project, David Byrne has tried
not only to see it [PowerPoint] anew, but also to use it in the least likely of all applications: a medium for creative
expression."
122. Columbia Accident Investigation Board; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2003). "7. The Accident's
Organizational Causes" (https://s3.amazonaws.com/akamai.netstorage/anon.nasa-global/CAIB/CAIB_lowres_chapter
7.pdf) (PDF). Report Volume I (https://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/CAIB_Vol1.html). p. 191. ISBN 978-0-16-
067904-9. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161202012844/http://s3.amazonaws.com/akamai.netstorage/ano
n.nasa-global/CAIB/CAIB_lowres_chapter7.pdf) (PDF) from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved
September 23, 2017. "At many points during its investigation, the Board was surprised to receive similar presentation
slides from NASA officials in place of technical reports. The Board views the endemic use of PowerPoint briefing
slides instead of technical papers as an illustration of the problematic methods of technical communication at NASA."
123. Duarte, Nancy (July 27, 2015). "Why I Write in PowerPoint" (https://hbr.org/2015/07/why-i-write-in-powerpoint).
Harvard Business Review (hbr.org). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20160305000950/https://hbr.org/2015/07/
why-i-write-in-powerpoint) from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2017. "Because PowerPoint
is so modular, it allows me to block out major themes (potential sections or chapters) and quickly see if I can generate
ample ideas to support them. ... Working in slides, as opposed to one long document, helps me focus on organizing
before I really begin writing. I think of the slides as index cards or sticky notes that can be arranged and rearranged
until I'm sure my thoughts are in the right order. As I write, I can easily toggle back and forth from 'Slide View' to 'Slide
Sorter' to get a sense of the whole and the parts."
124. Keller, Julia (January 22, 2003). "Is PowerPoint the Devil?" (http://www.rasmusen.org/g751/06d-readings/Keller_%20I
s%20PowerPoint%20the%20devil_.pdf) (PDF). Chicago Tribune. ISSN 1085-6706 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/108
5-6706). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170904163317/http://www.rasmusen.org/g751/06d-readings/Keller
_%20Is%20PowerPoint%20the%20devil_.pdf) (PDF) from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved
September 6, 2017.
125. Farkas, David K. (2006). "Toward a better understanding of PowerPoint deck design" (https://faculty.washington.edu/f
arkas/FarkasTowardUnderstandingPPT.pdf) (PDF). Information Design Journal + Document Design. John Benjamin.
14 (2): 162171. ISSN 0142-5471 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0142-5471). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/2
0130830020920/http://faculty.washington.edu/farkas/FarkasTowardUnderstandingPPT.pdf) (PDF) from the original on
August 30, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
126. Gaskins, Robert (April 20, 2012). "Comments on Dilbert's History of PowerPoint" (http://www.robertgaskins.com/powe
rpoint-history/documents/gaskins-comments-on-dilbert-history-of-powerpoint.pdf) (PDF). PowerPoint History
Documents (Draft). p. 59. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20140517154506/http://www.robertgaskins.com/pow
erpoint-history/documents/gaskins-comments-on-dilbert-history-of-powerpoint.pdf) (PDF) from the original on May 17,
2014. Retrieved September 23, 2017. "It took ten to fifteen years for PowerPoint to become an everyday topic of
popular discourse."
127. Norvig, Peter (January 2000). "The Gettysburg PowerPoint Presentation" (http://norvig.com/Gettysburg/). Peter
Norvig personal website. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20001109193600/http://www.norvig.com/Gettysburg/)
from the original on November 9, 2000. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
128. Norvig, Peter (2008). "The Making of the Gettysburg PowerPoint Presentation" (http://norvig.com/Gettysburg/making.
html). Peter Norvig personal website. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20081230051340/http://www.norvig.com/
Gettysburg/making.html) from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 35/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

129. Radosh, Daniel (2003). "The PowerPoint Anthology of Literature" (http://www.radosh.net/writing/ppaol.html). Daniel
Radosh personal website. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20060710004518/http://www.radosh.net/writing/ppao
l.html) from the original on July 10, 2006. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
130. "Search Results for 'kw:powerpoint' > '1987..2017' [WorldCat.org]" (https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=kw%3Apower
point&fq=yr%3A1987..2017+%3E&dblist=638). OCLC WorldCat Global Catalog. September 29, 2017. Archived (http
s://archive.is/20170929193106/https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=kw:powerpoint&fq=yr:1987..2017+%3E&dblist=63
8) from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017. "All Formats (66,169) ... Print book
(23,696), eBook (3,475), Thesis/dissertation (1,078) ... Article (18,085) ... Video (3,537) ..."
131. Tufte, Edward (December 2014). "Edward R. Tufte, Resume" (http://www.edwardtufte.com/files/ETresume.pdf) (PDF).
Edward Tufte personal website. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161009173114/http://www.edwardtufte.com/f
iles/ETresume.pdf) (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2017. "1.9 million copies of
4 books and 422,000 copies of 4 booklets printed from 19832014, and continuing."
132. Parks, Bob (August 30, 2012). "Death to PowerPoint!" (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-08-30/death
-to-powerpoint). Bloomberg Businessweek. ISSN 0007-7135 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0007-7135). Archived (htt
ps://www.webcitation.org/6YYKSSNVW?url=http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2012-08-30/death-to-powerpoint)
from the original on May 15, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
133. Kernbach, Sebastian; Bresciani, Sabrina (July 1618, 2013). 10 Years after Tufte's "Cognitive Style of PowerPoint":
Synthesizing its Constraining Qualities (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y8PV6QHI?url=https://filetea.me/t1szChzbSBb
QkuvlhlAXqxljg). Information Visualisation (IV), 2013 17th International Conference. London: IEEE. pp. 345350.
doi:10.1109/IV.2013.44 (https://doi.org/10.1109%2FIV.2013.44). ISBN 978-1-4799-0834-9. Archived from the original
(https://filetea.me/t1szChzbSBbQkuvlhlAXqxljg) on April 28, 2015.
134. Zuckerman, Laurence (April 17, 1999). "Words Go Right to the Brain, But Can They Stir the Heart?; Some Say
Popular Software Debases Public Speaking" (https://www.nytimes.com/1999/04/17/arts/words-go-right-brain-but-can-t
hey-stir-heart-some-say-popular-software-debases.html). New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.or
g/issn/0362-4331). Archived (http://www.nytimes.com/1999/04/17/arts/words-go-right-brain-but-can-they-stir-heart-so
me-say-popular-software-debases.html) from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
135. Feith, David (July 31, 2009). "Speaking Truth to PowerPoint" (https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204
619004574318473921093400). Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0099-9660).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZSdhYhA9?url=https://filetea.me/t1sq7c2KUvATqeAdKcx5xc1gQ) from the
original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
136. Kernbach, Sebastian; Bresciani, Sabrina (July 1618, 2013). 10 Years after Tufte's "Cognitive Style of PowerPoint":
Synthesizing its Constraining Qualities (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y8PV6QHI?url=https://filetea.me/t1szChzbSBb
QkuvlhlAXqxljg). Information Visualisation (IV), 2013 17th International Conference. London: IEEE. pp. 345350.
doi:10.1109/IV.2013.44 (https://doi.org/10.1109%2FIV.2013.44). ISBN 978-1-4799-0834-9. Archived from the original
(https://filetea.me/t1szChzbSBbQkuvlhlAXqxljg) on April 28, 2015. "Because every day a huge number of people
meet to exchange ideas and make decisions with PowerPoint slides being displayed on the wall, investigating the tool
is enormously important ... . Despite the pervasiveness of PowerPoint in our culture there have been few empirical
studies and most of the non-empirical work is based on casual essays and informal anecdotal reviews which very
often take a polemic and overall negative position on PowerPoint, rather than conducting formal scholarship. This lack
of rigorous studies and empirical research is surprising given the enormous complexity and importance of the
PowerPoint tool."
137. "Richard Mayer" (https://www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/mayer). Psychological and Brain Sciences department,
University of California at Santa Barbara, faculty directory. 2017. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170617030
504/https://www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/mayer) from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved September 23,
2017. "Dr. Mayer is concerned with how to present information in ways that help people understand, including how to
use words and pictures to explain scientific and mathematical concepts."
138. Tufte, Edward (2006) [1st ed. 2003, 24 pg.]. The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within (2nd
ed.). Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press LLC. pp. 4, 15. ISBN 978-0-9613921-6-1. "very little information per slide
... the text is grossly impoverished .. the PowerPoint slide typically shows 40 words ... ."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 36/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

139. Atkinson, Cliff; Mayer, Richard E. (April 23, 2004). "Five ways to reduce PowerPoint overload" (https://www.researchg
ate.net/publication/228893840) (PDF). ResearchGate. Revision 1.1. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZMK2qM
Hz?url=https://filetea.me/t1sWlhUAjlwTqxmEj6Ds9ZT4Q) from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved
September 23, 2017. "... it is conventional wisdom to put no more than six lines of text on a PowerPoint slide, six
words per line. But that convention is no longer wise in the light of research that shows that even that amount of text
on a slide can be a recipe for information overload."
140. Gallo, Carmine (2009). The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-163608-7.
141. Gallo, Carmine (September 7, 2012). "Jeff Bezos and The End of PowerPoint As We Know It" (https://www.forbes.co
m/sites/carminegallo/2012/09/07/jeff-bezos-and-the-end-of-powerpoint-as-we-know-it/). Forbes. ISSN 0015-6914 (htt
ps://www.worldcat.org/issn/0015-6914). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YES0DfMy?url=http://www.forbes.co
m/sites/carminegallo/2012/09/07/jeff-bezos-and-the-end-of-powerpoint-as-we-know-it/) from the original on May 2,
2015. Retrieved September 24, 2017. "And no, Steve Jobs did not invent the style. He just happened to use it very
effectively."
142. Gabrielle, Bruce R. (2010). Speaking PowerPoint: The New Language of Business. Insights Publishing. pp. 1617.
ISBN 978-0-9842360-4-6.
143. "Stephen M. Kosslyn, Ph.D., Dean of Arts and Sciences" (https://www.minerva.kgi.edu/people/stephen-kosslyn/).
Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute (Claremont Colleges). 2017. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20160
301232956/https://www.minerva.kgi.edu/people/stephen-kosslyn/) from the original on March 1, 2016. Retrieved
September 24, 2017.
144. Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Russell, Alexandra G.; Shephard, Jennifer M. (July 17, 2012). "PowerPoint
Presentation Flaws and Failures: A Psychological Analysis" (http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.0
0230/full). Frontiers in Psychology. 3 (230): 122. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00230 (https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpsyg.20
12.00230). ISSN 1664-1078 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1664-1078). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20160
217214102/http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00230/full) from the original on February 17, 2016.
Retrieved September 24, 2017.
145. Kosslyn, Stephen M. (2010). Better PowerPoint: Quick Fixes Based on How Your Audience Thinks. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537675-3.
146. Burn-Callander, Rebecca (April 24, 2017). "Your attention, please, for the software we love to hate: PowerPoint
celebrates its 30th birthday" (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2017/04/23/powerpoint-celebrates-30th-
birthday/). Business. The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0307-1235). Archived (http
s://www.webcitation.org/6rrW6PL5n?url=https://filetea.me/n3wt2GSIIdrSaG4OKObsDPCbw) from the original on July
10, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. "... with new research showing that it remains as popular with young tech-savvy
users as it is with the Baby Boomers. An online poll by YouGov showed that 81 per cent of UK Snapchat users
agreed that PowerPoint was a great tool for making presentations. ... long -form prose has become increasingly
unpopular with modern users. PowerPoint, with its capacity to be highly visual, bridges the wordy world of yesterday
with the visual future of tomorrow."
147. Baskin, Kara (October 4, 2017). "How millennials approach writing, giving presentations, and data visualization
diverges from previous generations" (http://mitsloan.mit.edu/newsroom/articles/3-surprising-ways-that-millennials-com
municate/). MIT Sloan School of Management. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20171004150949/http://mitsloa
n.mit.edu/newsroom/articles/3-surprising-ways-that-millennials-communicate/) from the original on October 4, 2017.
Retrieved October 7, 2017. ""Communication is part of everyone's job, but millennials do it differently," said MIT Sloan
lecturer Miro Kazakoff, who co-authored the study with MIT Sloan senior lecturer Kara Blackburn."
148. Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint (https://books.google.com/books?id=RC
_5OCQQJ7YC&printsec=toc). Vinland Books. pp. 428433. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (https://web.archive.o
rg/web/20170624031005/http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoint-history/sweating-bullets/gaskins-sweating-bullets-
webpdf-isbn-9780985142414.pdf) (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
"PowerPoint got off to a very slow start in infiltrating the military forces of the world ... ."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 37/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

149. Gole, Henry G. (1999). "Leadership in Literature" (http://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/parameters/articles/99autumn/a


utessay.htm). Parameters. United States Army War College. 29 (3): 134150. ISSN 0031-1723 (https://www.worldcat.
org/issn/0031-1723). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170918224109/http://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/par
ameters/articles/99autumn/autessay.htm) from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
"In the 1990s, the outward signs of form over substance are field grade officers grinding out slick PowerPoint briefing
charts ... ."
150. Jaffe, Greg (April 26, 2000). "What's Your Point, Lieutenant? Please, Just Cut to the Pie Charts" (https://www.wsj.co
m/articles/SB956703757412556977). A-Hed. Wall Street Journal (US ed.). p. A1. ISSN 0099-9660 (https://www.world
cat.org/issn/0099-9660). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ta1rPrxK?url=https://filetea.me/n3wWd80E7jUQBunx
1dNjWUTBg) from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
151. Bumiller, Elisabeth (April 27, 2010). "We Have Met the Enemy and He Is PowerPoint" (http://www.nytimes.com/2010/
04/27/world/27powerpoint.html). New York Times. p. A1. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331).
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20100427191554/http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/27/world/27powerpoint.htm
l) from the original on April 27, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
152. Hammes, Thomas X. (July 1, 2009). "Dumb-dumb Bullets" (http://www.armedforcesjournal.com/essay-dumb-dumb-bu
llets/). Armed Forces Journal. ISSN 0196-3597 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0196-3597). Archived (https://www.web
citation.org/6YlvTTCxK?url=https://filetea.me/t1s4y7by8yxTcuTjnsQfO5ZRA) from the original on May 24, 2015.
Retrieved September 18, 2017.
153. Burke, Crispin (July 24, 2009). "The T. X. Hammes PowerPoint Challenge" (http://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/the-tx-ha
mmes-powerpoint-challenge-essay-contest). Small Wars Journal. ISSN 2156-227X (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/21
56-227X). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ylw4vDnF?url=https://filetea.me/t1sZXwaBBkaTwx02K12wmPwC
A) from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
154. Sellin, Lawrence (September 2, 2010). "The PowerPoint rant that got a colonel fired" (https://archive.is/201301170313
09/http://www.armytimes.com/news/2010/09/army-colonel-fired-for-powerpoint-rant-090210w/). Army Times.
ISSN 0004-2595 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0004-2595). Archived from the original (http://www.armytimes.com/ne
ws/2010/09/army-colonel-fired-for-powerpoint-rant-090210w/) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
Additional archives: May 24, 2015 (http://www.webcitation.org/6YkewxAuo?url=http://archive.armytimes.com/article/2
0100902/NEWS/9020339/The-PowerPoint-rant-that-got-a-colonel-fired).
155. Norvig, Peter; Kosslyn, Stephen M. (April 29, 2010). "A Tool Only as Good as the User" (http://www.nytimes.com/201
0/04/30/opinion/l30power.html). Letters to the Editor. New York Times (New York ed.). p. A24. ISSN 0362-4331 (http
s://www.worldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20100503115425/http://www.nytimes.co
m/2010/04/30/opinion/l30power.html) from the original on May 3, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
156. Sisk, Richard (January 20, 2017). "Senate Confirms Mattis as Secretary of Defense" (http://www.military.com/daily-ne
ws/2017/01/20/senate-confirms-mattis-secretary-of-defense.html). Military.com. Archived (https://web.archive.org/we
b/20170122191417/http://www.military.com/daily-news/2017/01/20/senate-confirms-mattis-secretary-of-defense.html)
from the original on January 22, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
157. McGarry, Brendan (February 20, 2017). "Trump Picks Army Lt. Gen. McMaster as National Security Adviser" (http://w
ww.military.com/daily-news/2017/02/20/trump-picks-army-lt-gen-mcmaster-national-security-adviser.html).
Military.com. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170222001809/http://www.military.com/daily-news/2017/02/20/t
rump-picks-army-lt-gen-mcmaster-national-security-adviser.html) from the original on February 22, 2017. Retrieved
September 18, 2017.
158. Byrne, David (2003). "Envisioning Emotional Epistemological Information" (http://216.92.211.74/art/eeei/). David
Byrne Archive. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170916033800/http://216.92.211.74/art/eeei/) from the
original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
159. Powell, Bonnie Azab (March 8, 2005). "David Byrne really does PowerPoint, Berkeley presentation shows" (http://w
ww.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/03/08_byrne.shtml). UC Berkeley News Center. Archived (https://web.ar
chive.org/web/20050311025730/http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/03/08_byrne.shtml) from the
original on March 11, 2005. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
160. Byrne, David (2005). "Journal: 3.8.05: San Francisco" (http://davidbyrne.typepad.com/db/page/49/). David Byrne
Journal. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170916033610/http://davidbyrne.typepad.com/db/page/49/) from the
original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 38/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

161. Nastro, Santa (November 21, 2016). "Arte e aziende. Nasce il Manifesto della Corporate Art: lo firmano Ugo Nespolo,
Alexander Ponomarev e Fernando De Filippi" (http://www.artribune.com/tribnews/2016/11/arte-aziende-nasce-manife
sto-corporate-art-lo-firmano-ugo-nespolo-alexander-ponomarev-fernando-de-filippi/). Artribune. Rome. ISSN 2280-
8817 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/2280-8817). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170916172548/http://www.
artribune.com/tribnews/2016/11/arte-aziende-nasce-manifesto-corporate-art-lo-firmano-ugo-nespolo-alexander-pono
marev-fernando-de-filippi/) from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017. "[Trans.] The
corporate world can be an art object."
162. pptArt (2014). "pptArt Manifesto" (https://www.pptart.net/manifesto). pptArt.net. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/
6YkPnogNv?url=https://filetea.me/t1siHirAq8GRca1nkAALDtJ0A) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved
September 15, 2017.
163. pptArt (2014). "Our Services for Corporate Clients" (https://www.pptart.net/corporate). pptArt.net. Archived (https://ww
w.webcitation.org/6YkPuCnUs?url=https://filetea.me/t1s0zwT0tUpSD2uctnVellocg) from the original on May 23, 2015.
Retrieved September 15, 2017.
164. Greenberg, Andy (May 11, 2010). "The Underground Art Of PowerPoint" (https://www.forbes.com/2010/05/10/microso
ft-software-iphone-technology-powerpoint.html). Forbes. ISSN 0015-6914 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0015-6914).
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170630132845/https://www.forbes.com/2010/05/10/microsoft-software-iphon
e-technology-powerpoint.html) from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
165. Toh, Shawn (2014). "PowerPoint Heaven: The Power to Animate" (http://pptheaven.mvps.org/). PowerPoint Heaven.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170606041637/http://pptheaven.mvps.org/index.html) from the original on
June 6, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017. "Our goal is to show users that PowerPoint is not simply a presentation
tool, but is also capable on leveraging into other areas such as creating games, artworks and animations."
166. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "View a presentation without PowerPoint" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/View-
a-presentation-without-PowerPoint-2f1077ab-9a4e-41ba-9f75-d55bd9b231a6). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (htt
ps://web.archive.org/web/20170901170528/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/View-a-presentation-without-Power
Point-2f1077ab-9a4e-41ba-9f75-d55bd9b231a6) from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 1,
2017. "If you do not have PowerPoint installed on your computer, you can still open and view PowerPoint
presentations by using PowerPoint Viewer, PowerPoint Mobile, or PowerPoint Online."
167. Fridlund, Alan (August 24, 1992). "PowerPoint 3.0 catches up with the best" (https://books.google.com/books?id=5VI
EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA62). Reviews. InfoWorld. 14 (34). pp. 6163. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/01
99-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YmCLOu27?url=https://filetea.me/t1sUVQhKWxnSoqiAjX7Sd2Org)
from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2017. "Version 3.0 now includes a PowerPoint Viewer that
runs on any Windows 3.1 machine and can be distributed freely with your presentation files. ... A major advance ... is
the use of embedded TrueType fonts ... ensuring that the appearance of your presentation is completely repeatable
on any machine equipped with the viewer."
168. "Microsoft PowerPoint 3.0 for Macintosh" (http://www.ebay.com/itm/262748389649). eBay. April 22, 2017. Archived (h
ttps://web.archive.org/web/20170902180732/http://www.ebay.com/itm/262748389649) from the original on September
2, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017. "Includes ... 1 PowerPoint Viewer disk."
169. Microsoft Corporation (September 12, 2011). "Description of how to use the Package for CD feature in PowerPoint
2003 and in PowerPoint 2007" (https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/828504/description-of-how-to-use-the-packa
ge-for-cd-feature-in-powerpoint-200). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6t9ssO7Gj?url=
https://filetea.me/n3wXFenSmHQRUSTK5pMr1NUbQ) from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved
September 1, 2017.
170. Kao, Wayne (April 1, 2004). "New PowerPoint Viewer" (http://blogs.msdn.com/b/waynekao/archive/2004/04/01/10538
1.aspx). Wayne's Microsoft Blog. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Z8aA0Zlw?url=http://blogs.msdn.com/b/way
nekao/archive/2004/04/01/105381.aspx) from the original on June 8, 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2017. "... 2003 ...
a brand new PowerPoint Viewer. The previous viewer had been written for the PowerPoint 97 release ... can be run
without any installation or setup, which means it can be run directly off your USB keychain or even off write-protected
media like a CD orDVD."
171. Microsoft Corporation (1998). "PowerPoint 98 Viewer" (https://web.archive.org/web/20001217103900/http://www.micr
osoft.com/MAC/products/office/98/updates/powerpoint98_viewer/default.asp). Microsoft Mac Office. Archived from
the original (http://www.microsoft.com/mac/products/office/98/updates/powerpoint98_viewer/default.asp) on
December 17, 2000. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 39/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

172. "PowerPoint FAQ: Versions" (https://web.archive.org/web/20130510103008/http://www.bitbetter.com/powerfaq.htm).


A Bit Better Corporation. May 10, 2013. Archived from the original (http://www.bitbetter.com/powerfaq.htm) on May
10, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017. A diagram shows "which versions of PowerPoint can open/save which other
versions" up to version 9.0 for Windows ("PowerPoint 2000").
173. Microsoft Corporation (October 25, 2011). "PowerPoint Viewer" (http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.asp
x?id=13). Microsoft Download Center. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20120712230357/http://www.microsoft.c
om/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=13) from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
174. Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Dowload Mac PowerPoint 98 Viewer" (http://download.microsoft.com/download/office9
8mac/Update/98/MacOS/EN-US/PPT98VW.hqx). Microsoft Download Center. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/
20000816202129/http://www.microsoft.com/mac/products/office/98/updates/powerpoint98_viewer/default.asp) from
the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
175. Microsoft Corporation (November 16, 2017). "End of support for the Excel and PowerPoint viewers and the Office
Compatibility Pack" (https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/office_sustained_engineering/2017/11/16/end-of-support-for-t
he-excel-and-powerpoint-Viewers-and-the-office-compatibility-pack/). Microsoft Office Sustained Engineering Team
Blog. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20171118072211/https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/office_sustained_en
gineering/2017/11/16/end-of-support-for-the-excel-and-powerpoint-viewers-and-the-office-compatibility-pack/) from
the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
176. Mace, Scott (March 2, 1987). "Presentation Package Lets Users Control Look" (https://books.google.com/books?id=1
TAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA5). InfoWorld. 9 (9). IDG. p. 5. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym2krMYP?url=https://filetea.me/t1sKNh0ZTl2S8xyckHWoi2ywg) from the
original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
177. Flynn, Laurie (September 14, 1987). "Apple Sets Its Sights on Desktop Presentations" (https://books.google.com/boo
ks?id=sTsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA35). InfoWorld. 9 (37). IDG. p. 35. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/019
9-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnD6swM3?url=https://filetea.me/t1syOlJ9TLtQJaV9bSFaDul7Q)
from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Report of Seybold conference in late September 1987
where Microsoft introduced relabeled PowerPoint. Macworld magazine carried its first Microsoft advertisement for
PowerPoint in its November 1987 issue, with the initial subhead "Introducing Microsoft PowerPoint." Microsoft
Corporation (November 1987). "Everything you need to make a great presentation, just add water" (https://archive.or
g/stream/MacWorld_8711_November_1987#page/n43/). MacWorld (advertisement). Vol. 4 no. 11. IDG. pp. 4041.
ISSN 0741-8647 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0741-8647). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6s0euEfcJ?url=htt
ps://dropfile.to/AKrOGPD) from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
178. Flynn, Laurie (May 2, 1988). "Updated PowerPoint Supports Mac II Colors" (https://books.google.com/books?id=mz0
EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA27). InfoWorld. 10 (18). IDG. p. 27. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnELZSzx?url=https://filetea.me/t1sZzVDo8j6QrWRoxZrPTJyaA) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
179. Flynn, Laurie (December 12, 1988). "Driver Sends PowerPoint Files Out for Conversion" (https://books.google.com/b
ooks?id=CjoEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT32). InfoWorld. 10 (50). IDG. p. 33. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/
0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnEcUWhh?url=https://filetea.me/t1sgBV6VhYjSRebuDNtTzr4J
Q) from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
180. Coale, Kristi (May 28, 1990). "PowerPoint to Challenge PC Presentation Market" (https://books.google.com/books?id
=nzsEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT12). InfoWorld. 12 (22). IDG. p. 13. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6
649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnEtn33t?url=https://filetea.me/t1sx0ZdfHKRStiWtmXVAukXxA) from
the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
181. Borzo, Jeanette (May 18, 1992). "PowerPoint users pleased by changes" (https://books.google.com/books?id=XlEEA
AAAMBAJ&pg=PA15). InfoWorld. 14 (20). IDG. p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnF6x0m9?url=https://filetea.me/t1s93DMYfS1T7Gs3VyxWzxRZw) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
182. Damore, Kelley (October 12, 1992). "PowerPoint 3.0 for the Mac mirrors version for Windows" (https://books.google.c
om/books?id=n1EEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA151). InfoWorld. 14 (41). IDG. p. 151. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.
org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnFN9lh9?url=https://filetea.me/t1sBdIbxLvYTQuc167ru
zsQRg) from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 40/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

183. "Microsoft Corp. will start shipping PowerPoint 4.0" (https://books.google.com/books?


id=7DoEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA19). InfoWorld. 16 (7). IDG. February 14, 1994. p. 19. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worl
dcat.org/issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnFcG8UW?url=https://filetea.me/t1sxxgKgmolQxy
8ZI6wU4RI8Q) from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
184. Halper, Mark (August 1, 1994). "Native Microsoft suite coming for Power Mac" (https://books.google.com/books?id=m
EU4Qex5594C&pg=PA15). Computerworld. 28 (31). IDG. p. 15. ISSN 0010-4841 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0010
-4841). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym5o22HM?url=https://filetea.me/t1sLY5ExbkxTXal3ry6EGMQGw)
from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "... the forthcoming version of PowerPoint 4.0, which is
part of Office 4.2. ... Microsoft said it is packaging separate ... versions for 68000-based Macintoshes and for newer
PowerPC-based Power Macintoshes, all in one shrink-wrapped box."
185. Grace, Rich (July 24, 1995). "PowerPoint gains multimedia strength" (https://books.google.com/books?id=3joEAAAA
MBAJ&pg=PA98). InfoWorld. 17 (30). IDG. p. 98. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnFte6IK?url=https://filetea.me/t1sZKPjFhhWSVCLyAgg9cG1lQ) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
186. Lassesen, Ken (October 17, 1995). "Using Microsoft OLE Automation Servers to Develop Solutions" (http://www.lasse
sen.com/msdn/using%20microsoft%20ole%20automation%20servers%20to%20develop%20solutions.pdf) (PDF).
Archive of Articles from MSDN Technology Group. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y23bzFsW?url=http://www.
lassesen.com/msdn/using%20microsoft%20ole%20automation%20servers%20to%20develop%20solutions.pdf)
(PDF) from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "Note that version 7.0 of a product is the same
as a '95' designation ... ."
187. Vadlamudi, Pardhu (January 20, 1997). "Office 97 now open for business" (https://books.google.com/books?id=bjoEA
AAAMBAJ&pg=PA6). InfoWorld. 19 (3). IDG. p. 6. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnG82A7W?url=https://filetea.me/t1sMjetlKKHTLms7retG5461Q) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
188. Senna, Jeff (March 2, 1998). "Office 98 boasts cross-platform parity" (https://books.google.com/books?id=DFEEAAA
AMBAJ&pg=PA113). InfoWorld. 20 (9). IDG. p. 113. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnGRAExl?url=https://filetea.me/t1siW4z1qGuQ5ygpYZc40xgiQ) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
189. "PowerPoint FAQ: Unsolved Mysteries" (https://web.archive.org/web/20130510103008/http://www.bitbetter.com/powe
rfaq.htm). A Bit Better Corporation. May 10, 2013. Archived from the original (http://www.bitbetter.com/powerfaq.htm)
on May 10, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
190. Railsback, Kevin (April 12, 1999). "Office 2000: making life easier for IT and end-users alike" (https://books.google.co
m/books?id=EVAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA10). InfoWorld. 21 (15). IDG. p. 10. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/
issn/0199-6649). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnGfc70d?url=https://filetea.me/t1sxZiF8w6SRx6Vz01udAo
BUg) from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
191. Steinberg, Gene (September 14, 2000). "Microsoft Office 2001: MacOS review" (https://www.cnet.com/products/micro
soft-office-2001-macos/). CNET Review. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQNFyf2f?url=http://www.cnet.com/p
roducts/microsoft-office-2001-macos/) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
192. Yager, Tom (March 19, 2001). "Office spruced with surprising subtlety" (https://books.google.com/books?id=qzgEAAA
AMBAJ&pg=PA53). InfoWorld. 23 (12). IDG. p. 53. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnGuiBvl?url=https://filetea.me/t1sKhsdOVPTRvWMX8uSxNpUpw) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
193. Dalrymple, Jim (October 24, 2001). "Microsoft sets date for Office v. X release" (http://www.macworld.com/article/101
9797/office.html). Macworld. IDG. ISSN 0741-8647 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0741-8647). Archived (https://web.
archive.org/web/20170718034148/http://www.macworld.com/article/1019797/office.html) from the original on July 18,
2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "Microsoft's Macintosh Business Unit (MacBU) today announced that Office v. X
would be available to the public on November 19. ... Office v. X runs natively on OS X -- it will not run under OS 9."
194. Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (October 22, 2003). "Microsoft Revamps Office Software" (http://www.cbsnews.com/news/m
icrosoft-revamps-office-software/). CBSNews.com. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170806194509/http://ww
w.cbsnews.com/news/microsoft-revamps-office-software/) from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 6,
2017. "... Bill Gates introduces Microsoft Office 2003 in New York Tuesday, Oct. 21, 2003."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 41/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

195. "Microsft Issues Critical Office Patch [for Office 2003]" (https://books.google.com/books?id=6zkEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA
18). InfoWorld. 25 (44). IDG. November 10, 2003. p. 18. ISSN 0199-6649 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0199-6649).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnH7aIgW?url=https://filetea.me/t1sxXGOv7Z4RhOJIvz08MUW8Q) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "... less than a month after the software officially launched."
196. Dreier, Troy (July 2004). "Office 2004 for Mac: An Essential Upgrade" (https://books.google.com/books?id=ZVxJ-vb1j
zAC&pg=PA53). PC Magazine. 23 (12). Ziff Davis. p. 53. ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0888-8507).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym4GgvHs?url=https://filetea.me/t1swe0LQEPWTKxqLrrOo1OpfA) from the
original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
197. "Windows Mobile 5.0 Comes to PDAs and Smartphones" (https://books.google.com/books?id=qwIAAAAAMBAJ&pg=
PA16). Maximum PC. August 2005. p. 16. ISSN 1522-4279 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1522-4279). Archived (http
s://www.webcitation.org/6ZpUPtNl5?url=https://filetea.me/t1sx3vdYBUkRfud0VK6YIgRCg) from the original on July 6,
2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "PowerPoint Mobilea new addition to the suitedoubles as a powerful sleep-aid."
198. "Microsoft Office 2007: Worth the Wait" (https://books.google.com/books?id=Vi8LZRM6MlcC&pg=PA48). PC
Magazine. 26 (1/2). Ziff Davis. January 2007. p. 48. ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0888-8507).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YnCoYrqc?url=https://filetea.me/t1sx7AmJ1moTxSnb6J2i1TQEw) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
199. "Office 2007 approaching end of extended support" (https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/3198497/office-2007-ap
proaching-end-of-extended-support). Microsoft Support. February 6, 2017. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6uD
e33MUQ?url=https://filetea.me/n3wPnyIxgosRPmAaLvaLqCx1A) from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved
October 14, 2017. "Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 ... PowerPoint 2007 (Home and Student version) ... no new
security updates, non-security updates, free or paid assisted support options, or online technical content updates ...
10/10/2017"
200. "Windows Mobile 6: Make Your Smartphone Smarter" (https://books.google.com/books?id=KmFF_zr-HVgC&pg=PA4
4). PC Magazine. 26 (12). Ziff Davis. June 5, 2007. p. 44. ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0888-
8507). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ym4qp14n?url=https://filetea.me/t1sqxsHYJbvRGSjNYKWIpVlBg) from
the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. PowerPoint was updated in November 2007: Microsoft
(November 28, 2007). "Microsoft Office Mobile 6.1: Upgrade for Microsoft Office 2007 file formats" (https://www.micro
soft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=10555). Microsoft Download Center. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/
20120427074505/http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=10555) from the original on April 27,
2012. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
201. Tessler, Franklin N. (January 18, 2008). "Microsoft PowerPoint 2008 At a Glance" (http://www.macworld.com/article/1
131597). Macworld. IDG. ISSN 0741-8647 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0741-8647). Archived (https://www.webcitati
on.org/6ZpSDQXNx?url=https://filetea.me/t1srxIXa4lbRPWAZ9k87vpKRw) from the original on July 6, 2015.
Retrieved August 4, 2017.
202. Microsoft Corporation (June 15, 2010). "Microsoft Office 2010 Now Available for Consumers Worldwide" (https://new
s.microsoft.com/2010/06/15/microsoft-office-2010-now-available-for-consumers-worldwide/). Microsoft News Center.
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQNruDHD?url=http://news.microsoft.com/2010/06/15/microsoft-office-2010-n
ow-available-for-consumers-worldwide) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
203. Microsoft Corporation (February 25, 2010). "There is no Office 13, but why?" (http://channel9.msdn.com/Shows/ButW
hy/There-is-no-Office-13-But-Why). Channel9 videos, Microsoft Developer Network. Archived (https://www.webcitatio
n.org/6YQNlIZ0g?url=http://channel9.msdn.com/Shows/ButWhy/There-is-no-Office-13-But-Why) from the original on
May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
204. Mendelson, Edward (June 14, 2010). "Microsoft Office Web Apps" (https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0%2C2817%2C2
365016%2C00.asp/). PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0888-8507). Archived
(https://www.webcitation.org/6YQPuWqxx?url=https://filetea.me/t1smEpx9l31SGyZLqmUg2HZ2A) from the original
on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
205. Lendino, Jamie (June 4, 2010). "Microsoft Office Mobile 2010 (Windows Phone)" (https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2
817,2364654,00.asp/). PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. ISSN 0888-8507 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0888-8507).
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQQM1oQN?url=https://filetea.me/t1sqLezurqlTRWMio25wxvtKA) from the
original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 42/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

206. Microsoft Corporation (October 26, 2010). "Mac Meets PC with New Office Release" (https://news.microsoft.com/201
0/10/26/mac-meets-pc-with-new-office-release/). Microsoft News Center. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQO
DNjfY?url=http://news.microsoft.com/2010/10/26/mac-meets-pc-with-new-office-release/) from the original on May 10,
2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
207. "Products Reaching End of Support for 2017" (https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/4001737/products-reaching-e
nd-of-support-for-2017). Microsoft Support. September 7, 2017. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6uDeGX6f8?ur
l=https://filetea.me/n3wHtYaSifRQdCvzqlvQhxmgQ) from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved October 14,
2017. "Microsoft PowerPoint for Mac 2011 ... no new security updates, non-security updates, free or paid assisted
support options or online technical content updates ... October 10, 2017"
208. Foley, Mary Jo (April 10, 2012). "Full Microsoft Office Mobile now available on select Nokia Symbian phones" (http://w
ww.zdnet.com/article/full-microsoft-office-mobile-now-available-on-select-nokia-symbian-phones/). ZDnet.com.
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQOJbPKM?url=http://www.zdnet.com/article/full-microsoft-office-mobile-now-
available-on-select-nokia-symbian-phones/) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
209. Foley, Mary Jo (October 10, 2012). "Microsoft's new Office Web Apps to roll out to Office 365 users in late October" (h
ttp://www.zdnet.com/article/microsofts-new-office-web-apps-to-roll-out-to-office-365-users-in-late-october/).
ZDnet.com. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQOWFELn?url=http://www.zdnet.com/article/microsofts-new-offi
ce-web-apps-to-roll-out-to-office-365-users-in-late-october/) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4,
2017.
210. Mackie, Kurt (October 31, 2012). "Windows Phone 8 to Include 'New Office' Version for Mobile" (https://rcpmag.com/a
rticles/2012/10/31/windows-phone-8-new-office.aspx). Redmond Channel Partner Magazine. Archived (https://www.w
ebcitation.org/6YQOOveFF?url=https://rcpmag.com/articles/2012/10/31/windows-phone-8-new-office.aspx) from the
original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
211. Foley, Mary Jo (September 14, 2012). "Microsoft to deliver final version of Office 2013 RT starting in early November"
(http://www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-to-deliver-final-version-of-office-2013-rt-starting-in-early-november/).
ZDnet.com. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQOhttIq?url=http://www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-to-deliver-fin
al-version-of-office-2013-rt-starting-in-early-november/) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
212. Graziano, Dan (January 28, 2013). "Microsoft Office 2013 set for January 29th debut" (http://bgr.com/2013/01/28/micr
osoft-office-2013-set-for-january-29th-debut-309767/). BGR.com. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQOnzMAi?
url=http://bgr.com/2013/01/28/microsoft-office-2013-set-for-january-29th-debut-309767/) from the original on May 10,
2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
213. O'Donald, Andy (June 14, 2013). "Office Mobile for iPhone" (https://blogs.office.com/2013/06/14/office-mobile-for-ipho
ne/). Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQOtKn4g?url=http://blogs.office.com/2013/06/1
4/office-mobile-for-iphone/) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
214. Office 365 Team (July 31, 2013). "Office Mobile for Android phones" (https://blogs.office.com/2013/07/31/office-mobile
-for-android-phones/). Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YQP1z1Lg?url=http://blogs.offic
e.com/2013/07/31/office-mobile-for-android-phones/) from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
215. Paul, Ian (February 20, 2014). "Meet Office Online, Microsoft's slightly tweaked Office Web Apps replacement" (http://
www.pcworld.com/article/2099502). PCWorld. IDG. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6ZUCkbom9?url=https://file
tea.me/t1sYd9NCeSIRKmG4c4p7WNALg) from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
216. Case, John (March 27, 2014). "Announcing the Office you love, now on the iPad" (https://blogs.office.com/2014/03/2
7/announcing-the-office-you-love-now-on-the-ipad/). Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Y
QP8TZz5?url=http://blogs.office.com/2014/03/27/announcing-the-office-you-love-now-on-the-ipad/) from the original
on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
217. Mackie, Kurt (November 6, 2014). "Office iPad and iPhone Users Can Now Create and Edit Docs for Free" (https://re
dmondmag.com/articles/2014/11/06/office-ipad-and-iphone.aspx). Redmond Magazine. Archived (https://www.webcit
ation.org/6s3N13nvG?url=https://redmondmag.com/articles/2014/11/06/office-ipad-and-iphone.aspx) from the original
on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
218. Thurrott, Paul (June 24, 2015). "Office Apps for Android Handsets Exit Preview" (https://www.thurrott.com/mobile/andr
oid/4296/office-apps-for-android-handsets-exit-preview). Thurrott.com. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6Ztg0gY
lW?url=https://www.thurrott.com/mobile/android/4296/office-apps-for-android-handsets-exit-preview) from the original
on July 9, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 43/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

219. Koenigsbauer, Kirk (July 9, 2015). "Office 2016 for Mac is here!" (https://blogs.office.com/en-us/2015/07/09/office-201
6-for-mac-is-here/). Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6cEC0iV9c?url=https://blogs.office.c
om/2015/07/09/office-2016-for-mac-is-here/) from the original on October 12, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "Office
2016 for Mac is now available in 139 countries and 16 languages."
220. Bell, Killian (July 18, 2012). "Microsoft Won't Bring Office 2013 To Mac .." (https://www.cultofmac.com/179541/microso
ft-wont-bring-office-2013-to-mac-but-it-will-add-skydrive-integration-to-office-2011/) Cult of Mac. Archived (https://ww
w.webcitation.org/6s6k6qniL?url=https://www.cultofmac.com/179541/microsoft-wont-bring-office-2013-to-mac-but-it-wi
ll-add-skydrive-integration-to-office-2011/) from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "Microsoft
confirmed to us that there is no Office for Mac 2013 release planned."
221. Thurrott, Paul (July 16, 2015). "Office Mobile Apps for Windows 10 are Now Generally Available" (https://www.thurrott.
com/windows/windows-10/4661/office-mobile-apps-for-windows-10-are-now-generally-available). Thurrott.com.
Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6a4MtvWZJ?url=https://www.thurrott.com/windows/windows-10/4661/office-mo
bile-apps-for-windows-10-are-now-generally-available) from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
"Microsoft noted that it has added 'Mobile' to the app names on PCs and big tablets to help distinguish them from the
desktop-based Office application suite ... . On phones and small tabletsi.e. on Windows 10 Mobilethese apps will
simply retain their normal names (Word, Excel and PowerPoint), with no Mobile added."
222. Gupta, Nakul (July 27, 2015). "News: Microsoft updates Office apps for iPhone and iPad" (http://techview.me/2015/0
7/microsoft-launches-arabic-version-of-office-2016-for-mac/). TechView. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6s3Op
uF4o?url=http://techview.me/2015/07/microsoft-launches-arabic-version-of-office-2016-for-mac/) from the original on
July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
223. Koenigsbauer, Kirk (September 22, 2015). "The new Office is here" (https://blogs.office.com/en-us/2015/09/22/thenew
office/). Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6bjo4nnw1?url=https://blogs.office.com/2015/0
9/22/thenewoffice/) from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "Today is the worldwide
release of Office 2016 for Windows."
224. Thurrott, Paul (June 15, 2017). "Microsoft Brings Preview Versions of Office 2016 to the Windows Store" (https://www.
thurrott.com/windows/windows-10/118347/microsoft-brings-preview-versions-office-2016-windows-store).
Thurrott.com. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6s3VA1PPa?url=https://www.thurrott.com/windows/windows-10/1
18347/microsoft-brings-preview-versions-office-2016-windows-store) from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved
August 4, 2017. "The full suite of Office apps in preview are currently available to download today with Office 365 in
the Windows Store for Windows 10 S. ... just four apps todayOutlook, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint 2016in
preview ... ."
225. Austin, Dennis (2001). "PowerPoint Version Timeline (to PowerPoint 7.0, 1995)" (http://www.gbuwizards.com/files/po
werpoint-timeline-to-1995-dennis-austin.pdf) (PDF). GBU Wizards of Menlo Park. Archived (https://www.webcitation.o
rg/6sWbRP9tx?url=https://filetea.me/n3wNc4xaoNgRPCO0cpdXD8mng) from the original on August 6, 2017.
Retrieved August 6, 2017.
226. Belleville, Cathleen (August 24, 2000). "PowerPoint Historical Review" (https://www.webcitation.org/6sTSdansK?url=h
ttps://filetea.me/n3wRMyjrmLfTJCb6c5kzbN8Pg). A Bit Better Corporation. Archived from the original (http://www.bitb
etter.com:80/downloads/belleville_ppthistory.ppt) on August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.Additional archives:
March 24, 2016 (https://web.archive.org/web/20160324163116/http://www.bitbetter.com/downloads/belleville_ppthisto
ry.ppt).
227. Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics" (http://www.academia.edu/1866305) (PDF).
Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 1517.
doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710 (https://doi.org/10.1145%2F1323688.1323710). ISSN 0001-0782 (https://www.worldca
t.org/issn/0001-0782). Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YqhTteCm?url=http://www.robertgaskins.com/powerpoi
nt-history/documents/gaskins-powerpoint-at-20-cacm-vol50-no12-dec-2007-p15-p17.pdf) (PDF) from the original on
May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. These versions are described in the sidebar, "Presentation Formats and
PowerPoint," p. 17.
228. "PowerPoint Tips & Tricks: PowerPoint System Requirements" (https://web.archive.org/web/20130424125125/http://w
ww.bitbetter.com/powertips.htm). A Bit Better Corporation. April 24, 2013. Archived from the original (http://www.bitbet
ter.com/powertips.htm) on April 24, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017. System requirements are in a table at the very
end of this document.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 44/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

229. Negrino, Tom (February 1, 2002). "Capsule Review: Microsoft Office v. X" (https://www.macworld.com/article/100139
3/office.html). Macworld. IDG. ISSN 0741-8647 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0741-8647). Archived (https://web.archi
ve.org/web/20121210231150/http://www.macworld.com/article/1001393/office.html) from the original on December
10, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2017. "Office v. X requires OS X 10.1 ['Puma']or later to run ... PowerPoint X ...
benefit[s] from OS X technologies ... ."
230. Muratore, Stephen (March 1, 2004). "Microsoft Producer for PowerPoint 2003 Review" (https://www.videomaker.com/
article/c5/9821-microsoft-producer-for-powerpoint-2003-review). Videomaker Magazine. York Publishing. ISSN 0889-
4973 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0889-4973). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170729195751/https://www.
videomaker.com/article/c5/9821-microsoft-producer-for-powerpoint-2003-review) from the original on July 29, 2017.
Retrieved August 4, 2017.
231. Microsoft (August 13, 2007). "Differences between Office XP and Office 2003" (https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/lib
rary/cc178951(v=office.12).aspx). Microsoft TechNet. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6sLtCjlVf?url=https://tech
net.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc178951(v=office.12).aspx) from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved August 4,
2017.
232. Microsoft (March 29, 2017). "List of system requirements for Microsoft Office 2003" (https://support.microsoft.com/en-
us/help/822129/list-of-system-requirements-for-microsoft-office-2003). Microsoft Support. Archived (https://www.webci
tation.org/6sLpwpdXu?url=https://filetea.me/n3wqNbjtczRQWCnYrQTJ0xilg) from the original on July 30, 2017.
Retrieved August 4, 2017.
233. Swinford, Echo (January 1, 2009). "PPT 2007" (http://echosvoice.com/powerpoint-2007/). Echo's Voice. Archived (htt
ps://web.archive.org/web/20140813014809/http://www.echosvoice.com/powerpoint-2007/) from the original on August
13, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
234. Microsoft (April 28, 2009). "Getting started with the 2007 Office system" (https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/d
d188670(office.12).aspx#BKMK_SysReqs). Microsoft TechNet. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6sLr3uAbM?url
=https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd188670(office.12).aspx#BKMK_SysReqs) from the original on July 30,
2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
235. "Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac, Specifications" (https://www.cnet.com/products/microsoft-office-2008-for-mac/specs/).
CNET. January 15, 2008. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20150529065528/http://www.cnet.com/products/micr
osoft-office-2008-for-mac/specs/) from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
236. Swinford, Echo (March 26, 2011). "PPT 2010 new stuff" (http://echosvoice.com/powerpoint-2010/). Echo's Voice.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20140813014858/http://echosvoice.com/powerpoint-2010/) from the original on
August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
237. Microsoft (February 15, 2013). "System requirements for Office 2010: Microsoft PowerPoint 2010" (https://technet.mic
rosoft.com/en-us/library/ee624351%28v=office.14%29.aspx#section11). Microsoft TechNet. Archived (https://web.arc
hive.org/web/20120325002713/http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee624351(v=office.14).aspx#section11) from
the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
238. Microsoft (June 16, 2017). "Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 system requirements" (https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/
help/2581812/microsoft-office-for-mac-2011-system-requirements). Microsoft Support. Archived (https://www.webcitati
on.org/6sNDTK89f?url=https://filetea.me/n3wdNxkNxfbRty9qlbOYKtYbA) from the original on July 31, 2017.
Retrieved August 4, 2017.
239. Microsoft. "What's New in PowerPoint 2013" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-s-new-in-PowerPoint-2013
-1c38822e-0284-4acb-8099-23dc6f3207c5). Microsoft Support. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/201412092020
36/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Whats-new-in-PowerPoint-2013-1c38822e-0284-4acb-8099-23dc6f3207c
5?ui=en-US&rs=en-US&ad=US) from the original on December 9, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
240. Swinford, Echo (November 5, 2012). "Big list o' new features in powerpoint 2013" (http://echosvoice.com/big-list-o-ne
w-features-in-powerpoint-2013/). Echo's Voice. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20121108020220/http://echosv
oice.com/big-list-o-new-features-in-powerpoint-2013/) from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved August 4,
2017.
241. Microsoft (December 16, 2016). "System requirements for Office 2013" (https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee
624351.aspx). Microsoft TechNet. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20130119020642/https://technet.microsoft.co
m/en-us/library/ee624351.aspx) from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 45/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

242. Microsoft. "System requirements for Office" (https://products.office.com/en-us/office-system-requirements). Microsoft


Office. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20150925115345/http://products.office.com/en-us/office-system-require
ments) from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
243. Microsoft. "What's New in PowerPoint 2016 for Windows" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-s-new-in-Pow
erPoint-2016-for-Windows-e8ef980c-5b12-4fff-ae3f-0819e6a21a1f). Microsoft Support. Archived (https://web.archive.
org/web/20170731220459/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-s-new-in-PowerPoint-2016-for-Windows-e8ef
980c-5b12-4fff-ae3f-0819e6a21a1f) from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. This webpage
contains dated feature updates listed separately for each nearly-monthly update since the original release.
244. Foley, Mary Jo (July 12, 2017). "Microsoft delivers 'AI-powered' Presentation Translator add-in for PowerPoint" (http://
www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-delivers-ai-powered-presentation-translator-add-in-for-powerpoint/). ZDnet.com.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170720142802/http://www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-delivers-ai-powered-pr
esentation-translator-add-in-for-powerpoint/) from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
245. Microsoft. "Presentation Translator: an Office add-in for PowerPoint" (https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/garage/profile
s/presentation-translator/). Microsoft Garage. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170801211429/https://www.mic
rosoft.com/en-us/garage/profiles/presentation-translator/) from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved August 4,
2017.
246. Microsoft. "System requirements for Office" (https://products.office.com/en-us/office-system-requirements#Office-stan
dalone-applications-section). Microsoft Office. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20150925115345/http://products.
office.com/en-us/office-system-requirements#Office-standalone-applications-section) from the original on September
25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
247. Microsoft Corporation (2016). "File formats that are supported in PowerPoint" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/
File-formats-that-are-supported-in-PowerPoint-252c6fa0-a4bc-41be-ac82-b77c9773f9dc). Microsoft Support.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170807213337/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/File-formats-that-are-s
upported-in-PowerPoint-252c6fa0-a4bc-41be-ac82-b77c9773f9dc) from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved
August 7, 2017.
248. Microsoft Corporation (February 22, 2014). "MimeMapping.cs" (http://referencesource.microsoft.com/#System.Web/M
imeMapping.cs.html). Microsoft Reference Source. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YlfhuoTj?url=https://filetea.
me/t1sQXwolO3LRPaK1USdCYKg2A) from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017. "This module
maps document extensions to Content Mime Type."
249. "System-Declared Uniform Type Identifiers" (https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Miscellaneou
s/Reference/UTIRef/Articles/System-DeclaredUniformTypeIdentifiers.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40009259-SW1).
developer.apple.com. Apple. November 17, 2009. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20080724151058/http://deve
loper.apple.com/documentation/Carbon/Conceptual/understanding_utis/utilist/chapter_4_section_1.html#//apple_ref/d
oc/uid/TP40001319-CH205-CHDIJFGJ) from the original on July 24, 2008.
250. "PowerPoint FAQ: Versions" (https://web.archive.org/web/20130510103008/http://www.bitbetter.com/powerfaq.htm).
A Bit Better Corporation. May 10, 2013. Archived from the original (http://www.bitbetter.com/powerfaq.htm) on May
10, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017. A diagram shows "which versions of PowerPoint can open/save which other
versions" up to version 9.0 for Windows ("PowerPoint 2000").
251. Microsoft Corporation (June 20, 2017). "[MS-PPT]: PowerPoint (.ppt) Binary File Format (Protocol Revision 4.1)" (http
s://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc313106(v=office.12).aspx). Microsoft Developer Network. Archived (https://we
b.archive.org/web/20170807204504/https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc313106(v=office.12).aspx) from the
original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
252. Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (March 2, 2017).
"Specifications for Digital Formats: Microsoft Office Binary (doc, xls, ppt) File Formats" (https://www.loc.gov/preservati
on/digital/formats/intro/specifications.shtml). Digital Preservation, Library of Congress. Archived (https://web.archive.o
rg/web/20170813223732/https://www.loc.gov/preservation/digital/formats/intro/specifications.shtml) from the original
on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 46/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

253. Microsoft Corporation (2015). "Use PowerPoint 2007 to open or save a presentation in another file format" (https://sup
port.office.com/en-ca/article/Use-PowerPoint-2007-to-open-or-save-a-presentation-in-another-file-format-50e447ac-7
475-4853-b709-7e1c3e20860e). Microsoft Office Support. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YkXHaYnD?url=htt
ps://support.office.com/en-ca/article/Use-PowerPoint-2007-to-open-or-save-a-presentation-in-another-file-format-50e
447ac-7475-4853-b709-7e1c3e20860e) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015. "... PowerPoint
2007 does not support saving to PowerPoint 95 and earlier file formats."
254. Microsoft Corporation (2015). "Open XML Formats and file name extensions" (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/
Open-XML-Formats-and-file-name-extensions-5200d93c-3449-4380-8e11-31ef14555b18). Microsoft Office Support.
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170430175040/https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Open-XML-Formats-a
nd-file-name-extensions-5200d93c-3449-4380-8e11-31ef14555b18) from the original on April 30, 2017. Retrieved
August 11, 2017. "Starting with the 2007 Microsoft Office system, Microsoft Office uses the XML-based file formats,
such as .docx, .xlsx, and .pptx. These formats and file name extensions apply to ... Microsoft PowerPoint."
255. Rice, Frank (May 2006). "Introducing the Office (2007) Open XML File Formats" (https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/lib
rary/aa338205%28v=office.12%29.aspx). Microsoft Developer Network. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20161
228063121/https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa338205(v=office.12).aspx) from the original on December 28,
2016. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
256. Ecma Technical Committee 45 (2016). "Standard ECMA-376: Office Open XML File Formats" (http://www.ecma-intern
ational.org/publications/standards/Ecma-376.htm). Ecma International. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/201707
14033758/http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-376.htm) from the original on July 14,
2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
257. Ecma Technical Committee 45 (2012). Ngo, Tom, ed. "Office Open XML Overview" (http://www.ecma-international.or
g/news/TC45_current_work/OpenXML%20White%20Paper.pdf) (PDF). Ecma International. Archived (https://www.we
bcitation.org/6YkUJqGMe?url=http://www.ecma-international.org/news/TC45_current_work/OpenXML%20White%20
Paper.pdf) (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2017. "OpenXML was designed from the
start to be capable of faithfully representing the pre-existing corpus of word-processing documents, presentations,
and spreadsheets that are encoded in binary formats defined by Microsoft Corporation. ... The original binary formats
for these files were based on direct serialization of in-memory data structures ... . Technical Committee 45 (TC45) ...
includes representatives from Apple, Barclays Capital, BP, The British Library, Essilor, Intel, Microsoft, NextPage,
Novell, Statoil, Toshiba, and the United States Library of Congress."
258. Magee, Liam; Thom, James A. (2014). "What's in a Word? When one electronic document format standard is not
enough [pre-print]" (https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:29076/n2006050256.pdf) (PDF). Information
Technology & People. Emerald Group Publishing. 27 (4): 482511. doi:10.1108/ITP-09-2012-0096 (https://doi.org/10.
1108%2FITP-09-2012-0096). ISSN 0959-3845 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0959-3845). Archived (https://web.archi
ve.org/web/20170813152222/https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:29076/n2006050256.pdf) (PDF) from the
original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017. "The case of the standardisation of two ISO electronic
document formats, the OpenDocument Format (ODF) and Office Open XML (OOXML) ... In this case, the attempt to
design a de jure standard in fact produced even greater entrenchment of the existing de facto standard it was
designed to replace."
259. Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (February 21, 2017).
"OOXML Format FamilyISO/IEC 29500 and ECMA 376" (https://www.loc.gov/preservation/digital/formats/fdd/fdd00
0395.shtml). Digital Preservation, Library of Congress (Format Description ID:fdd000395). Archived (https://web.archi
ve.org/web/20170811221108/https://www.loc.gov/preservation/digital/formats/fdd/fdd000395.shtml) from the original
on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
260. ISO/IEC JTC 1 (2016). "ISO/IEC 29500-1:2016, Fundamentals and Markup Language Reference" (https://web.archiv
e.org/web/20170811222524/http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c071691_ISO_IEC_29500-1_201
6.zip). International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original (http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAv
ailableStandards/c071691_ISO_IEC_29500-1_2016.zip) on 2017-08-11. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
261. ISO/IEC JTC 1 (2016). "ISO/IEC 29500-4:2016, Transitional Migration Features" (https://web.archive.org/web/201708
11222524/http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c071692_ISO_IEC_29500-4_2016.zip). International
Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original (http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c0
71692_ISO_IEC_29500-4_2016.zip) on 2017-08-11. Retrieved August 9, 2017.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 47/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

262. Knowlton, Gray (August 13, 2012). "New file format options in the new Office" (http://blogs.office.com/2012/08/13/new
-file-format-options-in-the-new-office/). Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YlmskHOp?url=
http://blogs.office.com/2012/08/13/new-file-format-options-in-the-new-office/) from the original on May 24, 2015.
Retrieved August 11, 2017.
263. Microsoft Corporation (July 27, 2012). "Structure of a PresentationML document (Open XML SDK)" (https://msdn.micr
osoft.com/EN-US/library/office/gg278335.aspx). Microsoft Developer Network, Office Dev Center. Archived (https://w
ww.webcitation.org/6YljwI2hI?url=https://msdn.microsoft.com/EN-US/library/office/gg278335.aspx) from the original
on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
264. Office Open XML Consortium (2012). "Presentation ML (pptx)" (http://officeopenxml.com/anatomyofOOXML-
pptx.php). Office Open XML. Archived (https://www.webcitation.org/6YkV8eOOz?url=http://officeopenxml.com/anato
myofOOXML-pptx.php) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
265. Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (January 1, 2017). "PPTX
Transitional (Office Open XML), ISO 29500:20082016, ECMA-376, Editions 1-5" (https://www.loc.gov/preservation/di
gital/formats/fdd/fdd000399.shtml). Digital Preservation, Library of Congress (Format Description ID: fdd000399).
Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170811222524/https://www.loc.gov/preservation/digital/formats/fdd/fdd00039
9.shtml) from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017. "The standards documents that specify this
format run to over six thousand pages."
266. Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (2008). "Setting Standards
(Office Open XML and PDF/A)" (http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/series/challenge/formats_challenge.html). Digital
Preservation, Library of Congress. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20170220030311/http://www.digitalpreservat
ion.gov//series/challenge/formats_challenge.html) from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
"Library staff have participated in a technical committee working toward the standardization of the Office Open XML
specifications, which ... will make it easier for libraries and archives to preserve a large body of digital material by
ensuring that the content is generated in formats for which the specifications are published and will be maintained
under the auspices of a standards organization. Specifically, this standard is based on the formats used by the latest
version of Microsoft Office and supports all features in the various versions of Microsoft Office since 1997."
267. Meng, Max (May 20, 2013). "What is the default file format for saving in MS Office 2013?" (https://social.technet.micro
soft.com/Forums/en-US/e969fc0a-9fcd-4efe-bf6d-79ea8c34360f). Microsoft Technet Forums. Archived (https://www.w
ebcitation.org/6Ylnl1GfQ?url=https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/e969fc0a-9fcd-4efe-bf6d-79ea8c343
60f/what-is-the-default-file-format-for-saving-in-ms-office-2013-is-it-still-the-transitional-ooxml-or) from the original on
May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
268. Zamzar (April 17, 2012). "Open Old Powerpoint Presentations in Office 2007 and Office 2010" (https://blog.zamzar.co
m/2012/04/17/open-old-powerpoint-presentations-in-office-2007-and-office2010/). Zamzar Blog. Archived (https://we
b.archive.org/web/20170606185325/https://blog.zamzar.com/2012/04/17/open-old-powerpoint-presentations-in-office-
2007-and-office2010/) from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.

Further reading
Reuss, Elke I.; Signer, Beat; Norrie, Moira C. (2008). "PowerPoint Multimedia Presentations in Computer Science
Education: What do Users Need?" (https://www.academia.edu/175414/PowerPoint_Multimedia_Presentations_in_Co
mputer_Science_Education_What_do_Users_Need). Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Usability & HCI for
Education and Work (USAB 2008). Graz, Austria. (Registration required (help)).

Also available at: [1] (http://beatsigner.com/publications/reuss_USAB2008.pdf)


Lowenthal, Patrick R. (2009). "Improving the Design of PowerPoint Presentations" (http://www.ucdenver.edu/academi
cs/CUOnline/FacultySupport/Handbook/Documents/Chapter_12.pdf) (PDF). In Lowenthal, Patrick R.; Thomas, David;
Thai, Anna; Yuhnke, Brian. The CU Online Handbook 2009. University of Colorado Denver. pp. 6166.
Kalyuga, Slava; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John (2004). "When Redundant On-Screen Text in Multimedia Technical
Instruction Can Interfere With Learning" (http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1518/hfes.46.3.567.50405). Human
Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 46 (3): 567581.
doi:10.1518/hfes.46.3.567.50405 (https://doi.org/10.1518%2Fhfes.46.3.567.50405). PMID 15573552 (https://www.nc
bi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15573552).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 48/49
17/12/2017 Microsoft PowerPoint - Wikipedia

Also available at: [2] (http://www.it.iitb.ac.in/~s1000brains/rswork/dokuwiki/media/redundant_on_screen_text_in_m


ultimedia_instruction_can_interfere_with_learning.pdf) (Feb 2015).

External links
Official website (http://office.microsoft.com/PowerPoint)
Microsoft PowerPoint (https://curlie.org/Computers/Software/Presentation/Microsoft_PowerPoint) at Curlie (based on
DMOZ)
Robert Gaskins's website (http://www.robertgaskins.com/), one of the PowerPoint developers

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Microsoft_PowerPoint&oldid=815330521"

This page was last edited on 14 December 2017, at 05:58.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this
site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint 49/49