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# Latches and Flip-Flops

Dr DC Hendry

March 6, 2006

The designs which we have studied so far have all considered combinational
logic, that is, logic whose outputs depend only on the inputs. The circuits we
will now study contain memory, and so their output depends on both the current
inputs, and the data stored in those memories.

Two types of memory element will be considered, the first is the latch, and the
second is the flip-flop. The latch is the more fundamental element and should

1 Latches

1.1 SR Latch

S
Q

Q
R

## 1. Setting S(Set) to 0 with R at 1 causes Q to become 1 and Q to become

0.
2. Setting R(Reset) to 0 with S at 1 causes Q to become 0 and Q to
become 1.
1.2 Clocked SR Latch Bistables

## 3. When S and R are at 1 Q and Q retain their last values.

4. S and R should not both be 0 at the same time.

For an SR latch the following waveform applies. No logic delays are shown in
this diagram:

## 1.2 Clocked SR Latch

1. While the SR latch is used in some simple circuits, it is primarily used as
a building block for clocked latches.
2. In a clocked latch, the S and R inputs are only obeyed when the clock
signal is active.
3. For a positive latch the clock is considered active when it is 1, and 0 for
a negative latch.
4. Schematic for a Clocked SR Latch:

S
Q

Q
R

Clk

## Revision : 1.2 Page 2 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

1.3 D Latch Bistables

Clk

1.3 D Latch
1. By far the most important of the clocked latches however is the clocked
D latch.
2. This latch has a single data line, D, as input.
3. The effect is that D is only copied to the output Q when the clock is
active.
D

4. Clk

The D latch waveforms show that the output Q only follows (i.e. is the same
as after a small delay) the input D when the clock signal is active, that is 1
for a positive D latch.

Clk

## Revision : 1.2 Page 3 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

1.4 Schematic Symbols Bistables

S Q

R Q

Clk

## and the schematic symbol for a D latch is:

D Q

Clk

2 Flip-Flops

The clocked latches, in particular the D latch, allow data to flow through
then the clock signal is active. This behaviour turns out to make the design
of sequential digital systems difficult. A far more useful device is the edge
triggered flip-flop, or the master-slave flip-flop. Both of these devices have the
same behaviour, but internally are constructed with different circuitry.

Note that the term flip-flop originally referred to both latches and the devices
we now refer to as flip-flops, in todays terminology a flip-flop (usually!) does
not include latches, only the edge-triggered and master-slave designs.

## The master-slave flip-flop is perhaps the easiest to understand. The circuit

diagram, build with two D latches is as follows:

## Revision : 1.2 Page 4 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

Bistables

Q
D D Q D Q Q

Q Q Q

Clk Clk

Clk

Note how the first of the two latches is only open (that is, its Q signal follows
the D signal) only when the clock signal is low, while the second latch is open
only when the clock signal is high, both latches are never open at the same point
in time. A typical waveform then for the above circuit is as follows:

Clk

Clk

Q0

The sampling nature of the flip-flop is denoted by a small triangle on the clock
line of the device. The presence of a negation bubble indicates a negative edge
triggered device. Symbol for a positive edge triggered flip-flop:

D Q

## Revision : 1.2 Page 5 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

Bistables

D Q

3 VHDL Descriptions

We now turn to VHDL descriptions of both latches and flip-flops. At the same
time additional features will be added to these devices in the form of set and
reset lines. These lines may be asynchronous or synchronous.

## 3.1 The D Latch

The following code describes a D latch. Note that both of the inputs to the
circuit, clk and D are in the sensitivity list of the process.

library ieee;
use ieee.std logic 1164.all;

entity dlatch is
port( clk : in std logic;
d : in std logic;
q : out std logic;
qbar : out std logic);
end entity dlatch;

## architecture rtl of dlatch is

begin
dl : process (clk, d)
begin
if clk = 1 then
q <= d;
qbar <= not d;
end if ;
end process dl;
end architecture rtl;

## Revision : 1.2 Page 6 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

3.2 The D Flip-Flop Bistables

Consider how this description behaves when either of clk or d changes value. If
the clock signal clk changes value, then since it is in the sensitivity list of the
process, the process starts to execute from the first sequential statement. If the
clock has just changed to 1, then d is copied to q (and its inverse to qbar).
This is the behaviour we would expect from the real latch, as the latch opens
the input is copied to the output. If the clock has just changed to 0, then no
copying is done. When d changes value, again the process is run. Now if the
clock is 1, d is copied to q, but if the clock is 0, no copying is done. Again,
this is the behaviour of the real circuit, and so this description does describe
the real latch.

Most importantly, given this code, a synthesis tool will infer from this code the
use of a D latch. Other code too, can infer a D latch.

## 3.2 The D Flip-Flop

library ieee;
use ieee.std logic 1164.all;

entity dff is
port(clk : in std logic;
d : in std logic;
q : out std logic;
qbar : out std logic);
end entity dff;

## architecture rtl of dff is

begin
ff : process (clk)
begin
if clkevent and clk = 1 then
q <= d;
qbar <= not d;
end if ;
end process ff;
end architecture rtl;

1. The code clkevent and clk = 1 denotes a rising edge on the clock
signal.
2. On a rising edge d is copied to q, and the inverse to qbar.

## Revision : 1.2 Page 7 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

3.3 Set and Reset lines Bistables

3. Note that we must use qbar <= not d;, we cannot use qbar <= not q;
as q is an output and cannot be read.
4. This code, and other similar constructs, will cause a synthesis tool to infer
a D flip-flop.

## 3.3 Set and Reset lines

Many flips-flops (and latches) need to be placed into a specific start up state.
When powered up a flip-flop or latch takes a random state. Therefore many
flip-flops include a set line, a reset line, or both.

## 1. A set line when active causes the flip-flop q output to go to 1.

2. A reset line when active causes the flip-flop q output to go to 0.
3. Such lines may be either synchronous or asynchronous.

The VHDL code for a D flip-flop with active low synchronous set:

library ieee;
use ieee.std logic 1164.all;

entity dffs is
port(clk : in std logic;
set n : in std logic;
d : in std logic;
q : out std logic;
qbar : out std logic);
end entity dffs;

## Revision : 1.2 Page 8 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

3.3 Set and Reset lines Bistables

## architecture rtl of dffs is

begin
ff : process(clk)
begin
if clkevent and clk = 1 then
if set n = 0 then
q <= 1;
qbar <= 0;
else
q <= d;
qbar <= not d;
end if ;
end if ;
end process ff;
end architecture rtl;

The important point about a synchronous set (or reset) is that no effect occurs
until the next active edge of the clock (that is, a rising edge for a positive edge
triggered device, the falling edge for a negative edge triggered device). This is
shown in the next waveform.

Clk

set n

The VHDL code for a D flip-flop with active low asynchronous reset:

library ieee;
use ieee.std logic 1164.all;

entity dffr is
port(clk : in std logic;
rst n : in std logic;
d : in std logic;
q : out std logic;
qbar : out std logic);
end entity dffr;

## Revision : 1.2 Page 9 of 10 Dr DC Hendry

3.3 Set and Reset lines Bistables

## architecture rtl of dffr is

begin
ff : process(clk, rst n)
begin
if rst n = 0 then
q <= 0;
qbar <= 1;
else if clkevent and clk = 1 then
q <= d;
qbar <= not d;
end if ;
end process ff;
end architecture rtl;

## With an asynchronous reset, the effect of the signal is immediate, there is no

waiting period for the active clock edge.

Clk

rst n