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Journal of Food Engineering 29 (1996) 15-97

Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Limited


Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved
0260-8774/96/$15.00 + 0.00
ELSEVIER 0260-8774(95)00062-3

The Thin-layer Drying Characteristics of Garlic Slices

Ponciano S. Madamba,a Robert H. Driscollb & Ken A. Buckleb

College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology, The University of the Philippines,


Los Banos College, Laguna, Philippines 4031
Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney
2052, Australia

(Received 11 January 1995; revised version received 1 September 1995; accepted 26 January
1996)

ABSTRACT

The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices (2-4 mm) were investigated
for a temperature range SO-9oC, a relative humidity range g-2470, and an
airflow range 0.5-l mfs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that
temperature and slice thickness significantly affected the drying rate while
relative humidity and airflow rate were insignificant factors during drying.
Effective diffusivity of water varied from 2 to 4.2 xlO-t m2/s over the
temperature range investigated, with an energy of activation of 989 W/kg. Four
mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental
data, with the Page and the two-compartment models giving better predictions
than the single-term exponential and Thompsons model. The temperature
dependence of the diffusivityCoefJicientswas described satishactorilyby a simple
Arrhenius-type relationship. Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Limited.

NOTATION

Constant
Water activity
Constant
Equilibrium constant
Slice thickness (mm)
Dry basis
Diffusivity (m*/s)
Diffisivity at infinitely high temperature
Activation energy &J/kg)
Heat of condensation @J/kg)
Heat of sorption of monolayer (W/kg)
75
76 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

HII Heat of sorption of multilayer @J/kg)


k Drying constant
K Equilibrium constant
L Slab thickness (m)
M Moisture
MR Moisture ratio
Number of observations, drying constant
F Mean relative deviation modulus (%)
R Universal gas constant
RH Relative humidity (%)
t Time
T Temperature
WITI Monolayer moisture content (%dry basis)

Subscripts
a Absolute
e Equilibrium
eff Effective
m Monolayer
0 Initial

Greek symbols
Model coefficient
; Model coefficient
Model coefficient
: Model coefficient
Y Model coefficient

INTRODUCTION

Moisture removal from solids is an integral part of food processing. Many food
products are dried at least once at some point in their preparation. Drying fruit and
vegetable products is an important means of enhancing resistance to degradation
due to a decrease in water activity (uW). Easier processing, lower transport costs as
well as quality enhancements can also be achieved (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980;
Sokhansanj & Jayas, 1987). Drying is an important operation in the food and
pharmaceutical industries and is accomplished by air, vacuum, spray and freeze-
drying techniques (Banga & Singh, 1994). Heated air drying is the most commonly
employed commercial technique for drying biological products, and although large
quantities of drying information are available in the literature, the process still
remains largely an art (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980).
Drying is a critical step in the processing of dehydrated products because of the
high energy requirement of the process (due to low thermal efficiency of dryers).
Increased consumer awareness of food quality as well as the desire to produce a
high quality have emphasised the necessity of optimisation. Dryer design, simulation
and optimisation are complex processes still based on experimental data (Keey,
1980). Studies are usually conducted to determine the best quality of the end-
product as well as reduction in process time.
Thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices 77

Most workers describe their thin-layer drying (TLD) experiments with suitable
mathematical models which can be theoretical, semi-empirical and purely empirical.
An accurate mechanistic characterisation of the bulk drying rate largely depends on
the precision in the modelling of the internal movement of moisture within the
material making up the finite depth (Sharaf-Eldeen et aZ., 1980; Ezeiki & Otten,
1991). Mathematical models characterising drying rates biological products are
widely available in the literature (Rossen & Hayakawa, 1977; Bruin & Luyben, 1980;
Chirife, 1983) and these suggested models and computational procedures vary from
simple to complex. Simpler models should be a wiser option considering the
complexity of the process and the lack of required data (such as phenomenological
and coupling coefficients).
A simple model analogous to Newtons law of cooling assumes that the internal
resistance to moisture movement and thus the moisture gradients within the
material are negligible (Chinnan, 1984; Colson & Young, 1990; Parti & Dugmanics,
1990). It considers only the surface resistance and is of the form:
M-M,
= exp( -kt)
Mo-Me
This model was used primarily because it is simple. The only drawback, however,
was that it tended to over-predict the early stages and under-predict the later stages
of the drying curve (Parti, 1990). It has been commonly used by researchers in
describing the TLD characteristics of agricultural products (Ross & White, 1972;
Farinati & Suarez, 1984; Carbonell et aZ., 1986; Ajibola, 1989).
The Page model, developed by Page (1949) is an empirical modification of the
exponential model to correct for its shortcomings and has been used by several
authors (Overhults et al., 1973; Chinnan, 1984; Shepherd & Bhardwaj, 1988; Pathak
et al., 1991). It is written in the form:
M-M,
= exp( -I#) (2)
MO-Me
On the other hand, Thompson et al. (1968) developed an empirical equation to
describe the drying behaviour of shelled corn in the temperature range 60-150C:

The two-compartment diffusion model developed by Glenn (1978) is a part of an


infinite series of negative exponentials derived from a general solution to the
diffusion equation. This solution applies regardless of particle geometry and
boundary conditions, but assumes that diffusivity is constant (i.e. requires constant
product temperature during drying):
M-M,
=A, exp( -k,t)+A, exp( -k,t)
MO-Me
The double exponential solution to the diffusion equation has proved to be the
most widely popular (Sharaf-Eldeen et al., 1980; Noomhorm & Verma, 1986; Ezeiki
& Otten, 1991).
78 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

The objectives of the present study were to determine experimentally the thin-
layer-drying characteristics of garlic slices using different drying conditions, to
calculate the effective diffusivity and energy of activation for moisture diffusion and
to fit the experimental data to mathematical models available from the literature.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation

Freshly-harvested garlic cloves (cv. Early Californian) were supplied by Bidgee


Valley Produce, Whitton, New South Wales (NSW). The samples were cured by
blowing ambient air through the bulbs for at least two weeks in an aeration bin.
Initial moisture content varied from 60 to 64% wet basis, and was determined by
drying in a vacuum oven at 70C and gauge pressure of 85 kPa for 24 h.
The garlic slices were prepared by cracking (with enough pressure to prevent
crushing) the bulb to separate the cloves (diameter ranging from 10 to 12 mm) and
manually peeling the outer covering. The peeled cloves were sliced to the desired
thicknesses (2, 3 and/or 5 mm) using a rotary mechanical slicer. Screening was
performed to discard slices not within f 10% of the desired thickness, using a 2.36
mm sieve.

The drying system

The experimental drying system consisted of a system for the provision of air, a
heater, a humidifier and a drying chamber (Fig. 1). A Konskilde centrifugal blower
(model TRL-20, Konskilde, Denmark), used to force the drying air through the
product to be dried, was driven by a 4 kW, 3 phase electric motor with the airflow
rate controlled by a frequency modulator that varied the rotational speed of the fan
motor. Air flow rate was measured using a hot-wire anemometer with a precision of
f0.01 m/s and was measured 05 m above the plenum chamber. A resulting
calibration curve of air speed vs frequency (Hz) was linear with a coefficient of
determination (r) of 0.993. The maximum rotational speed was 2900 rpm and
resulted in a maximum air velocity of 1.8 m/s through the drying chamber.
The air was heated while flowing through up to lo-spiral-type electric resistance
heaters with a maximum heating capacity of 18 kW. The temperature of the drying
air was controlled using a Texas Instruments (USA) series 305 controller connected
to an IBM compatible 80486SX personal computer, with drying air temperatures
controlled using a proportional-integral (PI) program using time proportioning
control. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored on-line using
a data logger (Datataker model DT500).
The RH of the drying air was varied by spraying hot water droplets in a
humidification chamber from a 25 1 hot water tank (heater) and the chamber was
by-passed when a low RI-I was required for drying. A calibrated gate valve
controlled the rate of hot water supplied to the spray nozzle inside the humidifying
chamber. A maximum RH of 24% was achieved using the humidifier.
A swinging door was built in the drying chamber in order to remove and insert a
cylindrical tray (0.38 m diameter, 0.15 m deep) with a perforated bottom holding the
Thin-layer dgCng characteristics of garlic slices 79

LEGEND

6Temperature/Humid~ty Sensor 14 Heater Controller


7 Dry Bulb Thermocouple I5 Datta Logger
8 Wet BulbThermocouple I6 personal Computer

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the thin-layer drying apparatus used in the experiments.

product samples. The size of the perforations (6 mm diameter) and the open area
( > 50%) were sufficiently large to reduce pressure drop due to the perforations.
Appropriate sliding gates were opened at the bottom of the test chamber so that air
movement was upwards and uniformly distributed in the drying chamber using
concentric baffles beneath the plenum chamber.
The test chamber as well as all ducts were insulated with 25 mm glass wool to
prevent unnecessary heat losses to the surroundings during test runs.

Drying conditions

A total of 27 drying runs based on the Box & Behnken (1960) design were
conducted at random, with the low temperature and low RH runs done during the
day time. High temperature and high RH runs were only performed during the
night, when appropriate drying conditions could be achieved.
Table 1 shows the drying air conditions and product thickness used in TLD
studies including their respective random and Box & Behnken (1960) run numbers.
Drying air temperatures were varied from 50 to 90C RH from 8 to 24% and air
velocity from 0.5 to 1-O m/s. The drying air temperature as well as the ambient dry
and wet bulb temperatures were measured on-line using iron-constantan
thermocouple wires. The drying variables were chosen to include normal drying
temperatures for commercial dehydration of fruits and vegetables as well as low and
high drying temperatures. In all test runs, variation in drying conditions was less
than 5% and within f 10% of the conditions based on the experimental design.
80 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

The equilibrium moisture content of garlic at different RH and temperature levels


used in the drying experiments was calculated using the constant monolayer
Guggenheim-Anderson and deBoer (GAB) model of the form:

(6)

(7)

TABLE 1
Drying Air and Product Conditions for Thin-layer Drying Studies

Random Box & Drying Airflow Relative Slice Loading Initial


run Behnken temperature rate humid@ thickness densi y MC wb (%)
no. (1960) (C) (m/s) (%) (mm) (kglm )
Run no.

3 50-6 (1.0) 0.75 15.9 (0.9) 61.7 (0.9)


: 68.9 (O-9)
69-8 1.0 8.1 (1.2) 4 4-45
4-84 63.1 (0.9)
(0.4) 1.0 23.1 (0.8) 61.6 (0.7)
5 71.1 (0.9) 1.0 7.5 (1.5) : 4.10
4.23
1; 68.7 (0.9)
49.9 o-75 15.7 (1.1) ; 3.80
3.72
(15) o-75 6.2 (1.0)
o-75 15.5 (0.6) 2 4-08 61.1 (1.1)
0.75 7.7 (0.8) 60.5 (0.6)
21 68.6 (1.2) 0.75 23.8 (1.2) ; 5.12
3.76 60.8 (1.0)
22 69-4 (O-8) 0.75 22.9 (1.5) 4 5.20 61.1 (1.4)
9 69.7 (O-7) o-75 15.9 (1.0) 3 3.70
o-75
1: o-75 ;56;
. $9{. 4 5.19
4-19 60.9 (0.9)
15 0.5 15.7 (0.8) 4 5.12
:; 50.8 (O-7) 0.75 23.4 (0.5) z 4.43
0.75 7.1 (0.9)
7 23.6 (1.4)
E5 z 4.21
4.44
:: 0.5 1;:. [q . 3 4.77
15.1 (1.1)
:: ::; 14.9 (0.6) 4 4.04
4.01
24 14.7 (0.6)
E5 15.3 (0.9) : 4.61
4.21
z 48-9 (1.2) 1.0 3 4-42
ii*;. {;q. 61.6 (0.8)
8Z5 24.1 (1.3) 32 4.03
4.41 61.3 (1.2)
1.0 15.2 (1.1) 3 4.44 60.6 (0.6)

Numbers in parenthesis are standard deviations


ZYhin-layer
drying characteristics of garlic slices 81

where a, is the water activity, W,,, is the mono-layer moisture content, C, and K, are
pre-exponential constants, C and K are equilibrium constants, H,,, is the heat of
sorption of mono-layer, H, is the heat of sorption of multi-layer, H, is the heat of
condensation of multi-layer, R is the universal gas constant and T is the absolute
temperature. For garlic, the values for the coefficients IV,, C,, K,,, AI&/R and
AHJR are 8.05, O-36, 0.7, 357 and 107, respectively (Madamba et al., 1994).

Experimental procedure

Before each treatment, the drier was allowed to run with a dummy sample for at
least l-2 h (depending on the temperature and RH) to achieve steady-state
conditions and the desired temperature set point and RH. The actual sample
container was then replaced quickly at the start of the thin-layer drying experiment.
Thin-layer garlic slices with a depth of approximately 10 mm were placed in the
laboratory drier at a loading density of from 3.7 to 5.2 kg/m2 depending on the
thickness of the product. The water loss from the product was determined off-line
using an OHAUS Galaxy 8000 (precision of f0.1 g) weighing scale placed in close
proximity to the drying chamber, preventing time lag in weighing. The cylindrical
holding tray was removed and the tare weight of the product was determined at 1,
2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min, 5 min intervals up to 30 min, 10 min intervals to 1.5 h, 15 min
intervals to 3 h and 30 min intervals thereafter until the product reached
equilibrium moisture content. Off-line weighing of the product was performed in
approximately 10 s and did not significantly alter the steady-state drying conditions
(decrease in plenum temperature was less than 1C). Using this technique was found
to yield sufficiently reproducible drying curves by some researchers drying biological
products (Ajibola, 1989; Wongwises & Throngprasert, 1990). The initial and final
moisture contents were determined using the vacuum oven method.

Analysis of the drying data and drying models

The exponential model, Page model, Thompsons model and the approximation of
the diffusion model were fitted to the drying data. Several criteria for adequacy of
fit such as r2, MSE and graph of residuals were used to select an appropriate
mathematical model for garlic. The average per cent difference between the
experimental and predicted values or the mean relative deviation modulus (P)
defined by eqn (8) was also used as a measure of model adequacy (Andrieu et al.,
1985; Lomauro et al., 1985; Chen & Morey, 1989; Palipane & Driscoll, 1994):

100 n IMRactual-MRpredictedI
p=-
n i; MRactual

Non-linear regression was performed individually on all drying runs to initially


pick suitable models. The drying coefficients or constants were then related to the
process variables used to obtain functional relationships, which were used in a one-
step regression technique as recommended by Arabshahi & Lund (1985); Cohen &
Saguy (1985) and Haralampu et al. (1985).
The best model describing the thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic was
chosen as the one with the highest coefficient of correlation and the least error sum
82 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

of squares (Noomhorm & Verma, 1986) and mean relative deviation (Andrieu et aZ.,
1985; Lomauro et aZ., 1985; Chen & Morey, 1989; Palipane & Driscoll, 1994).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Influence of process variables

The effects of temperature, thickness, RH and air velocity were analysed using
analysis of variance (ANOVA), and this clearly showed that temperature and slice
thickness were significant factors in drying. The influence of RH (within the range
studied) and the air velocity through the product were statistically insignificant. The
experimental results were consistent with findings reported in the literature in which
drying air temperature is considered as the single most important factor affecting
drying rate. Several investigators reported considerable increases in drying rates
when higher temperatures were used for drying various food and agricultural crops.
These included Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) for onions, Sharaf-Eldeen et al. (1980)
for ear corn, Suarez et al. (1980) for grain sorghum, White et al. (1981) for pop corn,
Hutchinson & Otten (1983) for soybeans and white beans, Chinnan (1984) for in-
shell pecans, Li & Morey (1984) for yellow dent corn, Syarief et al. (1984) for
sunflower seeds, Pinaga et al. (1984) for an unspecified variety of garlic, Verma et al.
(1985) and Sharma et al. (1982) for rough rice and Puiggali et al. (1987) for
hazelnuts. Recent studies such as those of Bala & Woods (1992) on malt and
Palipane & Driscoll (1994) on macadamia nuts also reported increased drying rates
with higher drying temperatures.
Figure 2 shows the effectiveness of increasing the drying air temperature in
accelerating the dehydration of 2 mm slices. Similar trends were found for the 3 and
4 mm slices. The effect of temperature was most dramatic with MR decreasing
rapidly (and consequently increased drying rates) with increased temperature.
Increases in initial drying rates of 45.5% (4 mm), 79.9% (3 mm) and 104.5% (2 mm)
were observed when the air temperature was increased from 50 to 90C. The
analysis of variance showed that the effect of drying temperature was more pro-
nounced than slice thickness due to a significantly higher F-value. A higher
increment in initial drying rate of close to 84% db/min was obtained when increas-
ing the temperature from 50 to 9OC, while a drying rate of 72% db/min was
observed when slice thickness decreased from 4 to 2 mm. The effects of slice
thickness were similar to studies on garlic quality by Alcasabas (1990) and beet root
drying studies by Vaccarezza et al. (1974a), with both authors concluding that thinly-
sliced products dried faster due to the reduced distance the moisture travels and the
increased surface area exposed for a given volume of the product.
Figure 3 shows the influence of thickness on MR at 50C. Similar results were
obtained at 70 and 90C. Air velocity and RH were found to be statistically insignif-
icant at the 95% confidence level. It would be expected on theoretical grounds that
the RH of the air and the surface equilibrium moisture content would affect the
drying rate. The effect of RH on drying was reported by Farmer et al. (1983) and
Hutchinson & Otten (1983) by incorporating it with the drying constants for blue
stem grass seeds and for soybeans and white beans, respectively. Some authors
reported that the effect of RH was pronounced at lower moisture content levels.
Thin-layer dving characteristics of garlic slices 83

0
fSOC
x70 c
+oOc

0.1)
0
;:
t

f 0.6
Z
ii
5
0.4

0.2

0
0 30 60 90 120 150
Drying time (mln)

Fig. 2. Effect of temperature on the moisture ratio of 2 mm garlic slices.

However the experimental results from the drying studies showed that the probabil-
ity of RH influencing the drying process was only 60%, and so can be considered to
be statistically insignificant. The effect of RH (as well as air speed) was verified in
additional experiments since the experimental design was an incomplete factorial.
Changes in RH had almost no observable impact on the moisture ratio and hence
the drying rate as shown in Fig. 4 (Hutchinson & Otten, 1983; Li & Morey, 1984;
Verma et al., 1985; Ajibola, 1989). This is because the effect of RH is lumped into
the dimensionless moisture ratio (MR) by the equilibrium moisture content (M,).
The air speeds varying from 05 to 1-O m/s were higher than the 0.102 m/s
minimum cut-off figure reported by Henderson & Pabis (1962) and the lowest speed
(0.14 m/s) used by Hutchinson & Otten (1983) in TLD studies on soy and white
beans. No attempt was made to determine the point at which airflow rate becomes
significant. As shown by the ANOVA, the air velocity had no discernible effect on
the drying curves (MR vs time) in all cases (Fig. .5), similar to that observed in TLD
studies by Hutchinson & Otten (1983) on soy and white beans, Li & Morey (1984)
for rough rice, Shakya & Flink (1986) for potatoes and Ezeiki & Otten (1991) for
melon seeds. Other researchers chose to neglect the effect of air velocity as recom-
mended by Henderson & Pabis (1962) with some authors arbitrarily using values
higher than O-102 m/s. Recently, Palipane & Driscoll (1994) used an air speed of 3.0
m/s for TLD studies on macadamia nuts. The basis for neglecting air flow rate in
TLD is the conclusion that the resistance to moisture movement at the surface is
negligible compared to the internal resistance (Henderson & Pabis, 1962). Another
reason cited by Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) was that the critical moisture contents
84 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

1.2

LI
f 2mm

X3 mm
11 74 mm

0.8

B
?

F&g
a
4
s
0.4

0.2

Drying time (mln)

Fig. 3.

1.2
f6%
X16%
11
f 24%

0.8
0
E
t

5 0.6

B
0.4

0.2

0
0 100 200 3(M 400

Drying tlmr (mln)

Fig. 4.
Thin-layer aiying charactedics of gadic slices 85

TO.6 m/s
X0.75 m/r
Al.@ lw6

I 1 I I I I

0 100 2gg 300 400 500 600

Drying time (min)

Fig. 5.

of food products are considerably higher than for inorganic materials, which can be
attributed to the colloidal and hydrophilic nature of these materials which causes
the water molecules to be tightly held by the material. Hence, almost all of the
drying of biological products takes place in the falling rate period.
To corroborate this phenomenon, the drying rate was calculated at different times
and plotted against moisture content as shown in Fig. 6 (runs 4, 15 and 26). A high
initial drying rate (with higher rates at higher temperatures) was observed followed
by a gradual decrease as the material approached the dried state. Most of the drying
of garlic took place in the falling rate period which is clearly evidenced by Fig. 6.
The results were generally in agreement with most literature studies on TLD of
various food products (Suarez et al., 1980; Chinnan, 1984; Syarief et al., 1984;
Shepherd & Bhardwaj, 1988; Pathak et al., 1991), while, Pinaga et al. (1984) and
Rao et al. (1992) reported a short constant rate for garlic and toria, respectively.
Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) reported similar findings with onions with the constant
rate period vanishing as drying air temperature increased. In the present work, the
temperature range used was much higher (50-90C vs 22-58C, respectively) than
that employed by Pinaga et al. (1984). The findings of Mazza & Le Maguer (1980)
may hold true for garlic if lower drying temperatures (50C) were used. The tech-
nique used by Pinaga et al. (1984) consisted of recirculated adsorbent drying using
silica gel. A high airflow rate (approx. 0.3 m/s) was used in which water evaporated
from the product was not properly adsorbed by the silica gel, and was probably
another reason for the presence of a constant rate period in their TLD studies.
86 II S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

0
0 40 60 120 160
Moisture Content (Xdb)
Fig. 6.

Calculation of effective diffusivity and activation energy

As previously described, the drying of garlic slices takes place in the falling rate
period only and liquid diffusion controls the process. The diffusion equation
developed for particles with slab geometry by Sherwood (1929) and Crank (1975) is
applicable assuming that the diffusivity is constant and is of the form of eqn (9):

E12e=s[exp(-Dr--$)+$exp(-9Dt--$)
+$exp (-25D--$-)+.....+I

where D is the effective diffusivity (m/.s) and L is the slab thickness, and the half
slab thickness is used when evaporation occurs on both sides of the slab. For long
drying times (MR <0*6), a limiting form of eqn (9) is obtained and expressed in a
logarithmic form (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980; Suarez et al, 1980; Pinaga et al,, 1984;
Yusheng & Poulsen, 1987):
2
M-M,
In
h4,-it4,
=lnS-Dt
X2 (> 2

A more general form of eqn (10) is:


Thin-layer dTing characteristics of garlic slices 87

M-M,
In =A-Bt (11)
M, -M

where constant B is related to the effective diffusivity:


D72
B=- (12)
4L2

The experimental moisture ratios (MR) in the present work were calculated and
plotted in accordance with eqn (ll), with Fig. 7 showing the logarithm of the
unaccomplished moisture (MR) vs time. At all temperatures investigated, straight
lines were satisfactorily fitted to the experimental values and r2 were greater than
0.99. Similar observations were obtained and reported in TLD experiments by
Vaccarezza et al. (1974b) for beet root, Suarez et al. (1980) for grain sorghum,
Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) for onions, Pinaga et al. (1984) for garlic, Lomauro et
al. (1985) for dry and semi-moist foods and Yusheng & Poulsen (1987) for potato.
Based on the diffusion equation, for slabs with infinite surface area, the constant
A has a theoretical value of In S/n2 which is equal to -0.21. The intercepts for each
of the straight lines were taken as average with values of the constant A deduced
from linear regression being -0.17. This value was very close to the theoretical
value, with the difference attributed to the slices overlapping each other when
distributed to form a single layer during the drying process. Similar reasoning was

-1

s .*
C

-3

0 60 120 180 240


Drying time (mln)

Fig. 7.
88 I! S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

used by Pinaga et al. (1984) to explain the difference in the TLD of an unspecified
variety of garlic.
The diffusivity was calculated by eqn (12) using the slopes deduced from the
linear regression of In MR vs time data in Fig. 7 and assuming that diffusion took
place on both sides of the slab. In drying porous food materials such as garlic, the
movement of moisture within these materials is caused by various mechanisms or a
combination of different mechanisms (Perry & Chilton, 1973; Brooker et aZ., 1974;
Kisakurek et al., 1975; Hall, 1980; Parry, 1985). Since information on the exact
mechanism in food drying is still limited and due to the complexity of the process,
a lumped value of diffusivity called the e&ctive chffusivity L commrroly us& The
effective diffusivities (D& for garlic varied from 2-02 x 10V1 to 4.24 x IOWn m2/s
over the temperature range 50-90C. These values were higher than the reported
diffusivities of an unspecified variety of garlic (Pinaga et al., 1984), but within the
general range of 10W9 to 1O-1 m/s for food materials. The high effective diffusivity
can also be ascribed to the low isosteric heat of sorption, hence, the restriction of
water movement (Madamba et al., 1995, in press). Rizvi (1986) reported that
effective diffusivities were influenced by factors such as temperature, variety and
composition of the material among others. Table 2 shows the D,n of the present
study as well as information available in the literature.
The calculated effective diffusivities were plotted as a function of the reciprocal of
the absolute temperature which is usually represented by a simple Arrhenius-type
relationship (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980; Pinaga et al., 1984; Carbonell et al, 1986;
Uddin et al., 1990):

(13)

where D, is a constant equivalent to the diffusivity at infinitely high temperature


and E, is the energy of activation @J/kg).
Figure 8 shows the relationship of In D vs the reciprocal of the absolute
temperature and clearly shows an Arrhenius-type relationship. Equation (14) shows
the effect of temperature on D eff of garlic with the following coefficients:

TABLE 2
Effective Diffusivities of Garlic and other Products

Product Temperature D, x lo- References


ec, (m is)

Garlic(unspecified variety) 23-58 1.1-2.0 Pinaga et al. (1984)


Sugar beets 40-80 40-130 reviewed by Bruin & Luyben (1980)
Potato 167
Melon seeds 306& 53-11.1 Ezeilci & Otten (1991)
Onion (phase 1) 40-65 76-13.9 Mazza & Le Maguer (1980)
Garlic 50 20.2 present work
(cv. Early Califorian)
70 31.0
90 42.4
Thin-kayerdying characteristics of garlic slices 89

-21.4
1

-22.2 -

-22.4 -

I I I I
-22.6
2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1

l/T (x10-3)

Fig. 8.

Deff = 152 x lop7 exp -- (14)

The energy of activation for water diffusion (calculated from the slope of eqn
(13)) was found to be 989 kJ/kg and was lower than 1200 kJ/kg for onion drying
(Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980), 1183 kJ/kg for rice (Pinaga et al., 1984) and 2036 kJ/kg
for the dehydration of paprika (Carbonell et al, 1986). However, the E, for this
present study was slightly higher than the 746 and 630 kJ/kg for the dehydration of
garlic (Pinaga et al., 1984) and pineapple (Uddin et aZ., 1990), respectively. The
activation energy barrier must be overcome to activate moisture diffusion, and
although it would be beneficial to use high temperatures so as to increase the drying
rates by increasing moisture diffusion (Carbonell et al., 1986), it is advisable to dry
garlic at optimum temperatures to maintain quality.

Modelling of the thin-layer drying characteristics

The regression procedure was performed for the 27 runs individually for the initial
selection of one or two models to be used for the direct regression technique. The
mean square error (MSE), rz and the mean relative deviation (I) modulus as
recommended by Lomauro et al. (1985), Chen & Morey (1989), Mazza & Jayas
(1991) and Palipane & Driscoll (1994) were the basis for initial selection of the
drying model. These criteria for fit for the four models are shown in Tables 3 and
4.
90 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

Acceptable r* of greater than 0.9 were obtained for all four models fitted to all
the experimental runs with the Page model and the two-compartment exponential
equation giving consistently higher values than the lumped exponential and
Thompsons models. An examination of the MSEs showed that the two-
compartment model gave superior fit to the data compared to the Page and the
lumped exponential equation due to its lower values. A high variability was observed
for the MSEs of the Thompson model, with values as low as 8 to as high as 3200.
The percent mean relative deviation modulus (P) was used by several authors
recently in their TLD studies (Chen & Morey, 1989; Mazza & Jayas, 1991; Palipane
& Driscoll, 1994) and indicates the deviation of the observed data from the
predicted line. P-values of 10% were observed for both the Page model and the two-
compartment exponential model, whilst higher deviations of 15 and 20% were

TABLE 3
Curve Fitting Criteria for the Exponential and Thompsons Models for the Drying of Garlic
Slices

Random Exponential model Thompsons model


run#
r2 MSE Pb (%) r2 MSE P (%)
0.961 4.4 x 1o-3 14.60 0.911 3228.7 19.58
: 0.994 3.1 x 1o-4 7.61 0.993 32.9 4.46
3 0.995 2.1 x 1o-4 5.01 0.997 7.7 3.21
4 0.965 6.9 x 1O-4 5.30 0.990 66.7 5.85
5 0.980 10.74 0.966 814.5 17.67
0.989 ;*gl; fl3 5.11 0.989 59.8 4.46
6
4

7 0.995 1.5 x 1or4 4.40 0.996 12.3 3.52


0.978 3.5 x 10-3 12.92 0.943 1238.8 18.11
z 0.969 14.44 0.944 1703.5 18.33
;; ; ;;I:
10 0.981 9.14 0.954 279.3 13.11
11 0.983 1.0 x 10-3 8.99 0.951 348.5 14.52
12 0.989 3.8 x 7.74 0.959 199.5 12.51
13 0.985 8.89 0.962 214.3 12.81
14 0.981 ;; ; ;;I
10-I3 9.18 0.941 509.6 17.47
15 0.979 2.4 x 1O-3 10.65 0.977 972.1 9.11
0.987 4.9 x 1o-4 5.08 0.964 137.5 10.55
:; 0.988 4.8 x lop4 5.19 0.971 134.5 11.20
0.997 7.2 x 1O-5 3.60 0.978 64.7 6.53
:; 0.980 1.8 x 1O-3 10.41 0.941 1751.4 18.77
20 0.984 9.2 x 1O-4 6.44 0.960 155.4 12.44
21 0.983 9.4 x 10-4 6.88 0.993 63.0 4.99
0.981 1.4 x 1o-3 9.14 0.949 1075.0 18.44
;t 0.985 5.8 x 1o-4 8.88 0.962 238.3 12.92
24 0.996 1.8 x 1O-4 5.02 0.995 16.0 3.88
25 0.985 5.21 0.981 98.8 10.11
;; ; :;r:
26 0.991 7.81 0.943 51.3 9.44
27 0.979 3.2 x 1O-3 13.22 0.936 1714.8 18.22

Mean square error


bMean relative deviation modulus (P)
Thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices 91

obtained for the single-lumped exponential and Thompsons model, respectively.


Despite high r2 values, the rejection of both these models based on
recommendations by Joglekar & May (1987) and Wang & Brennan (1991) of less
than 10% variability reinforced the notion that r2 is not a good criterion for
evaluating non-linear mathematical models (Chen & Morey, 1989).
The Page model as well as the two-compartment exponential model were chosen
to fit the experimental data on garlic. The model coefficients for each run were
calculated using the multivariate secant or false-position-iterative method (Ralston
& Jennrich, 1979), and the drying constants k and it (Page) and kI and k2 (two-
compartment) were plotted as a function of temperature and thickness. This
procedure was performed in order to estimate the relationships between the drying
constants and temperature and thickness, which was used in a one-step regression

TABLE 4
Curve Fitting Criteria for the Page and Two-Compartment Models for the Drying of Garlic
Slices

Random Page model 2-Compartment model


run #
r2 MSE Pb (%) r2 MSE P (%J

1 0.993 2.1 x 1o-4 7.34 0.992 1.9 x 1o-4 6.54


2 0.994 2.7 x lop4 7.78 0.999 3.3 x lop5 2.21
0.995 2.2 x 1o-4 7.32 0.999 2.7 x lo- 1.93
43 0.994 2.3 x 1O-4 7.28 0.996 1.1 x 1o-4 4.51
5 0.985 9.5 x 1o-4 8.87 0.992 1.3 x lop4 2.85
6 0.995 1.3 x 1o-4 4.23 0.997 5.6 x lo- 1.94
7 0.995 1.6 x 1O-4 4.11 0.999 2.5 x lo- 3.79
8 0.990 5.0 x lop4 8.30 4.69
0.997
0.990 ;;. ; ;;I:
9 0.997 5.2 x 10V5 344 6.54
10 0.986 5.5 x 10-l 8.28 0.997 7.4 x 1o-5 4.19
0.984 8.31 0.991 1.1 x 1o-4 3.88
;;; ;;I 4
7.30 0.999 1.6 x 10V5 1.95
:: 0.992
13 0.992 2.6 x lop4 7.80 0.999 2.6 x lop5 2.41
14 0.997 ;.i ; y&5 3.50 0.992 1.1 x 1o-4 5.11
4
15 0.992 7.77 0.993 1.7 x lop4 6.35
0.992 3.0 x lop4 7.78 6.33
0.993
0.996 ;j . ; $1:
:; 0.997 3.51 3.71
;j ; ;;I:
0.997 3.52 0.997 y6 :;I5 4.18
0.993 . ; 4
:; 0.989 ;.:, ; ii4 6.29 6.80
20 0.996
4
6-21 0.998 4.8 x lop5 2.39
21 0.993 2.7 x 10W4 8.92 0.998 4.8 x 1O-5 2.35
22 0.989 3.9 x 1o-4 7.91 0.997 5.7 x 10-z 4.75
23 0.990 7.82 2.31
;;; ;;I: 0.999
0.998 ;.;. ; ii 5
24 0.996 6.85 2.37
25 0.992 7.11 0.999 1.6 x 1O-5 1.95
26 0.992 7.30 0.999 1.6 x 1O-5 1.88
27 0.994 6.84 0.994 1.6 x 1O-4 6.88

a Mean square error


b Mean relative deviation modulus (P).
92 f! S. Madamba, R. H. Driwoll, K. A. Buckle

technique as recommended by Arabshahi & Lund (1985), Cohen & Saguy (1985),
Haralampu et al. (1985) and Saguy & Karel(l987).
The Page model and the two-compartment model, with the following drying
constants, were fitted to the experimental data by one-step regression:
Page model (eqn (2)):
k=a+j?T=yd (1%
n = 6+xT (16)
T = temperature (C), d = slice thickness (mm),
a, p, y, 6 and x = model coefficients.
Two-compartment model (eqn (4)):
kl or k2 = a+pT (17)
kl or k2 = a+/?T+yd (18)

kl or k2 = a exp (19)

T, = absolute temperature (K)


Equations (15) and (16) (Page equation) and (17) to (19) (two-compartment
model) were chosen based on model coefficient estimates for each run.
The drying constant (k) in eqn (19) is an Arrhenius-type relationship, which is a
sound approach to characterise the effect of temperature (Karel, 1989) and has
been used by most investigators studying TLD characteristics of various biological
materials, including Ajibola (1989) and Ezeiki & Otten (1991) for melon seeds, Bala
& Woods (1992) for malt and Palipane & Driscoll (1994) for macadamia nuts.
The results of the one-step regression technique using the original data are shown
in Table 5, with criteria of curve adequacy (r , MSE, and P-values) included. The

TABLE 5
Thin-layer Drying Models Fitted using the One-step Regression Technique

Model r2 MSE P-value


VW
Page model
k=0*14+3.72 x 1O-4 T-0.03 Id 0.997 7.3 x 1o-4 6.44
n=0.38+6.7 x 1O-3 T
Two-compartment model
kl=-0.045+1*5 x 1O-3 T 0.979 6.9 x 1O-3 12.42
k2= -0.014+3+2 x 1O-4 T
kI= 1.4 + 134.5 T- 1.39d 0.986 2.2 x 1o-3 10.10
k2=0.025 +9*1 x 1O-4 T-0.016d
0.997 7.4 x 1o-4 6.41
k1=1920.8 eq (- y)
kp - 1.6x10p3 exp
Thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices 93

Page model (the drying constant as a linear function of temperature and slice
thickness) as well as the two-compartment equation with an Arrhenius-type relation-
ship for the temperature dependence of drying constants (k, and k2), satisfactorily
described the TLD behaviour of the material due to their lower MSEs. The calcu-
lated percent deviation modulus (P-value) were correspondingly lower with an
insignificantly lower value for the Arrhenius-type equation. The temperature
dependence of the drying constants were in agreement with information available in
the literature (Ajibola, 1989; Ezeiki & Otten, 1991; Bala & Woods, 1992; Palipane
& Driscoll, 1994).
Based on the criterion of simplicity of a mathematical model (van den Berg &
Bruin, 1981; van den Berg, 1985; Banga & Singh, 1994) the two-compartment
model with the drying constants characterised by a simple Arrhenius relationship
should be chosen as an adequate model for garlic due to its lesser number of
parameters and its physical significance. The expression with the following model
coefficients sufficiently described the TLD behaviour of garlic slices:
M-M,
=0-95exp(-1920*8exp[-y])1
MO-Me

I>
161.9
1.6 x 10m3 exp ~ t (20)
[ TZl

Figure 9 shows the fit of eqn (20) to the experimental data for the TLD of the

1.2

0.6
P
E

2 0.6
a
1
B
0.4

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Drying time (min)

Fig. 9.
94 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

I I
OlW
0 0.2 0.4

PredIcted values

Fig. 10.

garlic samples at different temperatures. Figure 10 shows the graph of the actual vs
the predicted values for eqn (20). No discernible or systematic pattern was observed,
with the experimental data points banding around a 45 straight line, demonstrating
the suitability of eqn (20) in characterising the TLD behaviour of garlic slices.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the experimental results reported herein, the following conclusions can be
made:
0 Most of the drying of garlic slices takes place in the falling rate period;
0 Temperature and slice thickness were significant factors in drying while relative
humidity (low range) and air speed had no discernible effect on the drying rate
of the samples;
0 The effective diffusivity was calculated from the data and varied from 2 to 4.2
x lo-lo m2/s with the temperature dependence represented by a simple
Arrhenius-type relationship. The activation energy for moisture diffusion was
989 kJ/kg which was in agreement with data in the literature; and
0 The thin-layer drying characteristics of the sample product was satisfactorily
described by a two-compartment (general solution to the diffusion equation)
model with the temperature dependence of the drying constants characterised
by an Arrhenius relationship.
Thin-layer dtying characteristics of garlic slices 95

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