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0260-8774/96/$15.00 + 0.00

ELSEVIER 0260-8774(95)00062-3

Los Banos College, Laguna, Philippines 4031

Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney

2052, Australia

(Received 11 January 1995; revised version received 1 September 1995; accepted 26 January

1996)

ABSTRACT

The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices (2-4 mm) were investigated

for a temperature range SO-9oC, a relative humidity range g-2470, and an

airflow range 0.5-l mfs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that

temperature and slice thickness significantly affected the drying rate while

relative humidity and airflow rate were insignificant factors during drying.

Effective diffusivity of water varied from 2 to 4.2 xlO-t m2/s over the

temperature range investigated, with an energy of activation of 989 W/kg. Four

mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental

data, with the Page and the two-compartment models giving better predictions

than the single-term exponential and Thompsons model. The temperature

dependence of the diffusivityCoefJicientswas described satishactorilyby a simple

Arrhenius-type relationship. Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Limited.

NOTATION

Constant

Water activity

Constant

Equilibrium constant

Slice thickness (mm)

Dry basis

Diffusivity (m*/s)

Diffisivity at infinitely high temperature

Activation energy &J/kg)

Heat of condensation @J/kg)

Heat of sorption of monolayer (W/kg)

75

76 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

k Drying constant

K Equilibrium constant

L Slab thickness (m)

M Moisture

MR Moisture ratio

Number of observations, drying constant

F Mean relative deviation modulus (%)

R Universal gas constant

RH Relative humidity (%)

t Time

T Temperature

WITI Monolayer moisture content (%dry basis)

Subscripts

a Absolute

e Equilibrium

eff Effective

m Monolayer

0 Initial

Greek symbols

Model coefficient

; Model coefficient

Model coefficient

: Model coefficient

Y Model coefficient

INTRODUCTION

Moisture removal from solids is an integral part of food processing. Many food

products are dried at least once at some point in their preparation. Drying fruit and

vegetable products is an important means of enhancing resistance to degradation

due to a decrease in water activity (uW). Easier processing, lower transport costs as

well as quality enhancements can also be achieved (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980;

Sokhansanj & Jayas, 1987). Drying is an important operation in the food and

pharmaceutical industries and is accomplished by air, vacuum, spray and freeze-

drying techniques (Banga & Singh, 1994). Heated air drying is the most commonly

employed commercial technique for drying biological products, and although large

quantities of drying information are available in the literature, the process still

remains largely an art (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980).

Drying is a critical step in the processing of dehydrated products because of the

high energy requirement of the process (due to low thermal efficiency of dryers).

Increased consumer awareness of food quality as well as the desire to produce a

high quality have emphasised the necessity of optimisation. Dryer design, simulation

and optimisation are complex processes still based on experimental data (Keey,

1980). Studies are usually conducted to determine the best quality of the end-

product as well as reduction in process time.

Thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices 77

Most workers describe their thin-layer drying (TLD) experiments with suitable

mathematical models which can be theoretical, semi-empirical and purely empirical.

An accurate mechanistic characterisation of the bulk drying rate largely depends on

the precision in the modelling of the internal movement of moisture within the

material making up the finite depth (Sharaf-Eldeen et aZ., 1980; Ezeiki & Otten,

1991). Mathematical models characterising drying rates biological products are

widely available in the literature (Rossen & Hayakawa, 1977; Bruin & Luyben, 1980;

Chirife, 1983) and these suggested models and computational procedures vary from

simple to complex. Simpler models should be a wiser option considering the

complexity of the process and the lack of required data (such as phenomenological

and coupling coefficients).

A simple model analogous to Newtons law of cooling assumes that the internal

resistance to moisture movement and thus the moisture gradients within the

material are negligible (Chinnan, 1984; Colson & Young, 1990; Parti & Dugmanics,

1990). It considers only the surface resistance and is of the form:

M-M,

= exp( -kt)

Mo-Me

This model was used primarily because it is simple. The only drawback, however,

was that it tended to over-predict the early stages and under-predict the later stages

of the drying curve (Parti, 1990). It has been commonly used by researchers in

describing the TLD characteristics of agricultural products (Ross & White, 1972;

Farinati & Suarez, 1984; Carbonell et aZ., 1986; Ajibola, 1989).

The Page model, developed by Page (1949) is an empirical modification of the

exponential model to correct for its shortcomings and has been used by several

authors (Overhults et al., 1973; Chinnan, 1984; Shepherd & Bhardwaj, 1988; Pathak

et al., 1991). It is written in the form:

M-M,

= exp( -I#) (2)

MO-Me

On the other hand, Thompson et al. (1968) developed an empirical equation to

describe the drying behaviour of shelled corn in the temperature range 60-150C:

infinite series of negative exponentials derived from a general solution to the

diffusion equation. This solution applies regardless of particle geometry and

boundary conditions, but assumes that diffusivity is constant (i.e. requires constant

product temperature during drying):

M-M,

=A, exp( -k,t)+A, exp( -k,t)

MO-Me

The double exponential solution to the diffusion equation has proved to be the

most widely popular (Sharaf-Eldeen et al., 1980; Noomhorm & Verma, 1986; Ezeiki

& Otten, 1991).

78 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

The objectives of the present study were to determine experimentally the thin-

layer-drying characteristics of garlic slices using different drying conditions, to

calculate the effective diffusivity and energy of activation for moisture diffusion and

to fit the experimental data to mathematical models available from the literature.

Preparation

Valley Produce, Whitton, New South Wales (NSW). The samples were cured by

blowing ambient air through the bulbs for at least two weeks in an aeration bin.

Initial moisture content varied from 60 to 64% wet basis, and was determined by

drying in a vacuum oven at 70C and gauge pressure of 85 kPa for 24 h.

The garlic slices were prepared by cracking (with enough pressure to prevent

crushing) the bulb to separate the cloves (diameter ranging from 10 to 12 mm) and

manually peeling the outer covering. The peeled cloves were sliced to the desired

thicknesses (2, 3 and/or 5 mm) using a rotary mechanical slicer. Screening was

performed to discard slices not within f 10% of the desired thickness, using a 2.36

mm sieve.

The experimental drying system consisted of a system for the provision of air, a

heater, a humidifier and a drying chamber (Fig. 1). A Konskilde centrifugal blower

(model TRL-20, Konskilde, Denmark), used to force the drying air through the

product to be dried, was driven by a 4 kW, 3 phase electric motor with the airflow

rate controlled by a frequency modulator that varied the rotational speed of the fan

motor. Air flow rate was measured using a hot-wire anemometer with a precision of

f0.01 m/s and was measured 05 m above the plenum chamber. A resulting

calibration curve of air speed vs frequency (Hz) was linear with a coefficient of

determination (r) of 0.993. The maximum rotational speed was 2900 rpm and

resulted in a maximum air velocity of 1.8 m/s through the drying chamber.

The air was heated while flowing through up to lo-spiral-type electric resistance

heaters with a maximum heating capacity of 18 kW. The temperature of the drying

air was controlled using a Texas Instruments (USA) series 305 controller connected

to an IBM compatible 80486SX personal computer, with drying air temperatures

controlled using a proportional-integral (PI) program using time proportioning

control. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored on-line using

a data logger (Datataker model DT500).

The RH of the drying air was varied by spraying hot water droplets in a

humidification chamber from a 25 1 hot water tank (heater) and the chamber was

by-passed when a low RI-I was required for drying. A calibrated gate valve

controlled the rate of hot water supplied to the spray nozzle inside the humidifying

chamber. A maximum RH of 24% was achieved using the humidifier.

A swinging door was built in the drying chamber in order to remove and insert a

cylindrical tray (0.38 m diameter, 0.15 m deep) with a perforated bottom holding the

Thin-layer dgCng characteristics of garlic slices 79

LEGEND

7 Dry Bulb Thermocouple I5 Datta Logger

8 Wet BulbThermocouple I6 personal Computer

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the thin-layer drying apparatus used in the experiments.

product samples. The size of the perforations (6 mm diameter) and the open area

( > 50%) were sufficiently large to reduce pressure drop due to the perforations.

Appropriate sliding gates were opened at the bottom of the test chamber so that air

movement was upwards and uniformly distributed in the drying chamber using

concentric baffles beneath the plenum chamber.

The test chamber as well as all ducts were insulated with 25 mm glass wool to

prevent unnecessary heat losses to the surroundings during test runs.

Drying conditions

A total of 27 drying runs based on the Box & Behnken (1960) design were

conducted at random, with the low temperature and low RH runs done during the

day time. High temperature and high RH runs were only performed during the

night, when appropriate drying conditions could be achieved.

Table 1 shows the drying air conditions and product thickness used in TLD

studies including their respective random and Box & Behnken (1960) run numbers.

Drying air temperatures were varied from 50 to 90C RH from 8 to 24% and air

velocity from 0.5 to 1-O m/s. The drying air temperature as well as the ambient dry

and wet bulb temperatures were measured on-line using iron-constantan

thermocouple wires. The drying variables were chosen to include normal drying

temperatures for commercial dehydration of fruits and vegetables as well as low and

high drying temperatures. In all test runs, variation in drying conditions was less

than 5% and within f 10% of the conditions based on the experimental design.

80 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

used in the drying experiments was calculated using the constant monolayer

Guggenheim-Anderson and deBoer (GAB) model of the form:

(6)

(7)

TABLE 1

Drying Air and Product Conditions for Thin-layer Drying Studies

run Behnken temperature rate humid@ thickness densi y MC wb (%)

no. (1960) (C) (m/s) (%) (mm) (kglm )

Run no.

: 68.9 (O-9)

69-8 1.0 8.1 (1.2) 4 4-45

4-84 63.1 (0.9)

(0.4) 1.0 23.1 (0.8) 61.6 (0.7)

5 71.1 (0.9) 1.0 7.5 (1.5) : 4.10

4.23

1; 68.7 (0.9)

49.9 o-75 15.7 (1.1) ; 3.80

3.72

(15) o-75 6.2 (1.0)

o-75 15.5 (0.6) 2 4-08 61.1 (1.1)

0.75 7.7 (0.8) 60.5 (0.6)

21 68.6 (1.2) 0.75 23.8 (1.2) ; 5.12

3.76 60.8 (1.0)

22 69-4 (O-8) 0.75 22.9 (1.5) 4 5.20 61.1 (1.4)

9 69.7 (O-7) o-75 15.9 (1.0) 3 3.70

o-75

1: o-75 ;56;

. $9{. 4 5.19

4-19 60.9 (0.9)

15 0.5 15.7 (0.8) 4 5.12

:; 50.8 (O-7) 0.75 23.4 (0.5) z 4.43

0.75 7.1 (0.9)

7 23.6 (1.4)

E5 z 4.21

4.44

:: 0.5 1;:. [q . 3 4.77

15.1 (1.1)

:: ::; 14.9 (0.6) 4 4.04

4.01

24 14.7 (0.6)

E5 15.3 (0.9) : 4.61

4.21

z 48-9 (1.2) 1.0 3 4-42

ii*;. {;q. 61.6 (0.8)

8Z5 24.1 (1.3) 32 4.03

4.41 61.3 (1.2)

1.0 15.2 (1.1) 3 4.44 60.6 (0.6)

ZYhin-layer

drying characteristics of garlic slices 81

where a, is the water activity, W,,, is the mono-layer moisture content, C, and K, are

pre-exponential constants, C and K are equilibrium constants, H,,, is the heat of

sorption of mono-layer, H, is the heat of sorption of multi-layer, H, is the heat of

condensation of multi-layer, R is the universal gas constant and T is the absolute

temperature. For garlic, the values for the coefficients IV,, C,, K,,, AI&/R and

AHJR are 8.05, O-36, 0.7, 357 and 107, respectively (Madamba et al., 1994).

Experimental procedure

Before each treatment, the drier was allowed to run with a dummy sample for at

least l-2 h (depending on the temperature and RH) to achieve steady-state

conditions and the desired temperature set point and RH. The actual sample

container was then replaced quickly at the start of the thin-layer drying experiment.

Thin-layer garlic slices with a depth of approximately 10 mm were placed in the

laboratory drier at a loading density of from 3.7 to 5.2 kg/m2 depending on the

thickness of the product. The water loss from the product was determined off-line

using an OHAUS Galaxy 8000 (precision of f0.1 g) weighing scale placed in close

proximity to the drying chamber, preventing time lag in weighing. The cylindrical

holding tray was removed and the tare weight of the product was determined at 1,

2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min, 5 min intervals up to 30 min, 10 min intervals to 1.5 h, 15 min

intervals to 3 h and 30 min intervals thereafter until the product reached

equilibrium moisture content. Off-line weighing of the product was performed in

approximately 10 s and did not significantly alter the steady-state drying conditions

(decrease in plenum temperature was less than 1C). Using this technique was found

to yield sufficiently reproducible drying curves by some researchers drying biological

products (Ajibola, 1989; Wongwises & Throngprasert, 1990). The initial and final

moisture contents were determined using the vacuum oven method.

The exponential model, Page model, Thompsons model and the approximation of

the diffusion model were fitted to the drying data. Several criteria for adequacy of

fit such as r2, MSE and graph of residuals were used to select an appropriate

mathematical model for garlic. The average per cent difference between the

experimental and predicted values or the mean relative deviation modulus (P)

defined by eqn (8) was also used as a measure of model adequacy (Andrieu et al.,

1985; Lomauro et al., 1985; Chen & Morey, 1989; Palipane & Driscoll, 1994):

100 n IMRactual-MRpredictedI

p=-

n i; MRactual

pick suitable models. The drying coefficients or constants were then related to the

process variables used to obtain functional relationships, which were used in a one-

step regression technique as recommended by Arabshahi & Lund (1985); Cohen &

Saguy (1985) and Haralampu et al. (1985).

The best model describing the thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic was

chosen as the one with the highest coefficient of correlation and the least error sum

82 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

of squares (Noomhorm & Verma, 1986) and mean relative deviation (Andrieu et aZ.,

1985; Lomauro et aZ., 1985; Chen & Morey, 1989; Palipane & Driscoll, 1994).

The effects of temperature, thickness, RH and air velocity were analysed using

analysis of variance (ANOVA), and this clearly showed that temperature and slice

thickness were significant factors in drying. The influence of RH (within the range

studied) and the air velocity through the product were statistically insignificant. The

experimental results were consistent with findings reported in the literature in which

drying air temperature is considered as the single most important factor affecting

drying rate. Several investigators reported considerable increases in drying rates

when higher temperatures were used for drying various food and agricultural crops.

These included Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) for onions, Sharaf-Eldeen et al. (1980)

for ear corn, Suarez et al. (1980) for grain sorghum, White et al. (1981) for pop corn,

Hutchinson & Otten (1983) for soybeans and white beans, Chinnan (1984) for in-

shell pecans, Li & Morey (1984) for yellow dent corn, Syarief et al. (1984) for

sunflower seeds, Pinaga et al. (1984) for an unspecified variety of garlic, Verma et al.

(1985) and Sharma et al. (1982) for rough rice and Puiggali et al. (1987) for

hazelnuts. Recent studies such as those of Bala & Woods (1992) on malt and

Palipane & Driscoll (1994) on macadamia nuts also reported increased drying rates

with higher drying temperatures.

Figure 2 shows the effectiveness of increasing the drying air temperature in

accelerating the dehydration of 2 mm slices. Similar trends were found for the 3 and

4 mm slices. The effect of temperature was most dramatic with MR decreasing

rapidly (and consequently increased drying rates) with increased temperature.

Increases in initial drying rates of 45.5% (4 mm), 79.9% (3 mm) and 104.5% (2 mm)

were observed when the air temperature was increased from 50 to 90C. The

analysis of variance showed that the effect of drying temperature was more pro-

nounced than slice thickness due to a significantly higher F-value. A higher

increment in initial drying rate of close to 84% db/min was obtained when increas-

ing the temperature from 50 to 9OC, while a drying rate of 72% db/min was

observed when slice thickness decreased from 4 to 2 mm. The effects of slice

thickness were similar to studies on garlic quality by Alcasabas (1990) and beet root

drying studies by Vaccarezza et al. (1974a), with both authors concluding that thinly-

sliced products dried faster due to the reduced distance the moisture travels and the

increased surface area exposed for a given volume of the product.

Figure 3 shows the influence of thickness on MR at 50C. Similar results were

obtained at 70 and 90C. Air velocity and RH were found to be statistically insignif-

icant at the 95% confidence level. It would be expected on theoretical grounds that

the RH of the air and the surface equilibrium moisture content would affect the

drying rate. The effect of RH on drying was reported by Farmer et al. (1983) and

Hutchinson & Otten (1983) by incorporating it with the drying constants for blue

stem grass seeds and for soybeans and white beans, respectively. Some authors

reported that the effect of RH was pronounced at lower moisture content levels.

Thin-layer dving characteristics of garlic slices 83

0

fSOC

x70 c

+oOc

0.1)

0

;:

t

f 0.6

Z

ii

5

0.4

0.2

0

0 30 60 90 120 150

Drying time (mln)

However the experimental results from the drying studies showed that the probabil-

ity of RH influencing the drying process was only 60%, and so can be considered to

be statistically insignificant. The effect of RH (as well as air speed) was verified in

additional experiments since the experimental design was an incomplete factorial.

Changes in RH had almost no observable impact on the moisture ratio and hence

the drying rate as shown in Fig. 4 (Hutchinson & Otten, 1983; Li & Morey, 1984;

Verma et al., 1985; Ajibola, 1989). This is because the effect of RH is lumped into

the dimensionless moisture ratio (MR) by the equilibrium moisture content (M,).

The air speeds varying from 05 to 1-O m/s were higher than the 0.102 m/s

minimum cut-off figure reported by Henderson & Pabis (1962) and the lowest speed

(0.14 m/s) used by Hutchinson & Otten (1983) in TLD studies on soy and white

beans. No attempt was made to determine the point at which airflow rate becomes

significant. As shown by the ANOVA, the air velocity had no discernible effect on

the drying curves (MR vs time) in all cases (Fig. .5), similar to that observed in TLD

studies by Hutchinson & Otten (1983) on soy and white beans, Li & Morey (1984)

for rough rice, Shakya & Flink (1986) for potatoes and Ezeiki & Otten (1991) for

melon seeds. Other researchers chose to neglect the effect of air velocity as recom-

mended by Henderson & Pabis (1962) with some authors arbitrarily using values

higher than O-102 m/s. Recently, Palipane & Driscoll (1994) used an air speed of 3.0

m/s for TLD studies on macadamia nuts. The basis for neglecting air flow rate in

TLD is the conclusion that the resistance to moisture movement at the surface is

negligible compared to the internal resistance (Henderson & Pabis, 1962). Another

reason cited by Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) was that the critical moisture contents

84 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

1.2

LI

f 2mm

X3 mm

11 74 mm

0.8

B

?

F&g

a

4

s

0.4

0.2

Fig. 3.

1.2

f6%

X16%

11

f 24%

0.8

0

E

t

5 0.6

B

0.4

0.2

0

0 100 200 3(M 400

Fig. 4.

Thin-layer aiying charactedics of gadic slices 85

TO.6 m/s

X0.75 m/r

Al.@ lw6

I 1 I I I I

Fig. 5.

of food products are considerably higher than for inorganic materials, which can be

attributed to the colloidal and hydrophilic nature of these materials which causes

the water molecules to be tightly held by the material. Hence, almost all of the

drying of biological products takes place in the falling rate period.

To corroborate this phenomenon, the drying rate was calculated at different times

and plotted against moisture content as shown in Fig. 6 (runs 4, 15 and 26). A high

initial drying rate (with higher rates at higher temperatures) was observed followed

by a gradual decrease as the material approached the dried state. Most of the drying

of garlic took place in the falling rate period which is clearly evidenced by Fig. 6.

The results were generally in agreement with most literature studies on TLD of

various food products (Suarez et al., 1980; Chinnan, 1984; Syarief et al., 1984;

Shepherd & Bhardwaj, 1988; Pathak et al., 1991), while, Pinaga et al. (1984) and

Rao et al. (1992) reported a short constant rate for garlic and toria, respectively.

Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) reported similar findings with onions with the constant

rate period vanishing as drying air temperature increased. In the present work, the

temperature range used was much higher (50-90C vs 22-58C, respectively) than

that employed by Pinaga et al. (1984). The findings of Mazza & Le Maguer (1980)

may hold true for garlic if lower drying temperatures (50C) were used. The tech-

nique used by Pinaga et al. (1984) consisted of recirculated adsorbent drying using

silica gel. A high airflow rate (approx. 0.3 m/s) was used in which water evaporated

from the product was not properly adsorbed by the silica gel, and was probably

another reason for the presence of a constant rate period in their TLD studies.

86 II S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

0

0 40 60 120 160

Moisture Content (Xdb)

Fig. 6.

As previously described, the drying of garlic slices takes place in the falling rate

period only and liquid diffusion controls the process. The diffusion equation

developed for particles with slab geometry by Sherwood (1929) and Crank (1975) is

applicable assuming that the diffusivity is constant and is of the form of eqn (9):

E12e=s[exp(-Dr--$)+$exp(-9Dt--$)

+$exp (-25D--$-)+.....+I

where D is the effective diffusivity (m/.s) and L is the slab thickness, and the half

slab thickness is used when evaporation occurs on both sides of the slab. For long

drying times (MR <0*6), a limiting form of eqn (9) is obtained and expressed in a

logarithmic form (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980; Suarez et al, 1980; Pinaga et al,, 1984;

Yusheng & Poulsen, 1987):

2

M-M,

In

h4,-it4,

=lnS-Dt

X2 (> 2

Thin-layer dTing characteristics of garlic slices 87

M-M,

In =A-Bt (11)

M, -M

D72

B=- (12)

4L2

The experimental moisture ratios (MR) in the present work were calculated and

plotted in accordance with eqn (ll), with Fig. 7 showing the logarithm of the

unaccomplished moisture (MR) vs time. At all temperatures investigated, straight

lines were satisfactorily fitted to the experimental values and r2 were greater than

0.99. Similar observations were obtained and reported in TLD experiments by

Vaccarezza et al. (1974b) for beet root, Suarez et al. (1980) for grain sorghum,

Mazza & Le Maguer (1980) for onions, Pinaga et al. (1984) for garlic, Lomauro et

al. (1985) for dry and semi-moist foods and Yusheng & Poulsen (1987) for potato.

Based on the diffusion equation, for slabs with infinite surface area, the constant

A has a theoretical value of In S/n2 which is equal to -0.21. The intercepts for each

of the straight lines were taken as average with values of the constant A deduced

from linear regression being -0.17. This value was very close to the theoretical

value, with the difference attributed to the slices overlapping each other when

distributed to form a single layer during the drying process. Similar reasoning was

-1

s .*

C

-3

Drying time (mln)

Fig. 7.

88 I! S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

used by Pinaga et al. (1984) to explain the difference in the TLD of an unspecified

variety of garlic.

The diffusivity was calculated by eqn (12) using the slopes deduced from the

linear regression of In MR vs time data in Fig. 7 and assuming that diffusion took

place on both sides of the slab. In drying porous food materials such as garlic, the

movement of moisture within these materials is caused by various mechanisms or a

combination of different mechanisms (Perry & Chilton, 1973; Brooker et aZ., 1974;

Kisakurek et al., 1975; Hall, 1980; Parry, 1985). Since information on the exact

mechanism in food drying is still limited and due to the complexity of the process,

a lumped value of diffusivity called the e&ctive chffusivity L commrroly us& The

effective diffusivities (D& for garlic varied from 2-02 x 10V1 to 4.24 x IOWn m2/s

over the temperature range 50-90C. These values were higher than the reported

diffusivities of an unspecified variety of garlic (Pinaga et al., 1984), but within the

general range of 10W9 to 1O-1 m/s for food materials. The high effective diffusivity

can also be ascribed to the low isosteric heat of sorption, hence, the restriction of

water movement (Madamba et al., 1995, in press). Rizvi (1986) reported that

effective diffusivities were influenced by factors such as temperature, variety and

composition of the material among others. Table 2 shows the D,n of the present

study as well as information available in the literature.

The calculated effective diffusivities were plotted as a function of the reciprocal of

the absolute temperature which is usually represented by a simple Arrhenius-type

relationship (Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980; Pinaga et al., 1984; Carbonell et al, 1986;

Uddin et al., 1990):

(13)

and E, is the energy of activation @J/kg).

Figure 8 shows the relationship of In D vs the reciprocal of the absolute

temperature and clearly shows an Arrhenius-type relationship. Equation (14) shows

the effect of temperature on D eff of garlic with the following coefficients:

TABLE 2

Effective Diffusivities of Garlic and other Products

ec, (m is)

Sugar beets 40-80 40-130 reviewed by Bruin & Luyben (1980)

Potato 167

Melon seeds 306& 53-11.1 Ezeilci & Otten (1991)

Onion (phase 1) 40-65 76-13.9 Mazza & Le Maguer (1980)

Garlic 50 20.2 present work

(cv. Early Califorian)

70 31.0

90 42.4

Thin-kayerdying characteristics of garlic slices 89

-21.4

1

-22.2 -

-22.4 -

I I I I

-22.6

2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1

l/T (x10-3)

Fig. 8.

The energy of activation for water diffusion (calculated from the slope of eqn

(13)) was found to be 989 kJ/kg and was lower than 1200 kJ/kg for onion drying

(Mazza & Le Maguer, 1980), 1183 kJ/kg for rice (Pinaga et al., 1984) and 2036 kJ/kg

for the dehydration of paprika (Carbonell et al, 1986). However, the E, for this

present study was slightly higher than the 746 and 630 kJ/kg for the dehydration of

garlic (Pinaga et al., 1984) and pineapple (Uddin et aZ., 1990), respectively. The

activation energy barrier must be overcome to activate moisture diffusion, and

although it would be beneficial to use high temperatures so as to increase the drying

rates by increasing moisture diffusion (Carbonell et al., 1986), it is advisable to dry

garlic at optimum temperatures to maintain quality.

The regression procedure was performed for the 27 runs individually for the initial

selection of one or two models to be used for the direct regression technique. The

mean square error (MSE), rz and the mean relative deviation (I) modulus as

recommended by Lomauro et al. (1985), Chen & Morey (1989), Mazza & Jayas

(1991) and Palipane & Driscoll (1994) were the basis for initial selection of the

drying model. These criteria for fit for the four models are shown in Tables 3 and

4.

90 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

Acceptable r* of greater than 0.9 were obtained for all four models fitted to all

the experimental runs with the Page model and the two-compartment exponential

equation giving consistently higher values than the lumped exponential and

Thompsons models. An examination of the MSEs showed that the two-

compartment model gave superior fit to the data compared to the Page and the

lumped exponential equation due to its lower values. A high variability was observed

for the MSEs of the Thompson model, with values as low as 8 to as high as 3200.

The percent mean relative deviation modulus (P) was used by several authors

recently in their TLD studies (Chen & Morey, 1989; Mazza & Jayas, 1991; Palipane

& Driscoll, 1994) and indicates the deviation of the observed data from the

predicted line. P-values of 10% were observed for both the Page model and the two-

compartment exponential model, whilst higher deviations of 15 and 20% were

TABLE 3

Curve Fitting Criteria for the Exponential and Thompsons Models for the Drying of Garlic

Slices

run#

r2 MSE Pb (%) r2 MSE P (%)

0.961 4.4 x 1o-3 14.60 0.911 3228.7 19.58

: 0.994 3.1 x 1o-4 7.61 0.993 32.9 4.46

3 0.995 2.1 x 1o-4 5.01 0.997 7.7 3.21

4 0.965 6.9 x 1O-4 5.30 0.990 66.7 5.85

5 0.980 10.74 0.966 814.5 17.67

0.989 ;*gl; fl3 5.11 0.989 59.8 4.46

6

4

0.978 3.5 x 10-3 12.92 0.943 1238.8 18.11

z 0.969 14.44 0.944 1703.5 18.33

;; ; ;;I:

10 0.981 9.14 0.954 279.3 13.11

11 0.983 1.0 x 10-3 8.99 0.951 348.5 14.52

12 0.989 3.8 x 7.74 0.959 199.5 12.51

13 0.985 8.89 0.962 214.3 12.81

14 0.981 ;; ; ;;I

10-I3 9.18 0.941 509.6 17.47

15 0.979 2.4 x 1O-3 10.65 0.977 972.1 9.11

0.987 4.9 x 1o-4 5.08 0.964 137.5 10.55

:; 0.988 4.8 x lop4 5.19 0.971 134.5 11.20

0.997 7.2 x 1O-5 3.60 0.978 64.7 6.53

:; 0.980 1.8 x 1O-3 10.41 0.941 1751.4 18.77

20 0.984 9.2 x 1O-4 6.44 0.960 155.4 12.44

21 0.983 9.4 x 10-4 6.88 0.993 63.0 4.99

0.981 1.4 x 1o-3 9.14 0.949 1075.0 18.44

;t 0.985 5.8 x 1o-4 8.88 0.962 238.3 12.92

24 0.996 1.8 x 1O-4 5.02 0.995 16.0 3.88

25 0.985 5.21 0.981 98.8 10.11

;; ; :;r:

26 0.991 7.81 0.943 51.3 9.44

27 0.979 3.2 x 1O-3 13.22 0.936 1714.8 18.22

bMean relative deviation modulus (P)

Thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices 91

Despite high r2 values, the rejection of both these models based on

recommendations by Joglekar & May (1987) and Wang & Brennan (1991) of less

than 10% variability reinforced the notion that r2 is not a good criterion for

evaluating non-linear mathematical models (Chen & Morey, 1989).

The Page model as well as the two-compartment exponential model were chosen

to fit the experimental data on garlic. The model coefficients for each run were

calculated using the multivariate secant or false-position-iterative method (Ralston

& Jennrich, 1979), and the drying constants k and it (Page) and kI and k2 (two-

compartment) were plotted as a function of temperature and thickness. This

procedure was performed in order to estimate the relationships between the drying

constants and temperature and thickness, which was used in a one-step regression

TABLE 4

Curve Fitting Criteria for the Page and Two-Compartment Models for the Drying of Garlic

Slices

run #

r2 MSE Pb (%) r2 MSE P (%J

2 0.994 2.7 x lop4 7.78 0.999 3.3 x lop5 2.21

0.995 2.2 x 1o-4 7.32 0.999 2.7 x lo- 1.93

43 0.994 2.3 x 1O-4 7.28 0.996 1.1 x 1o-4 4.51

5 0.985 9.5 x 1o-4 8.87 0.992 1.3 x lop4 2.85

6 0.995 1.3 x 1o-4 4.23 0.997 5.6 x lo- 1.94

7 0.995 1.6 x 1O-4 4.11 0.999 2.5 x lo- 3.79

8 0.990 5.0 x lop4 8.30 4.69

0.997

0.990 ;;. ; ;;I:

9 0.997 5.2 x 10V5 344 6.54

10 0.986 5.5 x 10-l 8.28 0.997 7.4 x 1o-5 4.19

0.984 8.31 0.991 1.1 x 1o-4 3.88

;;; ;;I 4

7.30 0.999 1.6 x 10V5 1.95

:: 0.992

13 0.992 2.6 x lop4 7.80 0.999 2.6 x lop5 2.41

14 0.997 ;.i ; y&5 3.50 0.992 1.1 x 1o-4 5.11

4

15 0.992 7.77 0.993 1.7 x lop4 6.35

0.992 3.0 x lop4 7.78 6.33

0.993

0.996 ;j . ; $1:

:; 0.997 3.51 3.71

;j ; ;;I:

0.997 3.52 0.997 y6 :;I5 4.18

0.993 . ; 4

:; 0.989 ;.:, ; ii4 6.29 6.80

20 0.996

4

6-21 0.998 4.8 x lop5 2.39

21 0.993 2.7 x 10W4 8.92 0.998 4.8 x 1O-5 2.35

22 0.989 3.9 x 1o-4 7.91 0.997 5.7 x 10-z 4.75

23 0.990 7.82 2.31

;;; ;;I: 0.999

0.998 ;.;. ; ii 5

24 0.996 6.85 2.37

25 0.992 7.11 0.999 1.6 x 1O-5 1.95

26 0.992 7.30 0.999 1.6 x 1O-5 1.88

27 0.994 6.84 0.994 1.6 x 1O-4 6.88

b Mean relative deviation modulus (P).

92 f! S. Madamba, R. H. Driwoll, K. A. Buckle

technique as recommended by Arabshahi & Lund (1985), Cohen & Saguy (1985),

Haralampu et al. (1985) and Saguy & Karel(l987).

The Page model and the two-compartment model, with the following drying

constants, were fitted to the experimental data by one-step regression:

Page model (eqn (2)):

k=a+j?T=yd (1%

n = 6+xT (16)

T = temperature (C), d = slice thickness (mm),

a, p, y, 6 and x = model coefficients.

Two-compartment model (eqn (4)):

kl or k2 = a+pT (17)

kl or k2 = a+/?T+yd (18)

kl or k2 = a exp (19)

Equations (15) and (16) (Page equation) and (17) to (19) (two-compartment

model) were chosen based on model coefficient estimates for each run.

The drying constant (k) in eqn (19) is an Arrhenius-type relationship, which is a

sound approach to characterise the effect of temperature (Karel, 1989) and has

been used by most investigators studying TLD characteristics of various biological

materials, including Ajibola (1989) and Ezeiki & Otten (1991) for melon seeds, Bala

& Woods (1992) for malt and Palipane & Driscoll (1994) for macadamia nuts.

The results of the one-step regression technique using the original data are shown

in Table 5, with criteria of curve adequacy (r , MSE, and P-values) included. The

TABLE 5

Thin-layer Drying Models Fitted using the One-step Regression Technique

VW

Page model

k=0*14+3.72 x 1O-4 T-0.03 Id 0.997 7.3 x 1o-4 6.44

n=0.38+6.7 x 1O-3 T

Two-compartment model

kl=-0.045+1*5 x 1O-3 T 0.979 6.9 x 1O-3 12.42

k2= -0.014+3+2 x 1O-4 T

kI= 1.4 + 134.5 T- 1.39d 0.986 2.2 x 1o-3 10.10

k2=0.025 +9*1 x 1O-4 T-0.016d

0.997 7.4 x 1o-4 6.41

k1=1920.8 eq (- y)

kp - 1.6x10p3 exp

Thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices 93

Page model (the drying constant as a linear function of temperature and slice

thickness) as well as the two-compartment equation with an Arrhenius-type relation-

ship for the temperature dependence of drying constants (k, and k2), satisfactorily

described the TLD behaviour of the material due to their lower MSEs. The calcu-

lated percent deviation modulus (P-value) were correspondingly lower with an

insignificantly lower value for the Arrhenius-type equation. The temperature

dependence of the drying constants were in agreement with information available in

the literature (Ajibola, 1989; Ezeiki & Otten, 1991; Bala & Woods, 1992; Palipane

& Driscoll, 1994).

Based on the criterion of simplicity of a mathematical model (van den Berg &

Bruin, 1981; van den Berg, 1985; Banga & Singh, 1994) the two-compartment

model with the drying constants characterised by a simple Arrhenius relationship

should be chosen as an adequate model for garlic due to its lesser number of

parameters and its physical significance. The expression with the following model

coefficients sufficiently described the TLD behaviour of garlic slices:

M-M,

=0-95exp(-1920*8exp[-y])1

MO-Me

I>

161.9

1.6 x 10m3 exp ~ t (20)

[ TZl

Figure 9 shows the fit of eqn (20) to the experimental data for the TLD of the

1.2

0.6

P

E

2 0.6

a

1

B

0.4

Fig. 9.

94 I? S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll, K. A. Buckle

I I

OlW

0 0.2 0.4

PredIcted values

Fig. 10.

garlic samples at different temperatures. Figure 10 shows the graph of the actual vs

the predicted values for eqn (20). No discernible or systematic pattern was observed,

with the experimental data points banding around a 45 straight line, demonstrating

the suitability of eqn (20) in characterising the TLD behaviour of garlic slices.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the experimental results reported herein, the following conclusions can be

made:

0 Most of the drying of garlic slices takes place in the falling rate period;

0 Temperature and slice thickness were significant factors in drying while relative

humidity (low range) and air speed had no discernible effect on the drying rate

of the samples;

0 The effective diffusivity was calculated from the data and varied from 2 to 4.2

x lo-lo m2/s with the temperature dependence represented by a simple

Arrhenius-type relationship. The activation energy for moisture diffusion was

989 kJ/kg which was in agreement with data in the literature; and

0 The thin-layer drying characteristics of the sample product was satisfactorily

described by a two-compartment (general solution to the diffusion equation)

model with the temperature dependence of the drying constants characterised

by an Arrhenius relationship.

Thin-layer dtying characteristics of garlic slices 95

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