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Taekwondo is a Korean martial arts, an ancient art of unarmed combat that includes kicking,
punching and way of life. The name Taekwondo is derived from the Korean words, Tae
meaning foot, kwon meaning fist, and do meaning the way of. So, literally Taekwondo
means the way of foot and fist. The name Taekwondo was coined in 1955 while the arts
Korean roots began in 2,300 BC. The physical training through kicking and punching is what
makes Taekwondo unique among other styles of martial arts and the way of life through
practicing the tenants of Taekwondo: courtesy, integrity, perseverance, self-control and
indomitable spirit. Currently, Taekwondo is widely practiced by 70 million people in 190
countries (Kim, 2009). Martial arts theories tend to be heavily rooted in tradition, and as such
have not been biomechanically analyzed to the same degree as more modern sports such as
swimming, gymnastics, and cycling (Pieter, 1994). The kick is the physical strike using the
foot, leg or knee. The stiker relaxes to the extent possible during the strike, tensing the
muscle to much of the body only at the time of impact, then relaxing again to recoil the
striking part. Relaxation enables the strike to achieve the greatest possible velocity during
travel, while rigidity at impact allows the maximum transfer of force.

In Korean,the chopping kick is referred to as naeryeo chagi. An chopping kick also

known as a axe kick, hammer kick, stretch kick, or thigh of obliteration kick. The chopping
kick in Taekwondo has been observed to be a highly effective offensive and defensive
technique. Its purpose is to attack the opponent's head, collarbone or chest with a powerful

his unique kick begins with the one foot rising as high straight upward as
downward force. T

in a crescent kick. The upward arc motion is stopped at the peak, and then the attacking foot
is lowered with extreme downward force so as to strike the target from above. When striking
the target, the attacking leg could be straight down or bent in a whipping motion downward.
The striking surface could be the back og the heel, bottom of the heel, or the sole area of the
foot (balbadak). The arc can be performed in either an inward (counter-clockwise) or outward
(clockwise) fashion. It is common to slightly bend the knee of the leg one is standing on
when executing this kick, and pointing the foot one is standing on somewhat outwards. As in
all Taekwondo kicks, one will also try to get ones hip into the kick, resulting perharps in a
slight shift of weight forward. In any case, this is a linear kick, and as such one that one can
get ones weight behind. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the differences of
kinematics characteristics between dominant and non-dominant leg during chopping kick.


Tae Kwon-Do is a type of unarmed combat designed for self-defence. Practice of this sport is
built upon fundamental techniques such as striking, blocking and kicking. Tae Kwon-Do is
widely practiced in more than 120 countries on five continents, owing much of its popularity
to its teachings of self-strength, self-confidence, and self-defence.

In this study, we aim to identify differences of kinematics characteristics between

dominant and non-dominant leg during chopping kick. Based on how such kicks are
executed, we hypothesize that such factors are related to the following four aspects of the
chopping kick. First the observed the leg up time during subject starts perform chopping kick
and leg down time done by subject. Total time of leg up and down also observed to calculate
the time taken by subject to do a complete chopping kick. Then the maximum height of leg
reached during chopping kick also observed. All this data collected to differentiate the
strength of dominant and non-dominant leg of a person.

While conduct this research we had refer a similar research as us which is titled
Biomechanics of the Taekwondo Axe Kick: a review that have prepared by


Instructors should know the difference of kinematics between the dominant and
non-dominant leg of an athlete during perform chopping kick, so they can assist their athletes
on ways of improving their performonce. Moreover, instructors can also evaluate athletes
according to time taken to leg up and leg down and also maximum height of leg during
perform a chopping kick to give some specific training to improve their performance. This
research should benefit for Taekwondo instructors and players alike.

The purpose of this experimental research to analyse the kinematics of novice athletes
dominant and non-dominant leg during perform chopping kick.


The objectives of the present study are to identify :-

1. The differences between dominant and non-dominant leg time up during perform
chopping kick by novice athlete.

2. The differences between the dominant and non-dominant leg time down during
perform chopping kick by novice athlete.

3. The differences between total time of dominant and non-dominant leg up and down
during perform chopping kick by novice athlete.

4. The difference between maximum height of dominant and non-dominant leg of

novice athlete during perform chopping kick.


1. Which leg reached maximum height within short time during perform chopping kick?

2. Which leg take short time to up and down during perform chopping kick?

3. Which leg reached maximum height during perform chopping kick?


Our subject was a 21-years old male, with the height of 1.66 metre and 70kg weight. Our
subject was a active person in sports but have no experience and knowledge about taekwondo
at all. As our research was based on novice taekwondo athlete performance, we choose him
as our subject for this research. He was wearing tracksuit and bare footed during recording
and reflective markers are placed at both side of subjects body. The markers were placed at
his hip, knee, and foot.


A digital video camera with tripod stand has been used to record the movements of subject
with stable. 6 units of reflective markers also used to placed it on subjects as the point
captured clearly in camera. A 1 metre length ruler used to set infront of camera as a
trademark place for subject perform chopping kick. A measuring tape also used to set a
approximate distance between subject and camera. The digitizing software Kinovea is uses to
edit and analyse the recorded video during the data collection process. This software was
used to analyse the leg time up and down and the maximum height of leg by the subject.


The research was done in a biomech laboratory at Block 6 in Campus Sultan Azlan Shah,
UPSI. A digital camera with tripod stand was set and researcher adjust the cameras setting
with the speed of 30 frames/s and placed at mediolateral axis perpendicular to the sagittal
plane for recording. 10 metre distance was measured from camera using measuring tape to set
a marker for subject perform at that particular space. A 1 metre ruler was placed at that
measured 10 metre distance space as a marker. Researcher explain how to do a chopping kick
to the subject. Researcher instruct the subject to perform the chopping kick with dominant
and non-dominant leg. The reflective markers have stick to the hip, knee, and foot of subject
at both side of body. Subject stand facing camera at the marked place as the camera that
recording subject starts to perform chopping kick. Subject stand motionless for first 3 second
as the sagittal plane of subject recorded in camera. Then subject turns to left and perform
chopping kick using his right leg and turns back facing the camera. Subject turns to right and
perform chopping kick using his left leg then turns back to facing camera as the researcher
stop the recording. The video will then be transferred to the computer and the software,
Kinovea has be used to analyse kinematics of dominant and non-dominant leg of subject
perform chopping kick.


Dominant leg Non-dominant leg Difference between

dominant and
Non-dominant leg
Leg time up 0.36s 0.44s 8s
Leg time down 0.40s 0.40s 0.0s
Total time leg up and down 0.76s 0.84s 8s
Leg maximum height 157.09cm 153.40cm 3.69cm
Table 1 : Difference between dominant and non-dominant leg

a) Dominant leg

b) Non-dominant leg


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Mailapalli, D.M., Benton, J., & Woodward, T.W. (2015). Biomechanics of the Taekwondo
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Harun , Hafizah and Siau , Jun Xiong (2010) The Symmetry In Kinematics Between The
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Jae-Woong Kim, Moon-Seok Kwon, Sree Sushma Yenuga, Young-Hoo Kwon. The effects of
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