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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal

ServiceRouter
V600R006C00
Product Description

Issue 01

Date 2012-11-10

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior
written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions

and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective
holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and
the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be
within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements,
information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or
representations of any kind, either express or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base
Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website: http://www.huawei.com
Email: support@huawei.com

Huawei Proprietary and Confidential


Issue 01 (2012-11-10) i
Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description About This Document

About This Document

Purpose
This document describes the product positioning and features, product architecture, link
features, service features, application scenarios, operation and maintenance, and technical
specifications of the NE40E device.
This document provides an overall description of the NE40E device, which helps intended
readers get a general understanding of all the product features.

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document.

Product Name Version


HUAWEI NE40E-X1 & V600R006C00
NE40E-X2 Universal Service
Router
U2000 V100R008C00

Intended Audience
This document is intended for:
Network planning engineers
Hardware installation engineers
Commissioning engineers
Data configuration engineers
On-site maintenance engineers
Network monitoring engineers
System maintenance engineers

Issue 01 (2012-11-10) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential ii


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description About This Document

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Symbol Description
Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury.

Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk,


which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate
injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not
avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss,
performance degradation, or unexpected results.
Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save
time.
Provides additional information to emphasize or
supplement important points of the main text.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue
contains all updates made in previous issues.

Changes in Issue 01 (2012-11-10)


The first commercial release.

Issue 01 (2012-11-10) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential iii


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description Contents

Contents

About This Document .................................................................................................................... ii


1 New Hardware and Features in the V600R006C00 ................................................................. 1
2 Positioning...................................................................................................................................... 2
3 Product Architecture ..................................................................................................................... 3
3.1 Physical Architecture........................................................................................................................................ 3
3.2 Logical Architecture ......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.3 Software Architecture ....................................................................................................................................... 5
3.4 Data Forwarding Process ................................................................................................................................. 7

4 Technical Specifications .............................................................................................................. 9


5 FPIC................................................................................................................................................ 11
6 Link Features ................................................................................................................................ 14
6.1 Ethernet Link Features ................................................................................................................................... 14
6.2 POS Link Features ......................................................................................................................................... 15
6.3 CPOS Link Features ....................................................................................................................................... 15
6.4 ATM Link Features ........................................................................................................................................ 16
6.5 CE1/CT1/E3/CT3 Link Features .................................................................................................................... 17

7 Service Features ........................................................................................................................... 18


7.1 Ethernet Features ............................................................................................................................................ 18
7.1.1 Layer 2 Ethernet Features ..................................................................................................................... 18
7.1.2 Layer 3 Ethernet Features ..................................................................................................................... 19
7.1.3 QinQ Features ....................................................................................................................................... 19
7.1.4 Flexible Access to VPNs ....................................................................................................................... 20
7.1.5 RRPP Link Features .............................................................................................................................. 20
7.1.6 RSTP/MSTP Features ........................................................................................................................... 20
7.1.7 BPDU Tunneling Features .................................................................................................................... 21
7.2 IP Features ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
7.2.1 IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack ............................................................................................................................ 21
7.2.2 IPv4 Features ........................................................................................................................................ 21
7.2.3 IPv6 Features ........................................................................................................................................ 22
7.2.4 IPv4/IPv6 Transition Technology.......................................................................................................... 22

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description Contents

7.3 Routing Protocol ............................................................................................................................................ 22


7.3.1 Unicast Routing .................................................................................................................................... 22
7.3.2 Multicast Routing.................................................................................................................................. 24
7.4 MPLS ............................................................................................................................................................. 25
7.5 VPN Features ................................................................................................................................................. 29
7.5.1 Tunnel Policy ........................................................................................................................................ 29
7.5.2 VPN Tunnel .......................................................................................................................................... 29
7.5.3 MPLS L2VPN ....................................................................................................................................... 29
7.5.4 BGP/MPLS L3VPN .............................................................................................................................. 31
7.6 QoS................................................................................................................................................................. 32
7.7 Load Balancing .............................................................................................................................................. 36
7.8 Traffic Statistics.............................................................................................................................................. 37
7.9 IP RAN Features ............................................................................................................................................ 38
7.10 Network Reliability ...................................................................................................................................... 39
7.11 Clock ............................................................................................................................................................ 44

8 Security Features ......................................................................................................................... 47


9 Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction ..................................................................... 52
10 Applicable Environment ......................................................................................................... 54
10.1 Metro Ethernet Solution ............................................................................................................................... 54
10.2 Dual-Stack User Access and Transition Solutions........................................................................................ 58

11 Operation and Maintenance ................................................................................................... 60


11.1 System Configuration Modes ....................................................................................................................... 60
11.2 System Management and Maintenance ........................................................................................................ 61
11.3 Device Running Status Monitoring .............................................................................................................. 61
11.4 HGMP .......................................................................................................................................................... 62
11.5 System Service and Status Tracking ............................................................................................................. 63
11.6 System Test and Diagnosis ........................................................................................................................... 63
11.7 NQA ............................................................................................................................................................. 63
11.8 In-Service Debugging................................................................................................................................... 64
11.9 Upgrade Features .......................................................................................................................................... 64
11.10 License ....................................................................................................................................................... 65
11.11 Other Operation and Maintenance Features ............................................................................................... 65

12 NMS ............................................................................................................................................. 66
A Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................................................................................. 68

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 1 New Hardware and Features in the V600R006C00

1 New Hardware and Features in the


V600R006C00

Issue 01 (2012-11-10) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential 1


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 2 Positioning

2 Positioning

Huawei NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2 (hereinafter referred to as the NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2) are a


high-end network product used to access, converge, and transmit carrier-class Ethernet
services on Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs).
The NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2 operate on the Versatile Routing Platform (VRP) operating
system developed by Huawei and adopts the hardware-based forwarding and non-blocking
data switching technology. The NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2 feature carrier-class reliability,
line-speed forwarding capability, perfect Quality of Service (QoS) mechanism, service
processing capability, and good expansibility.
The NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2 provide strong capabilities in network access, Layer 2 switching,
and transmission of Ethernet over Multi-Protocol Label Switching (EoMPLS) services. The
NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2 also support rich IP services and provides broadband access, triple
play, IP leased line, and Virtual Private Network (VPN) services. The NE40E-X1&NE40E-X2
can also work in conjunction with the CX200/300, NE80E, NE40E, ME60, and MA5200G
developed by Huawei to set up a hierarchical metro Ethernet that provides rich services for
customers.

NE40E-X2 NE40E-X1

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 3 Product Architecture

3 Product Architecture

About This Chapter


3.1 Physical Architecture
3.2 Logical Architecture
3.3 Software Architecture
3.4 Data Forwarding Process

3.1 Physical Architecture


The physical architecture includes the following systems:
Power distribution system
Functional host system
Heat dissipation system
Network management system
All systems except the network management system (NMS) are located in an integrated
cabinet. The power distribution system consists of power modules working in n+n backup
mode.
The following describes only the functional host system.
The functional host system is composed of the system backplane, MPUs, NPUs, and PICs.
The functional host system processes data. In addition, it monitors and manages the entire
system, including the power distribution system, heat dissipation system, and NMS through
NMS interfaces. Figure 3-1 shows the functional host system of the NE40E.

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 3 Product Architecture

Figure 3-1 Functional host system

Control Bus Control Bus


-48 V PSU
(Power Support Monitor Bus Monitor Bus FAN
Unit)

Control Bus Control Bus


-48 V PSU MPU GE/Console/
(Power Support Monitor Bus Monitor Bus Bits/USB
(Master)
Unit)

Backplane
Control Bus Control Bus GE/Console/
2*10G MPU
Monitor Bus Monitor Bus Bits/USB
NPU (Slave)
Data Bus

Control Bus Control Bus


2*10G Monitor Bus Monitor Bus PIC 0-7
NPU GE/FE/E1
Data Bus Data Bus (Physical etc
Interface Card)

The NE40E-X1 has only one NPU and four PICs.

3.2 Logical Architecture


The logical architecture of the NE40E consists of the following planes:
Data plane
Control and management plane
Monitoring plane
Figure 3-2 shows the logical architecture.

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 3 Product Architecture

Figure 3-2 Logical architecture

MPU MPU
Monitoring System System
plane monitoring unit monitoring unit

Control and System System


management monitoring unit monitoring unit
plane
Management PICs
Management
unit management unit
unit

Data plane Forwarding


unit
NPUI
Forwarding Data channel
unit
NPUI PIC * N

The data plane is responsible for high speed processing and non-blocking switching of
data packets. It encapsulates or decapsulates packets, forwards IPv4/IPv6/MPLS packets,
performs QoS as well as scheduling and internal high-speed switching, and collects
statistics.
The control and management plane completes all control and management functions for
the system and is the core of the entire system. Control and management units process
protocols and signals, and maintain, manage, report on, and control system status.
The monitoring plane monitors the ambient environment to ensure secure and stable
operation of the system. It detects voltage levels, controls system power-on and-off,
monitors temperature, and controls fan modules. When a unit fails, the monitoring plane
isolates the faulty unit promptly so that other parts of the system can continue to run
normally.

3.3 Software Architecture


Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4 show the software architecture of the NE40E

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 3 Product Architecture

Figure 3-3 Software architecture of NE40E-X1

Power FAN
Monitoring Monitoring

RPS RPS
SNMP
Master Slave

IPC

NPU
PIC

PIC

PIC
PIC

Figure 3-4 Software architecture of NE40E-X2

Power FAN
Monitoring Monitoring

RPS RPS
SNMP
Master Slave

IPC

NPU NPU
PIC

PIC

PIC
PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC
PIC

Software of the NE40E consists of the Routing Process System (RPS), power monitoring
system, fan monitoring system.

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 3 Product Architecture

The RPS, which includes IPOS software, VRP software, and product-adaptation software, is
the control and management module that runs on the MPU. The RPS on the active MPU and
the one on the standby MPU back up each other. RPSs support IPv4/IPv6, MPLS, LDP, and
routing protocols, calculate routes, establish LSPs and multicast distribution trees, generate
unicast, multicast, and MPLS forwarding tables, and they deliver information concerning all
the preceding mentioned to the LPU.
The FSU implements the functions of the link layer and some functions of the IP protocol
stack on interfaces.
The EFU performs hardware-based IPv4/IPv6 forwarding, multicast forwarding, MPLS
forwarding, and has a statistics functions.

3.4 Data Forwarding Process


Figure 3-5 Data forwarding process

PIC

Datagram Datagram

Processing on the incoming Processing on the outgoing


interface interface
Downstream traffic
Upstream traffic classification
classification

PFE IPv4 unicast Searching the Packet


IPv4 unicast
IPv4 multicast routing table to encapsulation
IPv4 multicast
MPLS forward packets and forwarding
MPLS
IPv6 in the
IPv6
MAC downstream

Congestion Queue
QoS in the management scheduling QoS in the
upstream Queue Congestion downstream
scheduling management
TM Multicast replication

Packet fragmentation Packet reassembly

Micro cell Micro cell


SFU

As shown in Figure 3-5, the Packet Forwarding Engine (PFE) adopts a Network Processor
(NP) or an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to implement high-speed packet
routing. External memory types include Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), Dynamic

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 3 Product Architecture

Random Access Memory (DRAM), and Net Search Engine (NSE). The SRAM stores
forwarding entries; the DRAM stores packets; the NSE performs searching routing table.
Data forwarding processes can be divided into upstream and downstream processes based on
the direction of the data flow.
Upstream process: The Physical Interface Card (PIC) encapsulates packets to frames and
then sends them to the PFE. On the PFE of the inbound interface, the system
decapsulates the frames and identifies the packet types. It then classifies traffic according
to the QoS configurations on the inbound interface. After traffic classification, the
system searches the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) for the outbound interfaces and
next hops of packets to be forwarded. To forward an IPv4 unicast packet, for instance,
the system searches the FIB for the outbound interface and next hop according to the
destination IP address of the packet. Finally, the system sends the packets containing
information about outbound interfaces and next hops to the traffic management (TM)
module.
Downstream process: Information about packet types that have been identified in the
upstream process and about the outbound interfaces is encapsulated through the link
layer protocol and the packets are stored in corresponding queues for transmission. If an
IPv4 packet whose outbound interface is an Ethernet interface, the system needs to
obtain the MAC address of the next hop. Outgoing traffic is then classified according to
the QoS configurations on the outbound interfaces. Finally, the system encapsulates the
packets with new Layer 2 headers on the outbound interfaces and sends them to the PIC.

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 4 Technical Specifications

4 Technical Specifications

Physical Specifications

Table 4-1 Physical Specifications

Item X2 X1
Dimensions (width x 442 mm x 220 mm x 222 mm 442 mm x 220 mm x 132 mm
depth x height) (5 U height) ( 17.40 in. x 8.66 in. x 5.20
in. )
Installation Mounted in an N63B cabinet, a standard 19-inch cabinet, or a
23-inch North American open rack
Weight (in full 22 kg 14 kg ( 30.87 lb )
configuration)
Typical power 650 W 350 W
Heat dissipation 2109 BTU/hour 1136 BTU/hour
DC input Rated -48 V
voltage voltage
Maximum -38 V to -72 V
voltage
range
AC input Rated 220 V
voltage voltage
Maximum 90 V to 275 V (recommend)
voltage 175 V to 275 V
range
Ambient Long-term 5C to +50C ( 23F to 122F )
temperat
ure Short-term -20C to +60C ( -4F to 140F ) (Short-term refers to a period of
not more than 96 consecutive hours and a total of not more than
15 days in 1 year.)
Remarks Temperature change rate limit: 30C/hour ( 86F/hour )

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 4 Technical Specifications

Item X2 X1
Storage temperature -40C to +70C ( -40F to 158F )
Relative Long-term 5% to 85% RH, non-condensing
ambient
humidity Short-term 5% to 95% RH, non-condensing

Relative storage 0% to 95% RH, non-condensing


humidity
Altitude for permanent Lower than 3000 m ( 9842.4 ft )
work
Storage altitude Lower than 5000 m (16404 ft )

System Configuration

Table 4-2 System Configuration

Item X2 X1
SDRAM 2 GB 2 GB
CF card 1 GB 1 GB
USB interface USB2.0 Host USB2.0 Host
Forwarding capacity 40 Gbit/s 20 Gbit/s
Packets forwarding rate 60 Mpps 30 Mpps
Backplane bandwidth 450 Gpbs 285 Gpbs
Interface capacity Non-line-rate: 75.2 Gbit/s Non-line-rate: 52 Gbit/s
Line-rate: 40Gbit/s Line-rate: 20Gbit/s
Number of subcard 8 4
slots
Number of MPU slots 2 2
Number of NPU slots 2 1

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 5 FPIC

5 FPIC

The NE40E-X2 has eight slots for subcards. Subcards are hot swappable and support
automatic configuration recovery.
The NE40E-X1 has four slots for subcards. Subcards are hot swappable and support
automatic configuration recovery.

Table 5-1 Subcards supported by the NE40E-X2 and NE40E-X1

Interface Name Description Remarks


8-Port 100/1000Base-X-SFP Supports the Subcards of this type can be
High-speed Interface Card synchronization Ethernet inserted in the slots 5, 6, 9,
(HIC) feature and multiple types of and 10 on the NE40E-X2,
optical modules. and the slots 2, 3, 4 and 5 on
Supports the GE optical the NE40E-X1.
module to provide GE
optical interfaces.
Supports the FE optical
module to provide FE
optical interfaces.
Supports the SFP
electrical module to
provide the features of
100 M/1000 M
auto-sensing electrical
interfaces.
Supports the mixed use
of the preceding
modules.
Supports hot swapping.
8-Port 100/1000Base-X-SFP Supports synchronization Subcards of this type can be
High-speed Interface Card Ethernet feature and inserted in the slots 5, 6, 9,
A (HIC, Supporting 1588v2) multiple types of optical and 10 on the NE40E-X2,
modules, and complies with and the slots 2, 3, 4 and 5 on
the 1588v2 standard. the NE40E-X1.
Supports the GE optical
module to provide GE

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 5 FPIC

Interface Name Description Remarks


optical interfaces.
Supports the FE optical
module to provide FE
optical interfaces.
Supports the SFP
electrical module to
provide 100 M/1000 M
auto-sensing electrical
interfaces. (In this case,
the synchronization
Ethernet feature is not
supported.)
Supports the mixed use
of the preceding
modules.
Supports hot swapping.
4-Port 100/1000Base-X-SFP Supports the Subcards of this type can be
High-speed Interface synchronization Ethernet inserted in the slots 5, 6, 9,
Card(HIC) feature and multiple types of and 10 on the NE40E-X2,
optical modules. and the slots 2, 3, 4 and 5 on
Supports the GE optical the NE40E-X1.
module to provide GE
optical interfaces.
Supports the FE optical
module to provide FE
optical interfaces.
Supports the SFP
electrical module to
provide the features of
100 M/1000 M
auto-sensing electrical
interfaces.
Supports the mixed use
of the preceding
modules.
Supports hot swapping.
4-Port OC-3c/STM-1c Supports hot swapping. Subcards of this type can be
POS-SFP Flexible Interface inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
Card(FIC) 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
NE40E-X2, and in the slots
2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
NE40E-X1.
8-Port 100Base-X-RJ45 Supports hot swapping. Subcards of this type can be
Flexible Interface inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
Card(FIC,Supporting 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
1588v2) NE40E-X2, and in the slots
2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
NE40E-X1.

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 5 FPIC

Interface Name Description Remarks


8-Port 100Base-X-SFP Supports hot swapping. Subcards of this type can be
Flexible Interface Card inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
(FIC, Supporting 1588v2) 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
NE40E-X2, and in the slots
2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
NE40E-X1.
Auxiliary Flexible Interface Supports on-site ambient Only one subcard of this
Card with 4-Port monitoring, including the type can used on a device.
100Base-RJ45(FIC, monitoring of burglarproof
Supporting 1588v2) switches and smoke sensors.
Supports hot swapping.
1-Port Channelized Supports hot swapping, the Subcards of this type can be
OC3c/STM1c POS-SFP clock synchronization inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
Flexible Interface Card feature, and three protocols: 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
(FIC) Circuit Emulation Service NE40E-X2, and in the slots
(CES), Inverse Multiplexing 2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
for ATM (IMA), and NE40E-X1.
Multi-link Point-to-Point
Protocol (ML-PPP).
16-Port E1 Flexible Supports hot swapping. Subcards of this type can be
Interface Card(FIC,120ohm) inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
NE40E-X2, and in the slots
2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
NE40E-X1.
16-Port E1 Flexible Supports hot swapping. Subcards of this type can be
Interface Card(FIC,75ohm) inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
NE40E-X2, and in the slots
2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
NE40E-X1.
4-Port OC-3c/STM-1c Supports hot swapping. Subcards of this type can be
ATM-SFP Flexible Interface inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5,
Card (FIC) 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the
NE40E-X2, and in the slots
2, 3, 4 and 5 on the
NE40E-X1.

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 6 Link Features

6 Link Features

About This Chapter


6.1 Ethernet Link Features
6.2 POS Link Features
6.3 CPOS Link Features
6.4 ATM Link Features
6.5 CE1/CT1/E3/CT3 Link Features

6.1 Ethernet Link Features


The NE40E provides the following features on Ethernet interfaces:
Flow control and auto negotiation of rates
Bundling of interfaces of different rates
Binding of interfaces on different boards into one Eth-Trunk
Eth-Trunk member interfaces in active/standby mode
The NE40E can perform active/standby switchover automatically on Eth-Trunk member
interfaces when the link status of interfaces changes.
Addition or deletion of member interfaces to or from an Eth-Trunk interface
The NE40E can sense the Up or Down status of member interfaces, thus dynamically
changing the bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk.
Layer 2 and Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interfaces
E-Trunk, that is, Eth-Trunk interface whose member interfaces reside on different
devices
Association between Eth-Trunk links and BFD
LACP defined in 802.3ad
The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) maintains link status according to
interface status. LACP adjusts or disables link aggregation in the case of aggregation
changes.
Ethernet clock synchronization
1588v2 clock

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 6 Link Features

VLAN sub-interfaces
Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback

6.2 POS Link Features


The NE40E provides the following POS features:
SDH/SONET encapsulation
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on POS interfaces
PPP supports the following protocols:
Link Control Protocol (LCP)
Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)
Multi-Protocol Label Switching Control Protocol (MPLSCP)
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) on POS interfaces
IP-Trunk
The NE40E supports the following IP bundling modes:
Inter-board IP bundling
Inter-chassis IP bundling
IP bundling of channels of different rates
Dynamic creating and removing of IP-Trunk interfaces
Bundling of a physical channel into an IP-Trunk by using commands on physical
interfaces
Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback
Configuration of the MTUs for IPv4, IPv6, and MPLS packets
POS interfaces support SDH alarms at the section layer, line layer, and path layer.
The troubleshooting procedure for POS interfaces is as follows:
A POS interface prompts a fault and then notifies the control software on the board of the
fault.
The control software of the board confirms the fault, updates the interface status, and
then notifies the MPU of the interface status.
The MPU instructs the routing protocol to perform route convergence.
To ensure fast route convergence and network stability, the SPF timer and LSP timer need to
be configured on the POS interface to function together with route convergence.

6.3 CPOS Link Features


The NE40E provides the following CPOS features:
Channelization

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 6 Link Features

The E1 interface channalized from a CPOS interface, in compliance with SAToP, can
transparently transmit unstructured TDM services through PWs on an MPLS network.
The E1 interface channalized from a CPOS interface, in compliance with CESoPSN, can
transparently transmit structured TDM services through PWs on an MPLS network.
ML-PPP/PPP/HDLC/ATM/TDM/ATM IMA
The NE40E provides CPOS interfaces at 155 Mbit/s. At the link layer, CPOS interfaces
support the following protocols:
Frame Relay
ML-PPP
TDM
ATM IMA
Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback

6.4 ATM Link Features


The NE40E provides the following ATM features:
SDH/SONET encapsulation
ATM interfaces on the NE40E support SONET/SDH encapsulation and the
SONET/SDH overhead configuration and physical layer alarms.
Permanent Virtual Path (PVP) or PVC
PVPs or PVCs can be created on ATM interfaces:
VP/VC-based traffic shaping
User-to-Network Interface (UNI) signaling
Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 in RFC 1483
Classical IP and ARP over ATM in RFC 1577
F4 or F5 End to End Loopback OAM
AAL5
Nonreal-time Variable Bit Rate (nrt_VBR)
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
Real-time Variable Bit Rate (rt_VBR)
Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
IPoA
The NE40E supports the following modes in setting up the mapping between a PVC and
the IP address of the peer device:
Static mapping
Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (InARP)
ATM sub-interfaces
ATM OAM
The NE40E supports F4 and F5 OAM. OAM functions in detecting the status of PVPs or
PVCs.
1483B
1483B supported by the NE40E is applicable to IPoEoA. IPoEoA indicates that Ethernet
packets are carried over AAL5 and IP packets are carried over the Ethernet. This

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implements Layer 2 forwarding of IPoEoA packets between the Ethernet and PVC. By
converging the ATM backbone network and the IP network, IPoEoA supports various
Ethernet and IP services.
ATM cell relay
The NE40E supports PVC-based or PVP-based ATM cell relay and AAL5 SDU relay.
The NE40E supports the following ATM cell relay modes:
Interface-based ATM cell relay
1-to-1 VCC cell relay
N-to-1 VCC cell relay
1-to-1 VPC cell relay
N-to-1 VPC cell relay
ATM AAL5-SDU VCC transport
Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback
Configuration of the MTUs for IPv4 and MPLS packets
Line clocks
Scrambling and descrambling of transmitted data
Configuration of the shutdown and undo shutdown commands on ATM interfaces
Configuration of the shutdown and undo shutdown commands on PVCs/PVPs
Configuration of the shutdown and undo shutdown commands on sub-interfaces
AAL5 SNAP encapsulation
Cell relay and IWF on different sub-interfaces of the same ATM interface

6.5 CE1/CT1/E3/CT3 Link Features


The NE40E provides CE1/CT1/E3/CT3 interfaces.
Serial interfaces can be channelized from CE1/CT1/E3/CT3 interfaces. CE1/CT1/E3/CT3
interfaces and their serial interfaces support the following functions:
PPP
HDLC
CRTP/ECRTP
Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback
Configuration of the MTUs for IPv4 and MPLS packets
CE1/CT1 interfaces and their serial interfaces support the following link protocols:
ATM
TDM
ATM IMA

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7 Service Features

About This Chapter


7.1 Ethernet Features
7.2 IP Features
7.3 Routing Protocol
7.4 MPLS
7.5 VPN Features
7.6 QoS
7.7 Load Balancing
7.8 Traffic Statistics
7.9 IP RAN Features
7.10 Network Reliability
7.11 Clock

7.1 Ethernet Features


7.1.1 Layer 2 Ethernet Features
On the NE40E, Ethernet interfaces can work in switched mode at Layer 2 and support VLAN,
VPLS, and QoS services. Functioning as UNIs, Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces support MPLS
VPN services.
The NE40E provides the following Layer 2 Ethernet features:
Default VLAN
VLAN trunk
VLANIF interfaces
VLAN aggregation
Inter-VLAN port isolation

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Ethernet sub-interfaces
VLAN aggregated sub-interfaces
Port number-based VLAN division
VLAN mapping
VLAN stacking
MAC address limit
Unknown unicast/multicast/broadcast suppression
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)/Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
RRPP with switching time less than 50 ms

7.1.2 Layer 3 Ethernet Features


The NE40E provides the following Layer 3 Ethernet features:
IPv4
IPv6
MPLS
Multicast
VLAN sub-interfaces
QoS
Ethernet sub-interfaces
VLAN aggregation sub-interfaces

7.1.3 QinQ Features


The NE40E provides abundant QinQ features to satisfy different networking requirements.
The QinQ features are as follows:
Identification of double VLAN tags (inner VLAN tag and outer VLAN tag)
Change of the outer VLAN ID
Removal of double VLAN tags and then addition of new double VLAN tags
QinQ mapping for the outer VLAN tag
QinQ interface supporting 802.1ag
Change of the EtherType value and 802.1p priority in the outer VLAN tag; copy of the
802.1p priority in the inner VLAN tag to the outer VLAN tag of double-tagged packets
Traffic classification based on the 802.1p priorities in the outer VLAN tags of packets
Rate limit on interfaces based on the 802.1p priorities in both inner and outer VLAN tags
Interface-based QinQ
Interface-based QinQ is applicable to the following scenarios:
Access to a VPLS network to transparently transmit VLAN packets
Access to an L2VPN or PWE3 to transparently transmit VLAN packets
VLAN-based QinQ
802.1ag
QinQ termination

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EType in the outer tag of QinQ packets used for interoperation with devices of other
vendors
Multicast QinQ
QinQ-based VLAN swapping
VLAN stacking can be applied in the following scenarios:
Access to VPLS
Access to VLL or PWE3
Translation sub-interface supporting 1to1, 1to2, 2to1, 2to2 VLAN tag translation
Sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag termination supporting VLAN tag swapping
Sub-interface for dot1q VLAN tag termination, sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag
termination, QinQ stacking sub-interface, and translation sub-interface supporting the
block action
ACLs based on double VLAN tags and 802.1p precedence
Sub-interfaces for QinQ VLAN tag termination accessing a VPLS network in
symmetrical mode supporting HQoS
Sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag termination and sub-interface for dot1q VLAN tag
termination supporting IPv6 routing protocols
Sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag termination and sub-interface for dot1q VLAN tag
termination supporting BFDv6
Dynamic QinQ triggered by ND/DHCPv6 in IPv6 scenarios
Sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag termination and sub-interface for dot1q VLAN tag
termination supporting VRRPv6
Sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag termination IPv4 URPF
Sub-interface for QinQ VLAN tag termination IPv6 URPF

7.1.4 Flexible Access to VPNs


In traditional access identification, user information or service information is identified
through a single tag or double tags. For example, the inner tag indicates user information
and the outer tag indicates service information. Different interfaces are configured with
different double tags to access different VPNs. In some scenarios, the access device does not
support QinQ or a single tag is used for multiple services. In this case, the access device may
add service access information to the 802.1p or DSCP field. Then, the NE40E connected to
the access device needs to use the 802.1p or DSCP value to identify access users. This helps
configure the accesses to different VPNs and set up different QoS scheduling policies.

7.1.5 RRPP Link Features


The Rapid Ring Protection Protocol (RRPP) supports the following functions:
Polling mechanism
Link status change notification
Mechanism of checking the channel status of the sub-ring protocol packets on the major
ring

7.1.6 RSTP/MSTP Features


The NE40E supports the following:
RSTP

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MSTP
MSTP provides BPDU protection to defend against such attacks. After the BPDU protection
is enabled, the switch shuts down the edge port that receives BPDUs. At the same time, the
switch informs the NMS of the situation. The edge port can be enabled by the network
administrator.
NE40E can restrict the sending of Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocol packets such as RSTP and
DHCP through CP-CAR. This avoids influencing device performance.

7.1.7 BPDU Tunneling Features


The NE40E supports BPDU tunneling in the following modes:
Port-based BPDU tunneling
VLAN-based BPDU tunneling
QinQ-based BPDU tunneling
VLL-based transparent transmission of BPDUs
VPLS-based transparent transmission of BPDUs

7.2 IP Features
7.2.1 IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack
The IPv4/IPv6 dual stack can be easily implemented and can smoothly interoperate with other
protocols. Figure 7-1 shows the structure of the IPv4/IPv6 dual stack.

Figure 7-1 IPv4/IPv6 dual stack

IPv4/IPv6 Application

TCP UDP

IPv4 IPv6

Link Layer

7.2.2 IPv4 Features


The NE40E supports the following IPv4 features:
TCP/IP protocol suite, including ICMP, IP, TCP, UDP, socket (TCP/UDP/Raw IP), and
ARP
Static DNS and specified DNS server
FTP server/client and TFTP client

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DHCP relay agent and DHCP server


Suppression of DHCP flooding
Ping, tracert, and NQA
NQA can detect the status of ICMP, TCP, UDP, DHCP, FTP, HTTP, and SNMP services
and test the response time of the services. The system supports NQA in UDP jitter and
ICMP jitter tests by sending and receiving packets on LPUs. The minimum interval at
which packets are transmitted can be 10 ms. Each LPU supports up to 100 concurrent
jitter tests. The entire system supports up to 1000 concurrent jitter tests.
IP policy-based routing (PBR) and flow-based next hop to which packets are forwarded
IP PBR-based load balancing
Load balancing in unequal cost multiple path (UCMP) mode
Configuration of secondary IP addresses for all physical and logical interfaces
Each interface can be configured with a maximum of 255 secondary IP addresses with
31-bit masks.

7.2.3 IPv6 Features


The NE40E supports the following IPv6 features:
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND)
Path MTU Discovery (PMTU)
TCP6, ping IPv6, tracert IPv6, and socket IPv6
Static IPv6 DNS and specified IPv6 DNS server
TFTP IPv6 client
IPv6 PBR
Telnet and SSH

7.2.4 IPv4/IPv6 Transition Technology


The NE40E provides the following IPv4/IPv6 transition technologies:
IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel
The NE40E adopts the following IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel modes:
IPv6 manual tunnel
IPv6 over IPv4 GRE tunnel
IPv4 over IPv6 automatic tunnel
6 to 4 tunnel
6PE and 6vPE

7.3 Routing Protocol


7.3.1 Unicast Routing
The NE40E supports the following unicast routing features:
IPv4 routing protocols, including RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP4

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IPv6 routing protocols, including Routing Information Protocol Next Generation (RIPng),
OSPFv3, IS-ISv6, and BGP4+
Static routes that are manually configured by the administrator to simplify network
configurations and improve network performance
Large-capacity routing table to effectively support the operation of a MAN.
Selection of the optimal route through the perfect routing policy
Import of routing information of other protocols
Use of routing policies in advertising and receiving routes and filtering of routes through
route attributes
Support for load balancing and configuring the maximum number of equal-cost routes
32-channel load balancing of IPv6 routes
Password authentication and MD5 authentication to improve network security
Restart of protocol processes through command lines
RIP-1 (classful routing protocol) and RIP-2 (classless routing protocol)
Advertisement of a default route from a RIP-enabled device to its peers and setting of the
metric of this route
RIP-triggered updates
Disabling a specified interface from sending or receiving OSPF or RIP packets
Association between OSPF and BGP
Association between OSPF and LDP
Fast OSPF convergence, which can be implemented in the following manners:
Adjusting the interval at which LSAs are sent
Enabling OSPF GR
Configuring BFD for OSPF
OSPF I-SPF and IS-IS I-SPF (I-SPF re-calculates only the affected routes of a shortest
path tree (SPT) rather the entire SPT)
OSPF PRC
OSPF calculation of link costs based on the reference bandwidth
Link costs can be manually configured or automatically calculated by the system based
on the reference bandwidth by using the following formula:
Link cost = Reference bandwidth/Interface bandwidth
The integer of the calculated result is the link cost. If the calculated result is smaller than
1, the cost is 1. The link cost can be changed by changing the reference bandwidth. By
default, the reference bandwidth of the NE40E is 100 Mbit/s. The value can be changed
to one in the range of 1 to 2147483648 in Mbit/s by running commands.
Two-level IS-IS in a routing domain
Association between IS-IS and LDP
IS-IS GR, OSPF GR and BGP GR, which ensure high reliability with Non-Stop
Forwarding (NSF)
BGP indirect next hop and dynamic update peer-groups
Policy-based route selection by BGP when there are multiple routes to the same
destination
BGP route reflector (RR), which addresses the problem of high costs of full-mesh
requirement when there are many IBGP peers
Sending of BGP Update packets that carry no private AS number

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IPv6 indirect next hop


Route dampening, which suppresses unstable routes (unstable routes are neither added to
the BGP routing table nor advertised to other BGP peers)
Routing protocol
BGP fast convergence
The NE40E adopts a new route convergence mechanism and algorithm, which speeds up
convergence of BGP routes. The features are as follows:
Indirect next hop
On-demand route iteration
BGP load balancing in multi-homing networking
Non-Stop Routing (NSR)
The NE40E supports the following NSR modes:
IS-IS NSR
BGP NSR

7.3.2 Multicast Routing


The NE40E provides the following multicast features:
Multicast protocols
Multicast protocols include the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) ( IGMPv1,
IGMPv2 and IGMPv3), Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM),
Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), Multicast Source Discovery
Protocol (MSDP), and Multi-protocol Border Gateway Protocol (MBGP).
Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF)
PIM-SSM
Anycast RP
IPv6 multicast routing protocols
IPv6 multicast routing protocols include PIM-IPv6-DM, PIM-IPv6-SM, and
PIM-IPv6-SSM.
MLD
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) has the following versions:
MLDv1 defined in RFC 2710
MLDv1 supports Any-Source Multicast (ASM) directly and supports Source-Specific
Multicast (SSM) together with SSM mapping.
MLDv2 defined in RFC 3810
MLDv2 supports ASM and SSM directly.
Multicast static routes
Configuration of multicast protocols on physical interfaces such as Ethernet and POS
interfaces, and Trunk interfaces.
Filtering of routes based on the routing policy when the multicast routing module
receives, imports, or advertises multicast routes and filtering and forwarding of multicast
packets based on the routing policy when IP multicast packets are forwarded
Multicast VPN
The multicast domain (MD) scheme is used to implement integrated processing.
Addition and deletion of dummy entries

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Query of PIM neighbors and number of control messages


Filtering of PIM neighbors, control of the forwarding boundary, and control of the BSR
service and management boundary
Filtering and suppression of PIM Register messages
MSDP authentication
IGMP packet rate limiting and IGMP proxy
Prompt leave of IGMP and MLD group members and the use of group-policies to restrict
the setup of forwarding entries
Configuration of ACLs, including source address-based packet filtering, control of
multicast group number, setup of multicast forwarding entries, and Switch-MDT
switching, to ensure multicast security
Multicast group-based, multicast source-based, multicast source/group-based,
stable-preferred, and balance-preferred load splitting
IGMP snooping
The NE40E supports IGMP snooping on Layer 2 interfaces, Layer 3 interfaces, QinQ
interfaces, STP topologies, RRPP rings, and VPLS PWs.
Multicast flow control
The NE40E discards or broadcasts unknown multicast packets in the VLAN to which the
receiving interface belongs. Unknown multicast packets are packets that have no
corresponding forwarding entries in the multicast forwarding table.
In addition, the NE40E restricts the maximum percentage of multicast flows on Ethernet
interfaces to control multicast traffic.
VSI-based IGMP CPCAR
Distributed multicast
Maximum delay of less than 4 ms for multicast fast join and fast leave
Multicast VLAN
The NE40E supports multicast VLAN and VLAN-based 1+1 protection of multicast
traffic.
Multicast VPN
For details, see section "7.5 VPN Features".
Multicast CAC
The NE40E supports multicast Call Admission Control (CAC). When multicast CAC
rules are configured, the number of multicast groups and bandwidth are restricted for
IGMP snooping on interfaces or the entire system.

7.4 MPLS
The NE40E supports MPLS features, and static and dynamic LSPs. Static LSPs require that
the administrator configure the Label Switch Routers (LSRs) along the LSPs and set up LSPs
manually. Dynamic LSPs are set up dynamically in accordance with the routing information
through the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and RSVP-TE.
The delay for MPLS packets can be controlled in the following aspects:
In the case that there is no traffic congestion, the NE40E adopts a high-speed processor
to ensure line-rate forwarding and low delay.

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In the case of traffic congestion, the NE40E ensures preferential forwarding and low
delay for traffic with high priority through mechanisms such as QoS, HQoS, MPLS TE,
and DS-TE.
MPLS is supported on all interfaces of the NE40E.

Basic MPLS Functions


The NE40E supports the following MPLS functions:
Basic MPLS functions, service forwarding, and LDP
MPLS distributes labels, sets up LSPs, and transfers parameters used for setting up LSPs.
A maximum of four MPLS labels
LDP
Downstream Unsolicited (DU) and Downstream on Demand (DoD) label
advertisement modes
Independent and ordered label distribution control modes
Liberal and conservative label retention modes
Loop detection mechanism by using the maximum number of hops and path vector
Basic discovery mechanism and extended discovery mechanism of LDP sessions
MPLS ping and tracert and detection of the availability of an LSP through the exchange
of MPLS Echo Request packets and MPLS Echo Reply packets
LSP bandwidth alarm function and LSP-based traffic statistics function that is used to
calculate bandwidth usage
Configuration of 32-channel or 64-channel load balancing (on the ingress and transit
nodes) that is controlled by the PAF file, with 64-channel load balancing applicable to IP
forwarding, IP packet forwarding over LDP LSPs (including L3VPN), and packet
forwarding on P nodes
Management functions such as the LSP loop detection mechanism
MPLS QoS, mapping from the ToS field in IP packets to the EXP field in MPLS packets,
and MPLS uniform, pipe, and short pipe modes
Static configuration of LSPs and label forwarding based on traffic classification
MPLS trap function
Modification of MPLS MTUs
MPLS LDP over GRE
Association between LDP and IGP, which shortens traffic loss to the minimum through
the synchronization between the LDP status and IGP status in case of network faults
NE40E functioning as a Label Edge Router (LER) or an LSR
An LER is an edge device on an MPLS network that connects the MPLS network to
other networks. The LER classifies services, distributes labels, encapsulates or removes
multi-layer labels. When functioning as an egress, the NE40E supports PHP. That is, the
NE40E allocates an explicit null label or an implicit null label to the penultimate hop.
An LSR is a core router on an MPLS network. The LSR switches and distributes labels.
Establishment of LSPs between NE40Es of different IS-IS levels and between the
NE40E and non-Huawei devices through LDP
MPLS supported by the NE40E complies with the following standards:
RFC 3031

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RFC 3032
RFC 3034
RFC 3035
RFC 3036
RFC 3037
The NE40E supports CR-LDP and RSVP-TE and can interoperate with non-Huawei
devices through CR-LDP or RSVP-TE.

MPLS TE
The MPLS TE technology combines the MPLS technology with traffic engineering. It can
reserve resources by setting up LSP tunnels for a specified path in an attempt to avoid
network congestion and balance network traffic.
In the case of resource scarcity, MPLS TE allows the preemption of bandwidth resources of
LSPs with low priorities. This meets the demands of important services or the LSPs with large
bandwidth. When an LSP fails or a node is congested, MPLS TE can ensure smooth network
communication through the backup path and the fast reroute (FRR) function. Through
automatic re-optimization and bandwidth adjustment, MPLS TE improves the self-adaptation
capability of tunnels and properly allocates network resources.
The process of updating the network topology through the TEDB is as follows: When a link
goes Down, the CSPF failed link timer is enabled. If the IGP route is deleted or the link is
changed within the timeout period of the CSPF failed link timer, CSPF deletes the timer and
then updates the TEDB. If the IGP route is not deleted or the link is not changed after the
timeout period of the CSPF failed link timer expires, the link is considered Up.
MPLS TE provides the following functions:
Processing of static LSPs
MPLS can create and delete static LSPs, which require bandwidth but are manually
configured.
Processing of Constrained Route-Label Switched Path (CR-LSP) of various types and
route calculation through the CSPF algorithm
CR-LSPs are classified into the following types:
RSVP-TE
RSVP authentication complies with RFC 3097.
Auto routing
Auto routing works in either of the following modes:
IGP shortcut: An LSP is not advertised to neighboring routers. Therefore, other
routers cannot use the LSP.
Forwarding adjacency: An LSP is advertised to neighboring routers. Therefore, other
routers can use the LSP.
Fast reroute (FRR)
The switchover through FRR is within 50 ms, which minimizes the data loss when
network faults occur.
Auto FRR
Auto FRR is an extension to MPLS TE FRR. You can create a bypass tunnel that meets
the requirement on the LSP by configuring the attributes of the bypass tunnel, global
auto FRR, and auto FRR on the interface of the primary tunnel. With the change of the

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primary tunnel, the previous bypass tunnel is deleted automatically. Then, a new bypass
tunnel that meets the requirement is set up.
Backup CR-LSP
The NE40E supports the following backup modes:
Hot backup
A backup CR-LSP is established immediately after the primary CR-LSP is
established. When the primary CR-LSP fails, MPLS TE switches traffic immediately
to the backup CR-LSP.
Ordinary backup
A backup CR-LSP is set up when the primary CR-LSP fails.
LDP over TE
In existing networks, not all devices support MPLS TE. It is possible that only the
devices at the network core support TE and the devices at the network edge use LDP.
The application of LDP over TE is therefore put forward. With LDP over TE, the TE
tunnel is considered as a hop of the entire LDP LSP. Through forwarding adjacency, one
MPLE TE tunnel can be considered as a virtual link and advertised to an IGP network.
Make-before-break
Make-before-break is a technology for ensuring highly reliable CR-LSP switchover. The
original path is not deleted until a new path has been created. Before a new CR-LSP is
created, the original CR-LSP is not deleted. After a new CR-LSP has been created, the
traffic is switched to the new CR-LSP first, and then the original CR-LSP is deleted. This
ensures non-stop traffic forwarding.
DS-TE
DS-TE implemented on the NE40E supports the Non-IETF mode and the IETF mode.
The Non-IETF (non-standard) mode supports two CTs (CT0 and CT1), eight
priorities (0-7), and two bandwidth constraint models (RDM and MAM).
The CT here refers to the class type of a corresponding service flow. The priority here
refers to the LSP preemption priority.
The IETF (standard) mode supports eight CTs (CT0 through CT7), eight priorities
(0-7), and three bandwidth constraint models (RDM, MAM, and Extended).
DS-TE supports TE FRR, hot standby, protection switchover, and CT-based traffic
statistics collection.

MPLS OAM
MPLS OAM functions are as follows:
MPLS OAM detection
MPLS OAM sends CV/FFD and BDI packets along an LSP to be detected and its reverse
LSP to detect its connectivity.
OAM auto protocol
Protection switching

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7.5 VPN Features


7.5.1 Tunnel Policy
Tunnel policies are used to select tunnels according to destination IP addresses. Tunnels are
selected according to tunnel policies as required. If no tunnel policy is created, the tunnel
management module searches for a tunnel according to the default tunnel policy.
The NE40E supports the following tunnel policies:
Tunnel policy in select-sequence mode
In this mode, you need to specify the sequence in which the tunnel types are selected and
the number of tunnels carrying out load balancing. If a tunnel listed earlier is Up, it is
selected regardless of whether other services have selected it. The tunnels listed later are
not selected except in case of load balancing or when the preceding tunnels are all Down.
VPN tunnel binding
VPN tunnel binding means that the peer end of the VPN on the PE of the VPN backbone
network is associated with a certain MPLS TE tunnel. The data from the VPN to the peer
PE is transmitted through the dedicated TE tunnel. The bound TE tunnel carries only
specified VPN services. This ensures QoS of the specified VPN services.

7.5.2 VPN Tunnel


The NE40E supports the following types of VPN tunnels:
LSPs
TE tunnels

7.5.3 MPLS L2VPN


The NE40E provides L2VPN services over an MPLS network where the ISP can provide
L2VPNs over different media.

VLL
The NE40E supports the following VLL functions:
Martini VLL
The Martini mode supports double labels. The inner label adopts extended LDP for
signaling in compliance with RFC 4096.
The type of VC FEC is 128. VC encapsulation types include 0x0004 Ethernet Tagged
Mode, 0x0005 Ethernet, and 0x000B IP Layer2 Transport.
Kompella VLL
VC encapsulation types of Kompella VLL include ATM-1to1-VCC, ATM-1to1-VPC,
ATM-AAL5-SDU, ATM-nto1-VCC, ATM-nto1-VPC, ATM-trans-cell, Ethernet, PPP,
VLAN, and IP-interworking.
Kompella VLL supports the local inter-board switching of packets in 802.1Q mode.
Kompella VLL supports inter-AS VPN.
CCC VLL
CCC VLL supports the local inter-board switching of packets in 802.1Q mode
SVC VLL

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

VLL heterogeneous interworking


VLL heterogeneous IP-interworking is used when the link types of CEs on both ends of
an L2VPN link are different. In MPLS L2VPN heterogeneous IP-interworking, after
receiving a frame from a CE, a PE decapsulates the link-layer packet and transmits the IP
packet across an MPLS network. The IP packet is transparently transmitted to the peer
PE. The peer PE re-encapsulates IP packet according to its link layer protocol and
transmits the packet to the connected CE. The link-layer control packet sent by the CE is
processed by the PE and is not transmitted through the MPLS network. All non-IP
packets such as MPLS and IPX packets are discarded.
Transparent transmission of certain types of link layer protocol packets
Interfaces can be configured to transparently transmit certain types of link layer protocol
packets, such as BPDUs, STP packets, LLDP packets, UDLD packets, CDP packets, and
HGMP packets.
Inter-AS VLL
SVC VLL, Martini VLL, and Kompella VLL can implement inter-AS L2VPN Option
A (VRF-to-VRF).
Option B requires the switching of both inner and outer labels on the ASBR, and is
therefore not suitable for the VLL.
Option C is the best solution.
VLL over TE ECMP

VPLS
In a VPLS network, PEs can be all connected to each other and enabled with split horizon to
prevent Layer 2 loops.
The implementations of VPLS control plane through BGP and LDP are called Kompella
VPLS and Martini VPLS respectively.
Kompella VPLS
Kompella VPLS has good scalability. With Kompella VPLS, BGP is adopted for
signaling, and VPN targets are configured to implement automatic discovery of VPLS
members. Therefore, the addition or deletion of PEs requires few additional operations.
Martini VPLS
Martini VPLS has poor scalability. With Martini VPLS, LDP is adopted for signaling,
and the peers of a PE need to be manually specified. PEs in a VPLS network are all
connected to each other. Therefore, adding a new PE requires configurations on all the
other associated PEs to be modified.A pseudo wire (PW) is actually a point-to-point link.
This means that using LDP to create, maintain, and delete the PW is more effective.
The NE40E supports the following VPLS functions:
Access to the VPLS network in QinQ mode
HVPLS
IGMP snooping for VPLS
One MAC address space for each VSI
VPLS learns MAC addresses in the following modes:
Unqualified mode: In this mode, a VSI can contain multiple VLANs sharing a MAC
address space and a broadcast domain. When learning MAC addresses, VPLS also
needs to learn VLAN IDs.

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

Qualified mode: In this mode, a VSI has only one VLAN, which has an independent
MAC address space and a broadcast domain. When learning MAC addresses, VPLS
does not need to learn VLAN IDs.
VPLS/HVPLS equal-cost load balancing
Fast switching of multicast traffic
mVPLS
STP over PW
STP over VPLS
Transparent transmission of certain types of link layer protocol packets
Interfaces can be configured to transparently transmit certain types of link layer protocol
packets, such as BPDUs, STP packets, LLDP packets, UDLD packets, CDP packets, and
HGMP packets.
Ethernet loop detection
PBB over VPLS
PBB VPLS interworking
The NE40E supports MP2MP PBB over VPLS to implement intercommunication
between VPLS and PBB networks.

PWE3
The NE40E supports the following PWE3 functions:
Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification PING (VCCV-PING)
The NE40E supports the manual LDP PW connectivity detection on the UPE, including
the connectivity of static PWs, dynamic PWs, SS-PWs, and MS-PWs.
VCCV Ping over a static MS-PW
PW template
The NE40E supports the binding between a PW and a PW template, and the reset of
PWs.
The NE40E supports heterogeneous interworking.
Currently, the NE40E supports the transparent transmission of the following packets
through PWE3: ATM AAL5 SDU VCC transport, Ethernet, ATM n-to-one VCC cell
transport, IP Layer 2 transport, and ATM one-to-one VCC cell mode.
PW redundancy
The NE40E supports the circuit emulation service (CES) by using Pseudo-Wire
Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3).
The CES is classified into the Structure-aware TDM Circuit Emulation Service over
Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN) and Structure-Agnostic TDM over Packet (SAToP)
service.

7.5.4 BGP/MPLS L3VPN


The NE40E supports MPLS/BGP L3VPN, providing an end-to-end VPN solution for carriers.
Carriers can provide VPN services for users as a new value-added service. The NE40E
supports the following BGP/MPLS L3VPN functions:
Access of a CE to an L3VPN through Layer 3 interfaces such as Ethernet, POS, and
VLANIF interfaces
Static routes, BGP, RIP, OSPF, or IS-IS running between a CE and a PE

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 7 Service Features

Carrier's carrier
Inter-AS VPN
The NE40E supports the following inter-AS VPN solutions described in RFC 2547bis:
VPN instance to VPN instance, also called Inter-Provider Backbones Option A
In Option A, sub-interfaces connecting the Autonomous System Boundary Routers
(ASBRs) manage VPN routes.
EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes, also called Inter-Provider
Backbones Option B
In Option B, ASBRs advertise labeled VPN-IPv4 routes to each other through
MP-EBGP.
Multihop EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes, also called Inter-Provider
Backbones Option C
In Option C, PEs advertise labeled VPN-IPv4 routes to each other through Multihop
MP-EBGP.
Multicast VPN
IPv6 VPN
The NE40E supports the following IPv6 VPN networking solutions:
Intranet VPN
Extranet VPN
Hub&Spoke
Inter-AS or multi-AS backbones VPN
Carriers' carrier
HoVPN
Resource reservation VPN (RRVPN)
Multi-role host

7.6 QoS
On the NE40E, you can collect traffic statistics on the packets on which QoS is performed and
view the statistics result through corresponding display commands.
The NE40E supports the following QoS functions:

Diff-Serv Model
Multiple service flows can be aggregated into a Behavior Aggregate (BA) and then processed
based on the same Per-Hop Behavior (PHB). This simplifies the processing and storage of
services.
On the Diff-Serv core network, packet-specific QoS is provided. Therefore, signaling
processing is not required.

Simple Traffic Classification


Currently, the NE40E supports simple traffic classification not only on physical interfaces and
sub-interfaces but also on logical interfaces such as member interfaces of VLANIF and trunk
interfaces.

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

Complex Traffic Classification


The NE40E performs complex traffic classification based on the following information:
Layer 2 and Layer 3 information of packets
Source MAC address, destination MAC address, link layer protocol number, and 802.1p
value (of tagged packets) in the Ethernet frame header; IP precedence, DSCP, or ToS
value, source IP address prefix, destination IP address prefix, protocol number,
fragmentation flag, TCP SYN flag, TCP/UDP source port number or port range, and
TCP/UDP destination port number or port rang of IPv4 packets
Information carried in IPv6 packets
In addition to physical interfaces, traffic classification can be performed on logical
interfaces, including sub-interfaces and trunk interfaces.

Traffic Policing
CAR is mainly used for rate limit. In the implementation of CAR, a token bucket is used to
measure the data flows that pass through the interfaces on a router so that only the packets
assigned with tokens can go through the router in the specified time period. In this manner,
the rates of both incoming and outgoing traffic are controlled. In addition, the rate of certain
types of data flows can be controlled based on the information such as the IP address, port
number, and priority. Rate limit is not performed on the data flows that do not meet the
specified conditions, and such data flows are forwarded at the original interface rate.
CAR is mainly implemented at the edge of a network to ensure that core devices on the
network process data properly. The NE40E supports CAR for both incoming and outgoing
traffic.

Queue Scheduling
The NE40E supports FIFO, PQ, and WFQ for queue scheduling on interfaces.
The NE40E maps packets of different priorities to different queues and adopts Round Robin
(RR) on each interface for queue scheduling.
Priority Queues (PQs) are classified into four types: top PQs, middle PQs, normal PQs, and
bottom PQs. They are ordered in descending order of priorities. When packets leave queues,
PQ allows the packets in the top PQ to go first. Packets in the top PQ are sent as long as there
are packets in this PQ. The NE40E sends packets in the middle PQ only when all packets in
the top PQ are sent. Similarly, the NE40E sends packets in the normal PQ only when all
packets in the middle PQ are sent; the NE40E sends packets in the bottom PQ only when all
packets in the normal PQ are sent. As a result, the packets in the PQ of a higher priority are
always sent preferentially, which ensures that packets of key services are processed
preferentially when the network is congested. Packets of common services are processed
when the network is idle. In this manner, the quality of key services is guaranteed, and the
network resources are fully utilized.
Weight Fair Queuing (hereinafter referred to as WFQ) is a complex queuing process, which
ensures that the services with the same priority are fairly treated and the services with
different priorities are weighted. The number of WFQ queues can be pre-set and is allowed to
range from 16 to 4096. WFQ weights services based on their requirements for the bandwidth
and delay. The weights are determined by the IP precedence in the IP packet headers. With
WFQ, the NE40E implements dynamic traffic classification based on quintuples or ToS
values. The packets with the same quintuple (source IP address, destination IP address, source
port number, destination port number, and protocol number) or ToS value belong to the same

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 7 Service Features

flow. Packets in one flow are placed in one queue through the Hash algorithm. When flows
enter queues, WFQ automatically places different flows into different queues based on the
Hash algorithm. When flows leave queues, WFQ allocates bandwidths to flows on the
outbound interface based on different IP precedence of the flows. The smaller the precedence
value of a flow, the smaller the bandwidth of the flow. In this manner, services of the same
precedence are treated fairly; services of different precedence are treated based on their
weights.

Congestion Avoidance
Congestion avoidance is a traffic control mechanism used to avoid network overload by
adjusting network traffic. With this mechanism, the NE40E can monitor the usage of network
resources (such as queues and buffers in the memory) and discard packets when the network
congestion intensifies.
Random Early Detection (RED) or Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) algorithms
are frequently used in congestion avoidance.
The RED algorithm sets the upper and lower limits for each queue and specifies the following
rules:
When the length of a queue is below the lower limit, no packet is discarded.
When the length of a queue exceeds the upper limit, all the incoming packets are
discarded.
When the length of a queue is between the lower and upper limits, the incoming packets
are discarded randomly. A random number is set for each received packet, and the
random number is compared with the drop probability of the current queue. The packet
is discarded when the random number is larger than the drop probability. The longer the
queue, the higher the drop probability. The drop probability, however, has an upper limit.
Unlike RED, the random number in WRED is based on the IP precedence of IP packets.
WRED keeps a lower drop probability for the packets that have a higher IP precedence.
RED and WRED employ the random packet drop policy to avoid global TCP synchronization.
The NE40E adopts WRED to implement congestion avoidance.
The NE40E supports congestion avoidance in both inbound and outbound directions of an
interface. The WRED template is applied in the outbound direction; the default scheduling
policy in the system is applied in the inbound direction. In addition, WRED can be applied to
the Multicast Tunnel interface (MTI) that is bound to the distributed multicast VPN on the
NE40E.
The NE40E supports congestion avoidance based on services. The NE40E reserves on each
interface eight service queues, that is, BE, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4, EF, CS6, and CS7. The
NE40E colors packets with red, yellow, and green to identify the priorities of packets and
discard certain packets.

HQoS
The NE40E supports the following HQoS functions:
Provides five levels of scheduling modes to ensure diverse services.
Sets parameters such as the maximum queue length, WRED, low delay, SP/WRR, CBS,
PBS, and statistics function for each queue.
Sets parameters such as the CIR, PIR, number of queues, and algorithm for scheduling
queues for each user.

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 7 Service Features

Provides the traffic statistics function. Users can learn the bandwidth usage of services
and properly distribute the bandwidth by analyzing traffic.
Supports HQoS in the VPLS, L3VPN, VLL, and TE scenarios.
Supports interface-based, VLAN-based, user-based, and service-based HQoS.

QPPB
QPPB is the abbreviation of QoS Policy Propagation Through the Border Gateway Protocol.
The receiver of BGP routes performs the following operations:
Sets QoS parameters such as IP precedence and traffic behavior for a BGP route based
on the attributes of the route.
Classifies traffic according to QoS parameters and sets the QoS policy for the classified
traffic.
Forwards packets according to the locally configured QoS policies to propagate QoS
policies through BGP.
The receiver of BGP routes can set QoS parameters (IP precedence and associated traffic
behavior) based on the following attributes:
ACL
AS path list in routing information
Community attribute list in routing information
Metrics in routing information
IP prefix list

QoS for Ethernet


Layer 2 simple traffic classification
The NE40E performs simple traffic classification according to the 802.1p field in VLAN
packets. On the ingress PE, the 802.1p priority in a Layer 2 packet is mapped to the
precedence defined by the upper layer protocol, such as the IP DSCP value or the MPLS
EXP value. In this manner, Diff-Serv is implemented for the packets on the backbone
network. On the egress PE, the precedence of the upper layer protocol is mapped back to
the 802.1p priority.
QinQ simple traffic classification
In the QinQ implementation, the 802.1p values in both inner and outer VLAN tags need
to be detected. The NE40E can detect the 802.1p value by the following means:
Ignores the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag and sets a new 802.1p value in the
outer VLAN tag.
Automatically converts the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag into the 802.1p value
in the outer VLAN tag.
Sets a new 802.1p value in the outer VLAN tag according to the 802.1p value in the
inner VLAN tag.
Based on the preceding methods and the mapping of the inner VLAN tag to the outer
VLAN tag, QinQ supports 802.1p re-marking in the following modes:
Specifying a given value.
Adopting the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag.

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

Mapping the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag to the 802.1p value in the outer
VLAN tag. The 802.1p values in multiple inner VLAN tags of different packets can
be mapped to the 802.1p value in one outer VLAN tag; whereas the 802.1p value in
one inner VLAN tag cannot be mapped to the 802.1p values in multiple outer VLAN
tags of different packets.

MPLS HQoS
MPLS QoS is a complete L2VPN/L3VPN QoS solution. It resorts to various QoS techniques
to meet the diversified and delicate QoS demands of VPN users. MPLS QoS provides relative
QoS on the MPLS Diff-Serv network and end-to-end QoS on the MPLE TE network. In
actual applications, the following QoS policies are supported.
QPPB applied to an L3VPN
MPLS Diff-Serv applied to an L2VPN/L3VPN
MPLS TE applied to an L2VPN/L3VPN
MPLS DS-TE applied to an L2VPN/L3VPN
VPN-based QoS applied to the network side of an L2VPN/L3VPN

7.7 Load Balancing


In a scenario where there are multiple equal-cost routes to the same destination, the NE40E
can balance traffic among these routes. The NE40E provides equal-cost load balancing and
unequal-cost load balancing, which can be selected as required. In equal-cost load balancing
mode, traffic is evenly load-balanced among different routes. In unequal-cost load balancing
mode, traffic is load-balanced among different routes based on the proportion of bandwidth of
each interface.

Equal-Cost Load Balancing


The NE40E can implement equal-cost load balancing on the traffic transmitted through the
member links of an IP-Trunk or an Eth-Trunk. When there are multiple equal-cost routes to
the same destination, the NE40E can evenly balance traffic among these routes.
Load balancing can be implemented in session-by-session mode.

Unequal-Cost Load Balancing


The NE40E supports the following unequal-cost load balancing modes:
Load balancing based on routes
When the costs of different direct routes are the same, you can configure a weight for
each route for load balancing.
Load balancing based on interfaces
For an IP-Trunk or an Eth-Trunk, you can configure a weight for each member link for
load balancing.
Load balancing based on link bandwidth for IGP
In this mode, unequal-cost session-by-session load balancing is performed on the
outbound interfaces of paths carrying out load balancing. The proportion of traffic
transmitted along each path is approximate to or equal to the proportion of bandwidth of
each link. This mode fully considers the link bandwidth. In this manner, the case that

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

links with low bandwidth are overloaded whereas links with high bandwidth are idle
does not exist.
The NE40E can balance traffic between physical interfaces or between physical interfaces and
logical interfaces. In addition, the NE40E can detect the changes of logical interface
bandwidth due to manual configuration of new member links or the status changes of member
links. When the bandwidth of a logical interface changes, traffic is automatically
load-balanced based on the new bandwidth proportion.

7.8 Traffic Statistics


The NE40E collects the statistics on access services for various users with multiple statistic
functions. The traffic statistics functions are as follows:
The traffic statistics functions are as follows:
Helps carriers analyze the traffic model of the network.
Provides reference data for carriers to deploy and maintain Diff-Serv TE.
Supports traffic-based accounting for non-monthly rental users.

URPF Traffic Statistics


The NE40E collects statistics on the forwarded traffic based on URPF and the traffic
discarded during the URPF check.

ACL Traffic Statistics


The NE40E supports the ACL traffic statistics function. When the created ACLs are applied to
QoS and PBR, the NE40E can collect statistics based on ACLs after the ACL traffic statistics
function is enabled. The NE40E also provides commands to query the number of matched
packets and bytes.

CAR Traffic Statistics


The NE40E provides diverse QoS functions such as traffic classification, traffic policing
(CAR), and queue scheduling. For these specific functions, the NE40E provides the following
QoS traffic statistics functions:
In traffic classification, the system can collect statistics on the traffic that matches rules
and fails to match rules.
The traffic statistics function for traffic policing is implemented in the following
manners:
Collects the statistics on the total traffic that matches the CAR rule.
Collects the statistics on the traffic that is permitted or discarded by the CAR rule.
Supports the interface-based traffic statistics.
Supports interface-based CAR traffic statistics when the same traffic policy is applied
to different interfaces.

HQoS Traffic Statistics


The NE40E can collect the following HQoS traffic statistics:

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

Statistics on the number of forwarding packets, bytes, and discarded packets of a user
queue which includes eight flow queues of different priorities
Statistics on the number of forwarded packets, bytes, and discarded packets of a user
group queue
Statistics on the number of forwarded packets, bytes, and discarded packets of eight
queues of different priorities on an interface

Interface-Based Traffic Statistics


Traffic statistics can be collected on all interfaces, including physical interfaces,
sub-interfaces, loopback interfaces, null interfaces, logical channel interfaces, and virtual
Ethernet interfaces.
Statistics on IPv4 and IPv6 packets, including unicast packets, multicast packets, and
broadcast packets, can also be collected.
Statistics on all protocol packets that are supported can be collected, such as MPLS packets,
ARP packets, IGP packets, BGP packets, PIM packets, and DHCP packets.
The NE40E uses the 64-bit register to store the interface-based traffic statistics. For example,
the register can store the traffic statistics on a 10G interface for 58.5 years.

VPN Traffic Statistics


On a VPLS network, the NE40E, functioning as a PE, can collect statistics on incoming and
outgoing traffic of L2VPN users that are connected to the NE40E.
On an L3VPN, the NE40E, functioning as a PE, can collect statistics on incoming and
outgoing traffic of various types of access users. The access users include:
Users that access the network through interfaces including logical interfaces
Multi-role hosts
Users that access the network through the VPLS/VLL
When MPLS HQoS services are configured, the NE40E, functioning as an ingress PE,
can collect statistics on the traffic that is sent by the network side.

Traffic Statistics on TE Tunnels


The NE40E, functioning as a PE on an MPLS TE network, can collect statistics on incoming
and outgoing traffic of a tunnel. When a VPN is statically bound to a TE tunnel, the NE40E
can collect statistics on traffic of each RRVPN over the TE tunnel and the total traffic over the
TE tunnel.
Statistics can be collected on traffic of each CT on a DS-TE tunnel.

7.9 IP RAN Features


PNP
Plug-and-Play (PNP) enables new devices to be automatically identified by the NMS and be
commissioned remotely by using the NMS.

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

On an IP RAN network deployed with a large number of devices, the device deployment costs,
especially the costs of on-site software commissioning, are high. This greatly harms the
growth of profits. To address this issue, Huawei puts forward the PNP solution.
The PNP feature effectively reduces the on-site software commissioning time, frees engineers
from working in bad outdoor environments, and greatly speeds up the project process and
improves project quality.

Y.1731
Y.1731 supports the following functions:
Single-ended frame loss statistics collection, two-ended frame loss statistics collection,
one-way frame delay, two-way frame delay and one-way jitter

MPLS TP OAM
MPLS TP OAM supports the following functions:
Basic connectivity detection
LoopBack (LB)
Link Trace (LT)
Remote Defect Indication (RDI)
AIS
Single-ended frame loss statistics collection and two-ended frame loss statistics
collection
One-way frame delay and two-way frame delay

7.10 Network Reliability


NSR
NE40Esupports the following techniques of Non-Stop Routing (NSR).
NSR OSPF
NSR LDP
NSR RSVP-TE
NSR PIM
NSR PPP
NSR ARP
NSR LACP
NSR for L2VPN
NSR for L3VPN
ISIS/ISIS6 NSR
BGP/BGP4+ NSR
Multicast (PIM/MSDP) NSR
NSR for IPv6

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Product Description 7 Service Features

APS
The NE40E supports the following Automatic Protection Switching (APS) functions:
1+1 unidirectional mode and 1:1 bidirectional mode
Manual switching of APS groups
Forcible switching of APS groups
Locking of traffic on the working link of an APS group
Interface-based APS
Intra-LPU or inter-LPU APS
Inter-device APS, that is, Enhanced APS (E-APS)
Addition of the working and protect interfaces of an APS group to a trunk so that all
services are configured on the trunk

FRR
The NE40E provides multiple fast reroute (FRR) features. You can deploy FRR as required to
improve network reliability.
IP FRR
FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms. In this manner, the data loss caused by
network failures is minimized to a great extend.
FRR supported by the NE40E enables the system to monitor and save the status of LPUs
and interfaces in real time and to check the status of interfaces during packet forwarding.
When faults occur on an interface, the system can rapidly switch the traffic to another
pre-set route, thus reducing time between failures and the packet loss ratio.
LDP FRR
LDP FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms.
TE FRR
TE FRR is an MPLS TE technology used to protect local networks. Only the interfaces
with a transmission rate of over 100 Mbit/s support TE FRR. TE FRR switching can be
complete within 50 ms. It can minimize data loss when network failures occur.
TE FRR protects traffic only temporarily. When the protected LSP becomes normal or a
new LSP is established, traffic is switched back to the original protected LSP or the
newly established LSP.
When a link or a node on the LSP fails, traffic is switched to the protection link and the
ingress node of the LSP attempts to establish a new LSP, if an LSP is configured with TE
FRR.
With different protected objects, TE FRR is classified into the following types:
Link protection
Node protection
Auto FRR
Auto FRR is an extension of MPLS TE FRR. It automatically creates a bypass tunnel
that meets the requirements for the LSP through the configuration of the attributes of the
bypass tunnel, global auto FRR attributes, and interface-based auto FRR attributes on the
interface of the primary tunnel. When the primary tunnel changes to another path, the
previous bypass tunnel is automatically deleted. Then, a bypass tunnel that meets the
requirements is set up.
VLL FRR

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VLL FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms.


VPN FRR
VPN FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms.

Backup of Key Parts


The NE40E can be equipped with one MPU or two MPUs. The MPUs support hot backup. If
the device is configured with two MPUs, the master MPU works and the slave MPU is in the
standby state. The management network interface on the slave MPU cannot be accessed by
users, and the console and AUX interfaces cannot be configured with any command. The
slave MPU exchanges information (including heartbeat messages and backup data) with only
the master MPU.
The system supports two types of master/slave switchover of MPUs: failover and switchover.
The failover is triggered by serious faults in the master MPU or the reset of the master MPU.
The switchover is triggered by commands that are run on the console interface. You can also
forbid the master/slave switchover of the MPUs by using commands on the console interface.
The system generates alarms, records the faults in the log file, and reports the alarms to the
NMS. The cause of the master/slave switchover and the associated operations are recorded in
the system diagnosis information base for users to analyze.
The system provides two clock boards in master/slave backup mode. If the system detects that
the master clock board becomes faulty or is reset through a command, the system
automatically performs the master/slave switchover of clock boards. The master/slave
switchover of clock boards does not result in phase offsets or interrupt services.
The master/slave switchover time of each key part is less than 100 us.

High Reliability of LPUs


The NE40E supports backup of key service interfaces of the same type through protocols.
Supports VRRP on Ethernet interfaces. With extended VRRP, two interfaces located on a
same NE40E or two NE40Es can back up each other. This ensures high reliability of the
interfaces.
Supports backup of Eth-Trunk member interfaces, or backup of Eth-Trunk or IP-Trunk
member interfaces and non-member interfaces.
Supports the bundling of interfaces on different LPUs into a trunk.
You can access different LPUs through double links and bundle interfaces on different
LPUs into a trunk to ensure high reliability of services.
Inter-LPU bundling is implemented by high-performance hardware engines, thus
ensuring load balancing of packets among different links.
The Hash algorithm based on the combination of the source and destination IP addresses
load-balances traffic evenly on links.
Seamless switchover is implemented in the case of a link failure so that services are
forwarded without interruption.
Through extended protocols, the NE40E backs up key service interfaces. In this manner, core
routers can monitor and back up the running status of interfaces when they carry LAN, MAN,
or WAN services. Therefore, the routing table is not affected when the status of the backup
interface needs to be changed and services recover rapidly.

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Product Description 7 Service Features

Transmission Alarm Suppression


Transmission alarm suppression can efficiently filter and suppress alarm signals. This
prevents interfaces from frequently flapping. In addition, transmission alarm customization
enables the control over the impact brought by alarms on the interface status.
Transmission alarm customization and suppression implement the following functions:
Customizes alarms. This can specify the alarms that can cause the change of the interface
status.
Suppresses alarms. This can filter out the burr and prevent the network from frequently
flapping.

Dual-System Hot Backup


The NE40E supports the following dual-system hot backup functions:
1+1 or 1:1 hot backup of ARP traffic

Ethernet OAM Fault Management


Ethernet OAM fault management includes the following functions:
Ethernet in the First Mile OAM (EFM OAM)
Conforming to IEEE 802.3ah, the NE40E supports point-to-point Ethernet fault
management to detect faults in the last mile of the direct link on the user side of the
Ethernet. Currently, the NE40E supports OAM discovery, link monitoring, remote fault
notification, and remote loopback, as defined in IEEE 802.3ah.
Connectivity Fault Management OAM (CFM OAM)
The following describes end-to-end Ethernet fault management in two aspects.
Hierarchical MD
Each MD has a level that ranges from 0 to 7. The greater the value, the higher the
level. The 802.1ag packets from a low-level MD are discarded when entering a
high-level MD. The 802.1ag packets from a high-level MD can be transmitted
through a low-level MD.
End-to-end fault detection and location
The NE40E realizes end-to-end Ethernet fault management by conforming to IEEE
802.1ag or not.
The NE40E supports MAC ping and MAC trace by transmitting Loop Back (LB) and
Link Trace (LT) messages defined in IEEE 802.1ag to locate faults.
Fault detection and location not conforming to IEEE 802.1ag include general MAC
ping and general MAC trace.

Ethernet OAM Performance Management


Conforming to ITU-T Y.1731, the NE40E supports Ethernet OAM performance management
by inserting the timestamp into 802.1ag LB messages to measure the delay, jitter, and packet
loss ratio when the messages are transmitted. In this manner, the NE40E can detect the
end-to-end performance of traffic in a specified time period and on a specified network
segment. The NE40E can measure performance parameters at scheduled time and output
report containing the network management information.

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Product Description 7 Service Features

By using performance management tools, the ISP can monitor the network status in real time
through the NMS. The ISP then check whether the forwarding capacity of the network
complies with the Service Level Agreement (SLA) signed with users and locate faults. The
ISP does not need to carry out detection on the user side, which greatly decreases maintenance
costs.

VRRP
VRRP dynamically associates the virtual router with a physical router that carries services.
When the physical router fails, another router is elected to take over services. Failover is
transparent to users and thus the internal network and the external network can communicate
without interruption.
The NE40E supports the following VRRP functions:
mVRRP
VGMP
E-VRRP
VRRP For IPv6

GR
Graceful Restart (GR) is a key technology in implementing HA. It is designed based on NSF.
GR switchover and subsequent restart can be performed by the administrator or triggered by
faults. GR neither deletes the routing information from the routing table or the FIB nor resets
the board during the switchover when faults occur. This prevents the service interruption of
the entire system.
The NE40E supports system-level GR and protocol-level GR. Protocol-based GR includes:
BGP GR
OSPF GR
IS-IS GR
MPLS LDP GR
Martini VLL GR
Martini VPLS GR
L3VPN GR
RSVP GR
PIM GR

BFD
BFD is a detection mechanism used uniformly in an entire network. It is used to rapidly detect
and monitor the connectivity of links or IP routes in a network.
BFD sends detection packets at both ends of a bidirectional link to check the link status in
both directions. The defect detection is implemented at the millisecond level. The NE40E
supports single-hop BFD and multi-hop BFD.
BFD of the NE40E supports the following applications.
BFD for VRRP

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Product Description 7 Service Features

The system uses BFD to detect and monitor the connectivity of links or IP routes in a
network. The rapid VRRP switchover is thus triggered.
BFD for FRR
BFD for LDP FRR.
LDP FRR switchover is triggered after BFD detects faults on protected interfaces.
BFD for IP FRR and BFD for VPN FRR.
IP FRR and VPN FRR are triggered after BFD detects faults and reports fault
information to the upper layer applications.
BFD for static routes
BFD for IS-IS
The NE40E supports detection on the IS-IS adjacency by using the BFD session that is
configured statically.
BFD detects the fault of the link between the adjacent IS-IS nodes and rapidly reports the
fault to IS-IS. Thus fast convergence of IS-IS routes is performed.
BFD for OSPF/BGP
The NE40E supports OSPF and BGP in dynamically setting up and deleting the BFD
session.
BFD for PIM
BFD detection on IP-Trunks and Eth-Trunks
On the NE40E, BFD can detect a trunk and the member links of the trunk independently.
That is, it can detect the connectivity of the trunk and that of an important member link
of the trunk.
BFD for LSP
BFD for LSP performs fast fault detection of the LSP, the TE tunnel, and the PW. In this
manner, BFD for LSP implements fast switchover of MPLS services such as VPN FRR,
TE FRR, and VLL FRR.
BFD for Dot1q sub-interface
BFD for mVSI
Multi-hop BFD
BFD For IPv6
BFD for OSPFv3, BFD for ISISv6, BFD for BGP4+, and BFDv6 for default IPv6
BFD for VPLS PW
BFD for VPLS/VLL PW
VPLS over LDP FRR/FW unicast

7.11 Clock
The NE40E supports the following clock features:
CES ACR
CES DCR
Ethernet clock synchronization
The Ethernet interfaces on the LPUF-10 and LPUF-21 of theNE40E provide Ethernet
clock synchronization so that the clock quality and stratum of the network can be
guaranteed.

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
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Product Description 7 Service Features

1588v2
The 1588v2 feature:
Supports the input and output of the externally synchronized time.
Supports 10M/100M/1000M/10G Ethernet interfaces and auto sensing of
10M/100M/1000M Ethernet interfaces.
Supports Eth-Trunk.
Supports OC, BC, E2ETC, P2PTC, E2ETCOC, P2PTCOC and TCandBC.
Allows the NE40E to function as a GrandMaster.
Supports slave-only when functioning as an OC.
Supports the dynamic BMC algorithm.
Supports two delay measurement methods: Delay and PDelay
Supports one-step mode and two-step mode in which 1588v2 packets that are used by
1588v2 devices to perform time synchronization are timestamped..
Supports multicast MAC encapsulation (the VLAN and 802.1p priority are
configurable).
Supports multicast UDP encapsulation (the source IP address, VLAN, and DSCP
priority are configurable).
Supports unicast MAC encapsulation (the destination MAC, VLAN, and 802.1p
priority are configurable).
Supports unicast UDP encapsulation (the source IP address, destination IP address,
destination MAC, VLAN, and DSCP priority are configurable).
Uses the clock recovered through the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) as the clock
source and supports the algorithm for dynamic clock source selection (based on the
priority and clock stratum).
Implements clock recovery that complies with G.813.
Implements frequency recovery that meets the requirements of the SDH equipment
clock (SEC) in G.823.
1588 ACR
Supports frequency synchronization only.
Supports the change of selected clock sources.
Supports unicast UDP encapsulation (and the DSCP field).
Complies with Recommendation G.8261 in terms of service modeling and
networking and performs clock recovery with accuracy that is prescribed by G.823.
Supports 1588v2 header overlapping without affecting forwarding capabilities.
Supports switchover between master and slave MPUs/SRUs without affecting
services.
Supports hot swapping of LPUs and sub-cards.
Supports clock synchronization.
The NE40E supports clock synchronization on CPOS interfaces, E1 interface, and WAN
interfaces to ensure high clock quality and stratum on the network.
Network Time Protocol (NTP) clock
The NE40E supports the following working modes of NTP:
Server/client mode
Peer mode
Broadcast mode

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HUAWEI NE40E-X1/NE40E-X2 Universal
ServiceRouter
Product Description 7 Service Features

Multicast mode
The NE40E supports two NTP security mechanisms:
Access authority
The NE40E provides four levels of access control. After receiving an NTP access
request packet, the NE40E matches it from the lowest access control level to the
highest access control level. The first successfully matched access control level takes
effect. The matching order is as follows:
peer: indicates the minimum access control. The remote end can send a time request
and a control query to the local end. The local clock can also be synchronized with
the clock of the remote server.
server: indicates that the remote end can send a time request and a control query to
the local end. The local clock, however, is not synchronized with the clock of the
remote server.
synchronization: indicates that the remote end can only send a time request to the
local end.
query: indicates the maximum access control. The remote end can only send a control
query to the local end.
Authentication
When configuring NTP authentication, note the following rules:
The NTP authentication must be configured on both the client and the server; otherwise,
the authentication does not take effect. If NTP authentication is enabled, keys must be
configured and declared reliable.
The server and the client must be configured with the same key.
Internal clock
The NE40E provides an internal clock and can extract clock information from LPUs.
The clock precision reaches 4.6 ppm, that is, 0.00002s.
Extended SSM
The NE40E supports the following functions:
Sending and receiving of SSM information carrying Clock IDs
Clock ID configuration for a clock source
Clock source selection based on extended SSM

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ServiceRouter
Product Description 8 Security Features

8 Security Features

Security Authentication
The NE40E supports the following security authentication functions:
AAA
Plain text authentication and MD5 encrypted text authentication supported by routing
protocols that include RIPv2, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP
MD5 encrypted text authentication supported by LDP and RSVP
SNMPv3 encryption and authentication

URPF
The NE40E supports URPF for IPv4/IPv6 traffic.

MAC Address Limit


The NE40E supports the following MAC address limit functions:
Limit on the number of MAC addresses that can be learned
Limit on the speed of MAC address learning
Limit on interface-based MAC address learning
Limit on PW-based MAC address learning
Limit on VLAN+interface-based MAC address learning
Limit on interface+VSI-based MAC address learning
Limit on QinQ-based MAC address learning
MAC entries in a MAC address table are classified into three types:
Dynamic entries
Dynamic entries are learnt by interfaces and stored in hardware of LPUs. Dynamic
entries age. Dynamic entries will be lost in the case of the system reset, LPU hot swap,
or LPU reset.
Static entries
Static entries are configured by users and delivered to LPUs. Static entries do not age.
After static entries are configured and saved, they are not lost in the case of the system
reset, LPU hot swap, or LPU reset.

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Product Description 8 Security Features

Blackhole entries
Blackhole entries are used to filter out the data frames that contain specific destination
MAC addresses. Blackhole entries are configured by users and delivered to LPUs.
Blackhole entries do not age. After blackhole entries are configured and saved, they will
not be lost in the case of the system reset, LPU hot swap, or LPU reset.

MAC Entry Deletion


The NE40E provides the following MAC entry deletion functions:
Interface+VSI-based MAC entry deletion
Interface+VLAN-based MAC entry deletion
Trunk-based MAC entry deletion
Outbound QinQ interface-based MAC entry deletion

Unknown Traffic Limit


With the unknown traffic limit, the NE40E implements the following operations on a VPLS or
Layer 2 network:
Manages user traffic.
Boards that are not LPUI-41s or LPUF-100s manage only the traffic of VSI and VLAN
users.
Allocates bandwidth to users.
In this manner, the network bandwidth is reasonably used and the network security is
guaranteed.

IGMP Snooping
The NE40E supports IGMP snooping on Layer 2 interfaces, Layer 3 interfaces, QinQ
interfaces, STP topologies, RRPP rings, and VPLS PWs.

DHCP Snooping
DHCP snooping is mainly used to prevent DHCP Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, bogus
DHCP server attacks, ARP middleman attacks, and IP/MAC spoofing attacks when DHCP is
enabled on the NE40E.
The working mode of DHCP snooping varies with the attack type, as shown in Table 8-1.

Table 8-1 Attack types and DHCP snooping working modes

Attack Type DHCP Snooping Anti-Attack Working


Mode
DHCP exhaustion attack MAC address limit
Bogus DHCP server attack Trusted/untrusted
Middleman attack and IP/MAC spoofing DHCP snooping binding table
attack
DoS attack by changing the value of the Check on the CHADDR field in DHCP
Client Hardware Address (CHADDR)

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Product Description 8 Security Features

Attack Type DHCP Snooping Anti-Attack Working


Mode
field packets

Local Attack Defense


The NE40E provides a uniform local attack defense module to manage and maintain the
attack defense policies of the whole system, thus offering an all-around attack defense
solution that is operable and maintainable to users.
The NE40E supports the following attack defense functions:
Whitelist
A whitelist refers to a group of valid users or users with high priorities. By configuring
the whitelist, you can enable the system to protect existing services or user services with
high priorities.
Blacklist
A blacklist refers to a group of invalid users. You can define a blacklist through ACLs.
The users confirmed as attackers are added to the blacklist. Then, packets that match the
blacklist are discarded or sent to the CPU with a lower priority.
CPU Total CAR
Central Processing-Committed Access Rate (CP-CAR) is used to set the rate of sending
the classified packets to the CPU. You can set the average rate, the committed burst size
(CBS), and the priority for each type of packets.
User-defined flow
User-defined flows refer to that a user defines the ACL rule to defend against attacks.
Active link protection (ALP)
The NE40E protects the TCP-based application-layer data such as session data with the
whitelist function.
Uniform configuration of CAR parameters
The NE40E provides the following methods of configuring CAR parameters:
Same CAR parameters configured on different LPUs
Same configuration interface for users
Configuration of protocol-specific CAR parameters, making the user interface more
friendly
Smallest packet compensation
The NE40E can efficiently defend the network against the attacks of small packets with
the smallest packet compensation function. After receiving packets, the system checks
the lengths of packets before sending them to the CPU.
If the packet length is smaller than the preset minimum packet length, the system
calculates the sending rate with the pre-set minimum length.
If the packet length is greater than the pre-set minimum packet length, the system
calculates the sending rate with the actual packet length.
Association between the application layer and lower layers
Application layer association is implemented by associating the enabled and disabled
status of control protocols and the status of the forwarding engine on the lower layer.

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Product Description 8 Security Features

Local URPF
If the route is a local route, the packets must pass URPF check before being sent to the
CPU.
Management and service plane protection
The function is to control protocol packets again at the control layer. Through three-level
policies (interface-level, board-based, and global), management and control plane
protection can flexibly specify the type of protocol packet that can be transmitted an
interface of a device.
Defense against TCP/IP packet attacks
The NE40E provides defense measures against attacks by sending the following types of
packets on TCP/IP networks:
Malformed packets
Null IGMP packets, packets with invalid TCP flag bits, LAND attack packets, IP
packets whose payloads are null, and smurf attack packets.
Fragmented packets
Packets with a huge number of fragments or packets that have a large offset value,
repetitive fragmented packets, tear Drop, syndrop, nesta, fawx, bonk, NewTear, Rose,
ping of death, and Jolt attacks
TCP SYN packet rate limited
UDP flood attack defense
Attack source tracing
When the NE40E is attacked, it obtains and stores suspicious packets, and then displays
the packets in a certain form through command lines or offline tools. This helps locate
the attack source easily.
When attacks occur, the system automatically removes the data encapsulated at upper
layers of the transmission layer and then caches the packets in memory. When there are a
certain number of packets in the cache, for example, 20000 packets on each LPU, the
earliest cached packets are overridden when more packets are cached.

GTSM
On the current network, attackers forge valid packets to attack routers, which overloads the
routers and consumes limited resources such as the CPU on the MPU. For example, an
attacker forges BGP protocol packets and continuously sends them to a router. After the LPU
of the router receives the packets, it finds that the packets are destined to itself and then sends
the packets directly to the BGP processing module on the MPU without checking the validity
of the packets. As a result, the system is abnormally busy processing these forged valid
packets and the CPU usage is high.
To guard against the preceding attacks, the NE40E provides the Generalized TTL Security
Mechanism (GTSM). The GTSM protects services above the IP layer by checking whether
the TTL value in the IP header is within a specified range. In actual applications, the GTSM is
mainly used to protect the TCP/IP-based control plane such as the routing protocol against
attacks of the CPU-utilization type such as CPU overload.
The NE40E supports BGP GTSM, BGP+ GTSM, OSPF GTSM, and LDP GTSM.

ARP Attack Defense


The NE40E supports the following ARP attack defense functions:

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Product Description 8 Security Features

Interface-based ARP entry restriction


Timestamp suppression based on the destination IP address and source IP address of an
ARP packet
The destination address check for the ARP packet
The system checks whether the destination IP address of the ARP packet received on the
interface is correct. If the destination IP address is correct, the packet is sent to the CPU;
otherwise, the packet is discarded.
ARP bidirectional isolation
Filtration of invalid ARP packets
The NE40E filters out the following types of ARP packets:
Invalid ARP packets
Invalid ARP packets include ARP request packets with the destination MAC
addresses being unicast addresses, ARP request packets with the source MAC
addresses being non-unicast addresses, and ARP reply packets with the destination
MAC addresses being non-unicast addresses.
Gratuitous ARP packets
ARP request packets with valid MAC addresses
You can use commands to filter out one or more previously mentioned invalid packets.

Local Mirroring
In local mirroring, an LPU can be configured with a physical observing port, multiple logical
observing ports, and multiple mirrored ports.
Local mirroring can be inter-LPU mirroring, which means that the observing port and
mirrored port reside on different LPUs. Inbound and outbound traffic mirroring is supported
in inter-board port mirroring
Mirroring between different types of interfaces is supported.

SSHv2
The NE40E supports the STelnet client and server and the SFTP client and server. Both
support SSH 1.5 and SSH 2.0.

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Product Description 9 Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction

9 Energy Conservation and Emission


Reduction

Regulation Compliance
The NE40E complies with the following energy conservation and emission reduction
regulations:
Directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of the Use of certain Hazardous Substances in
Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization
and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)
Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
ATIS-0600015.03.2009 Energy Efficiency for Telecommunications Equipment:
Methodology for Measurement and Reporting for Router and Ethernet Switch Products
Directive 2009/125/EC establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign
requirements for energy-related products (recast)

Energy Consumption Management


The NE40E provides the following power consumption management functions:
Power supply management
Device- and board-based power consumption query
Configuration and query of the energy conservation mode

Power Consumption Reduction Designs


The NE40E has the following power consumption reduction designs:
Allows fan modules to automatically adjust the fan speed based on environment
temperature.
Allows users to run commands to power off boards, except the active main control
board.
Allows users to run commands to power off unused subboards and interfaces on service
boards.
Supports dynamic energy conservation for unused modules.
Supports dynamic energy conservation based on service loads.

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Product Description 9 Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction

Energy Conservation Suggestions


The energy conservation suggestions for the NE40E are as follows:
Separate hot and cold air ducts in equipment rooms, place the air intake vent of the
NE40E besides the cold air duct, and prevent hot air from entering the air intake vent.
Select the best suited AC power modules to prevent high power loss due to AC power
light load that means the load ratio is less than 30%.
Clean the dust-proof nets regularly and keep the air intake vents unblocked to reduce
power consumption and noise.
Cover unused slots with filler panels and cap unused interfaces with rubber plugs to
ensure efficient heat dissipation.
Power off unused boards and interfaces.
Set the NE40E to energy conservation mode.

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Product Description 10 Applicable Environment

10 Applicable Environment

About This Chapter


10.1 Metro Ethernet Solution
10.2 Dual-Stack User Access and Transition Solutions

10.1 Metro Ethernet Solution


A metro Ethernet consists of the core layer, edge layer, convergence layer, and access layer.
The core layer is responsible for the high-speed forwarding of service data. The edge layer
and the convergence layer serve as the access point of various services. The services access
the network for forwarding through the BRAS, the centralized PE, or the convergence node,
based on the service type. The access layer is responsible for the user access, and the devices
at the access layer include a DSLAM, the converged switch, AG, and NodeB. Figure 10-1
shows the networking of the MAN.

Figure 10-1 MAN deployment

Access Ethernet Aggregation Edge Core Application

Distribution I n t ernet
node
BRAS Internet
DSLAM
CMTS Aggregafion P/PE
Node
P/PE SoftX
VoD ES
Distribution P/PE
node
AccSwitch PE VoD CS

The convergence layer device accesses and forwards the services through the IP or MPLS
technologies. Personal services are accessed to the convergence node through the DSLAM,

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Product Description 10 Applicable Environment

and corporate services are converged at Layer 2 through a switch or are directly accessed to
the convergence node.
DSLAM: is short for the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer that accesses the
personal services through the permanent virtual circuit (PVC). The DLSAM adds the
VLAN or QinQ tag based on the types of users and services, and is generally connected
to the aggregation node.
Switch: refers to the access switch that converges the Layer 2 corporate services to the
aggregation node.
Aggregation node: refers to the aggregation node connected to the distributed service
node (PE). The aggregation node distinguishes the VLAN or QinQ user services,
forwards Layer 3 services or VPN services, or transparently transmits services to the
BRAS or the centralized PE through the IP or MPLS technologies.
Distribution node: refers to the distribution node that converges the services in the metro
Ethernet. The distribution node terminates the IP or MPLS technologies and
transparently transmits the services to the BRAS or the centralized PE.
BRAS: refers to a device that processes PPPoE login services of individual users.
PE: refers to the centralized service node, which can also serve as the distribution node.
PE accesses the services that should be converged and processed, such as centralized
L3VPN services.
P/PE: refers to the core forwarding node or the edge node on the backbone network. P or
PE rapidly forwards the services or accesses the services to the backbone network.
The NE40E is applicable to the aggregation node and the distribution node to guarantee the
access of individual services and corporate services.

Individual Service Solution


The NE40E supports the following individual services:
HSI service: The DSLAM adds QinQ tags to distinguish user services. The outer VLAN
tag indicates the service type. The NE40E at the aggregation node transparently transmits
the services to the NE40E at the distribution node through VLL or VPLS. The
distribution node terminates the transmission and then transparently transmits the QinQ
data to the BRAS.
VoD/VoIP: The NE40E at the aggregation node terminates the VLAN or QinQ tag added
by the DSLAM, and forwards the services to Layer 3 network or accesses the services to
L3VPN for forwarding.
BTV: The NE40E at the aggregation node serves as the designated router (DR) of the
Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM). The aggregation node receives the multicast data
distributed through the PIM protocol, and then sends the data to the DSLAM through
multicast VLAN. The user joins or withdraws a group through IGMP, and sends the hot
channels to DR.

Enterprise Service Solution


The NE40E supports the following enterprise services:
Corporate dedicated line: The corporate dedicated line is connected to the Layer 3
network through the NE40E at the aggregation node.
E-LINE: The PW, an end-to-end L2VPN tunnel, is set up between the NE40E at the
aggregation node and the peer end. The E-LINE services are transmitted to the peer end

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Product Description 10 Applicable Environment

through different tunnels based on the VLAN or QinQ tag identified at the aggregation
node.
E-LAN: The NE40E at the aggregation node creates the VSI, and forwards the service
data to different VSIs for forwarding after the VLAN or QinQ tag is identified. The
service data can also be accessed to the E-LAN services through H-PVLS, during which
the VSI is created by the distribution node.
L3VPN: The services are accessed to the Virtual Route Forwarding (VRF) at the
aggregation node, or accessed to the centralized service node for VRF forwarding
through HoVPN.

IP RAN Solution
Services of the 2G RAN network, mainly a small number of voice services, are transmitted
over TDM links. Usually one to three E1 interfaces on a BTS are connected to a BSC. Some
mobile carriers do not have fixed network infrastructure, and have to lease E1 lines of
fixed-line networks, which costs a lot. Services between the BTSs and BSCs in the same city
can be transparently transmitted over TDM links in a Metro Ethernet (ME) network.
For a 2G RAN network, a Packet Switching Network (PSN) is constructed through NE40Es
between the BTSs and a BSC. The NE40E is connected to the BTSs in the downstream
through n x E1 links, and to the BSC in the upstream through n x E1 links or 155-Mbit/s
links.
Mobile providers worldwide have been constructing the Radio Access Network (RAN)
continuously. The 2G RAN network is based on TDM/SDH, and thus it has a lower utilization
of bandwidth, is hard to expand, and is inflexible to configure. Therefore, IP RAN is a trend.
UMTS R99/R4 defines ATM as the protocol used during the transmission of the services
between the Node B and RNC, with E1 IMA interfaces connecting the two ends. Figure 10-2
shows the networking diagram.

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Product Description 10 Applicable Environment

Figure 10-2 2G/3G RAN solution

E1
TD
M*
N CX600
CX600
E1 TDM E1 TDM*N

BSC
MPLS over SDH/ME

N *E1(ATM IMA) N *E1(ATM IMA)

CX600 RNC
Node B A) CX600
IM
M
AT
1(
*E Transparent transmission
N
of ATM cells through PWE3

Node B Transparent transmission


of TDM services

Deploying NE40E on a Metro Ethernet-based MPLS network can solve the problem of
bandwidth multiplexing. Node B is connected to the NE40E that supports E1 IMA interfaces.
After the NE40E terminates IMA, the high-speed ATM cell flow is transparently transmitted
through ATM PWE3 to the NE40E at the RNC side. Then, the NE40E at the RNC side divides
the high-speed ATM cell flow into n x E1 links, and sends multiple channels of low-speed
cells to the RNC. For the Node B and RNC, the NE40E and MPLS network are transparent.
That is, multiple E1 interfaces on the Node B and RNC are directly connected through the
TDM link.

1588v2 Clock Solution


As shown in Figure 10-3, the bearer network synchronizes its time through the GPS or
external time sources, and then provides the clock or time externally; the nodes support
multicast MAC encapsulation.
The nodes in the bearer network can trace a BITS clock. All the nodes on the network serve as
boundary clocks (BCs), and all the BCs support the peer delay mechanism to be adapted to
fast switchover of links. The nodes that do not support IEEE 1588 can be configured to
support GPS if these nodes are connected through POS or ATM links. BCs send clock signals
to the Node B that support IEEE 1588 through multicast MAC addresses. The Node B that
does not support IEEE 1588 synchronizes frequency through Ethernet clock synchronization
or through WAN interfaces.

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Product Description 10 Applicable Environment

Figure 10-3 1588v2 clock solution

GPS GPS

POS
BC BC

1588v2 1588v2
GE GE

BC BC

FE E1 E1 FE

1588v2 1588v2

Node B Node B Node B Node B


with 1588v2 without 1588v2 without 1588v2 with 1588v2

10.2 Dual-Stack User Access and Transition Solutions


As the number of Internet users keeps increasing, and mobile broadband and the Internet of
Things rapidly develop, IPv4 address shortage has become an increasingly serious problem.
IPv6 provides enough addresses to allow the Internet to continue to expand, solving the
problem of IPv4 address shortage. Currently, a huge amount of IPv4 services has been
transmitted on the Internet, and therefore carriers still need to use IPv4 on the network. A
reasonable approach is to gradually introduce IPv6 without affecting existing IPv4 services
and build a pure IPv6 Internet with the growing popularity of IPv6. In this situation, transition
from IPv4 to IPv6 is required. During the transition, the following solutions are available:
In the first phase, IPv4 and IPv6 users use NAT64, DNS, and AAA technologies to
access IPv4 services over IPv4 networks.
In the second phase, IPv4, IPv6, and dual-stack users access IPv6 services over
dual-stack networks.
In the third phase, IPv4, IPv6, and dual-stack users use CGN transition technologies
(NAT444 and DS-Lite) to access IPv6 services over IPv6 networks.
The HUAWEI NetEngine80E/40E can provide dual-stack access and CGN transition
technology.

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Product Description 10 Applicable Environment

CGN Transition Technology: Centralized Deployment

Figure 10-4 Application scenario of centralized deployment

In centralized deployment mode, a CGN device is deployed on an aggregation node (CR) to


provide the CGN function, which brings no or small changes to existing access nodes
(BRASs). Centralized deployment applies to the networks on which a small amount of
services are transmitted on CRs or a small number of BRASs are connected to CRs.

CGN Transition Technology: Distributed Deployment

Figure 10-5 Application scenario of distributed deployment

In distributed deployment mode, CGN cards are installed on access nodes (BRASs) to provide
the CGN function, which brings no changes to existing aggregation nodes (CRs). Distributed
deployment applies to the networks on which a large amount of services are transmitted on
CRs, a large number of BRASs are connected to CRs, or a large number of devices need to be
deployed or upgraded.

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Product Description 11 Operation and Maintenance

11 Operation and Maintenance

About This Chapter


11.1 System Configuration Modes
11.2 System Management and Maintenance
11.3 Device Running Status Monitoring
11.4 HGMP
11.5 System Service and Status Tracking
11.6 System Test and Diagnosis
11.7 NQA
11.8 In-Service Debugging
11.9 Upgrade Features
11.10 License
11.11 Other Operation and Maintenance Features

11.1 System Configuration Modes


The NE40E supports two configuration modes: command line configuration and NMS
configuration.
You can configure the NE40E by using command lines through the following:
Console port
Auxiliary (AUX) port
Telnet
As a command interface, the console port can send command lines to the control plane.
As a debugging interface, the console port can receive debugging information from the
control plane and data plane, and deliver debugging commands and control commands.
The NMS configuration supports the configuring NE40E through the SNMP-based NMS.

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Product Description 11 Operation and Maintenance

11.2 System Management and Maintenance


The NE40E provides powerful system management and maintenance functions:
Plug and play
Board detection, hot swap detection, Watchdog, board resetting, RUN indicator, system
debugging, fan and power supply control, master/slave switchover control, and version
inquiry
Local and remote software upgrade/data upload, and functions such as version rollback,
backup, saving, and clearing of version information
Supports inband and outband NMS interfaces.
Hierarchical user authority management, operation log management, command line
online help, and commands comments.
Three user authentication modes: local authentication, RADIUS authentication, and
HWTACACS authentication, which authenticate and authorize users through command
lines and SNMP.
Multi-user operation
Query on Layer 2 or Layer 3 interfaces
Hierarchical management, alarm classification, and alarm filtering
Interface and optical modules support the shutdown and undo shutdown commands

11.3 Device Running Status Monitoring


NE40E provides complete equipment status monitoring function through the information
center.
Syslog is a sub-function of the information center. Syslog is transported over UDP and it
outputs log information to the log host through port 514.
The information center receives and processes the following types of information:
Log information
Debugging information
Trap information
According to information severity or urgency, the information is classified into eight severity
levels. The lower the level, the higher the severity. The following table shows the detailed
information.

Lev Seve Description


el rity

0 Emer A fatal exception occurs on the device. The system is unable to function
gency properly and must be restarted. For example, the device is restarted due to
program exceptions or memory usage errors are detected.
1 Alert A serious exception occurs on the device, which requires immediate
actions. For example, the memory usage of the device reaches the upper
threshold.
2 Critic A critical exception occurs on the device, which needs to be handled and

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Product Description 11 Operation and Maintenance

Lev Seve Description


el rity
al analyzed. For example, the memory usage exceeds the alarm threshold; the
temperature exceeds the alarm threshold; and Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD) detects that a device is unreachable or detects error
messages generated by the local device.
3 Error Improper operation is performed or abnormal process occurs on the device,
which does not affect subsequent services but requires attention and cause
analysis. For example, users enter incorrect commands or passwords; error
protocol packets are received by other devices.
4 Warn An abnormality that may cause the device to malfunction occurs on the
ing device, which requires attention. For example, a routing process is disabled
by the user; BFD detects packet loss; and error protocol packets are
detected.
5 Notic A key operation is performed to keep the device running normally. For
e example, the user runs the shutdown command on the interface, a neighbor
is discovered, and the protocol state machine changes status.
6 Infor A routine operation is performed. For example, the user runs a display
matio command.
nal
7 Debu A routine operation is performed, which requires no action.
gging

The information center supports 10 channels, of which channels 0 through 5 each have a
default channel name. By default, the six channels correspond to six directions in which
information is output. The log information on the CF card is output to log files through
Channel 9 by default. This means that a total of seven default output directions are supported.
When multiple log hosts are configured, you can configure log information to be output to
different log hosts through one channel or multiple channels. For example, you can configure
some log information to be output to a log host through Channel 2 (loghost), and some log
information to a log host through Channel 6. In addition, you can change the name of Channel
6 to implement the desired channel management.
The NE40E stores all alarms in a log file, and provides the CF card to store the log file. How
long the alarms can be stored depends on the number of the alarms. Generally, the alarms can
be stored for months.

11.4 HGMP
The NE40E supports the Huawei Group Management Protocol (HGMP). HGMP is a cluster
management protocol developed by Huawei.
HGMP is used to group Layer 2 devices that are connected to the NE40E into a unified
management domain, that is, a cluster. HGMP supports automatic collection of network
topologies and provides integrated maintenance and management channels. In this manner, a
cluster uses only one IP address for external communications, simplifying device management
and saving IP addresses.

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Product Description 11 Operation and Maintenance

11.5 System Service and Status Tracking


The NE40E provides the following functions for tracking system services and status:
Monitors the change of the state machine of routing protocols.
Monitors the change of the state machine of MPLS LDP.
Monitors the change of the state machine of a VPN.
Monitors the types of protocol packets sent by the forwarding engine to the control plane
and displays detailed information about packets by enabling debugging.
Detects and counts the statistics on malformed packets.
Supports HGMP.
Displays a notification when the processing of abnormality starts.
Collects the statistics on the resources used by each feature.

11.6 System Test and Diagnosis


The NE40E supports the debugging of running services, including online recording of key
events, packet processing, packet parsing, and status switching of services at specified time,
which serves as powerful support for device commissioning and networking. Debugging can
be enabled or disabled through the console interface for specific service (a specific routing
protocol) or specific interface (information about a routing protocol on a specific interface).
The NE40E provides the system-based trace function to detect and diagnose running software,
online recording of important events such as task switchover and interruption, queue reading
and writing, and system abnormality. If the system is restarted after a fault occurs, the NE40E
can read trace information that functions as a reference for fault location. Trace can be
enabled and disabled through commands on the console interface.
In addition, the NE40E supports real-time query about CPU usage of the MPU and LPU.
Debugging and trace information provided by the NE40E is classified into different levels.
Sensitive information with different levels can be output to different destinations as
configured. For example, information can be output to the console interface, Syslog server, or
SNMP agent to trigger traps.

11.7 NQA
The NE40E supports Network Quality Analysis (NQA).NQA measures the performance of
different protocols running on the network. In that case, carriers can collect the operation
index of networks in real time, such as:
Total delay of the HTTP
Delay in TCP connection
Delay in DNS resolution
File transmission speed
Delay in FTP connection
DNS resolution error rate.

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Product Description 11 Operation and Maintenance

Taking control of these indexes, carriers can provide network services of different levels
and charge differently. NQA is also an effective tool for diagnosing and locating a
network fault.
NQA supports the following functions:
PWE3 traceroute
Multicast ping
Multicast traceroute
Traceroute function through DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB
Ping/UDP/TCP/SNMP functions through DISMAN-PING-MIB
CE-ping (ping the host from a VPLS PW)
VPLS MAC ping and VPLS MAC trace
VPLS MAC purge and VPLS MAC populate
LSP ping, LSP tracerout, and MPLS jitter
Verification of DNS functions through DISMAN-NSLOOKUP-MIB
NMS management over all NQA functions through NQA-MIB
Transmission of consecutive 3000 simulated voice packets in one test
Minimum transmission intervals at 10 ms
NQA for multiple next hops in packet redirection

11.8 In-Service Debugging


The NE40E provides port mirroring to map specific traffic to a certain monitoring interface.
In this case, in-service debugging can be performed for the advanced maintenance engineers
to debug and analyze the operation status of the network.

11.9 Upgrade Features


In-Service Upgrade
The NE40E supports in-service software upgrade. At the same time, the NE40E provides
online patching for the system software. You can upgrade only the features that need to be
improved.

One-Command System Upgrade


The upgrade process of the NE40E is optimized. You can use one command to complete the
upgrading. Thus, you can save time. During the upgrading process, the progress is displayed.
After the upgrading is complete, you can view the results.

Software Version Rollback


During the upgrading process, if the system fails to start by using the new system software,
the system software in the last successful startup is adopted.

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Product Description 11 Operation and Maintenance

The rollback function provided by the NE40E prevents the services from being affected by
the failure in system upgrade.

11.10 License
With the variation of the NE40E software functions and higher ratio of software cost
occupying the overall cost, the current service mode cannot satisfy the development
requirements of customers and carriers.
Common users need to reduce the purchase cost.
Upgrade and expansion users need to effectively control the capacity and functions.
To satisfy the requirements of different users, the NE40E needs to implement the flexible
authorization to service modules.
For the authorization control of service modules, the NE40E provides the License
authorization management platform . Through the License authorization mode:
Common users can purchase service modules as required and reduce the purchase cost.
Upgrade and expansion users can expand the capacity, and support and maintain the
functions by applying for a new License.

11.11 Other Operation and Maintenance Features


The NE40E supports the following configuration features in addition to the preceding
features:
Provides hierarchical commands to prevent unauthorized users from logging in to a
device.
Users can type in a question mark "?" to obtain online help.
Provides detailed debugging information to diagnose network faults.
Provides DosKey-like functions to run a history command.
Provides command line descriptors for partial match of keywords not conflicting with
keywords of other command lines. For example, you can enter "disp" for the display
command.

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Product Description 12 NMS

12 NMS

SNMP
The NE40E supports device operation and management by the network management station
through SNMP.
The NE40E supports SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3.
SNMPv1
SNMPv1 supports community name-based and MIB view-based access control.
SNMPv2c
SNMPv2c supports community name-based and MIB view-based access control.
SNMPv3
SNMPv3 inherits the basic functions of SNMPv2c, defines a management frame, and
introduces a User-based Security Model (USM) to provide a more secure access control
mechanism for users.
SNMPv3 supports user groups, user group-based access control, user-based access
control, and authentication and encryption mechanisms.

NMS
The NE40E adopts Huawei iManager U2000 network management system. The U2000
improves its management capability, scalability, and usability to construct a unified and
customer-oriented next-generation NMS.
Unified and Abundant NBIs
Unified NBIs enable the U2000 to manage transport equipment, access equipment, IP
equipment.
Abundant NBIs (XML, CORBA, SNMP, TLI, TEXT, and Customer OSS Test) address
the needs for OSS integration.
Unified Network Management
The U2000 manages transport equipment, access equipment, IP equipment in a unified
manner.
In addition, the U2000 manages end-to-end (E2E) services. The services include MSTP,
WDM, Microwave, PTN, ATN, CX, Router, and Switch services.

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Product Description 12 NMS

The U2000 is also capable of managing third-party equipment by obtaining equipment


information directly through IP and SNMP protocols. Third-party equipment
management includes:
Topology management: Third-party NEs can be added to the U2000 and then
displayed in the topology view. The system also supports manually creating links and
automatically discovering IP links for these third-party NEs.
Resource management: Users can view manufacturer information, IP addresses, and
interfaces of third-party NEs.
Alarm management: Users can manage alarms in compliance with the IETF RFC
standards for third-party NEs.
Performance management: Users can perform routine and real-time performance
statistics collection for interfaces on third-party NEs.
Report management: The U2000 provides traffic reports for interfaces on third-party
NEs.
Multiple Operating Systems
The U2000 was developed based on Huawei's integrated management application
platform (iMAP). The U2000 supports Sun workstations, PC servers, Sybase databases,
SQL Server databases, Solaris, Windows, and SUSE Linux operating systems (OSs).
Leading Scalable NMS Architecture
By adopting the mature and widely-used client/server (C/S) architecture, the U2000
supports distributed and hierarchical database systems, service processing systems, and
client application systems. Modularized architecture is scalable so that the U2000 meets
the management requirements of complex and large-scale networks
Visualized Management
Service supervision
Visualized trails
Service deployment
Object relationship
Network-wide clock

LLDP
The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a Layer 2 protocol defined in IEEE 802.1ab.
LLDP specifies that the status information is stored on all interfaces and the device can send
its status to the neighbor stations. The interfaces can also send information about changes in
the status to the neighbor stations as required. The neighbor stations then store the received
information in the standard SNMP MIB. The NMS can search for Layer 2 information in the
MIB. As specified in the IEEE 802.1ab standard, the NMS can also discover unreasonable
Layer 2 configurations based on information provided by LLDP.
When LLDP runs on the devices, the NMS can obtain Layer 2 information about all the
devices to which it connects and detailed network topology information. This is helpful to the
rapid expansion of the network and acquirement of detailed network topologies and changes.
LLDP also helps discover unreasonable configurations on networks and reports the
configurations to the NMS. This removes incorrect configurations in time.

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

A Acronyms and Abbreviations

A
AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
AAL5 ATM Adaptation Layer 5
AC Access Controller
ACL Access Control List
AF Assured Forwarding
ANSI American National Standard Institute
AP Access Point
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ASBR Autonomous System Boundary Router
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUX Auxiliary (port)

B
BE Best-Effort
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
BGP4 BGP Version 4
BoD Bandwidth on Demand

C
CAR Committed Access Rate
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CE Customer Edge

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol


COPS Common Open Policy Service
CoS Class of Service
CPU Center Processing Unit
CR-LDP Constrained Route - Label Distribution Protocol

D
DAA Destination Address Accounting
DC Direct Current
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS Domain Name Server
DS Differentiated Services

E
EACL Enhanced Access Control List
EF Expedited Forwarding
EMC EElectroMagnetic Compatibility

F
FCC Fast Channel Change
FE Fast Ethernet
FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class
FIB Forward Information Base
FIFO First In First Out
FR Frame Relay
FTP File Transfer Protocol

G
GE Gigabit Ethernet
GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation
GTS Generic Traffic Shaping

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

HA High availablity
HDLC High level Data Link Control
HTTP Hyper Text Transport Protocol

I
iVSE Integrated Value-added Service Engine
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
IDC Internet Data Center
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol
IP Internet Protocol
IPoA IP Over ATM
IPTN IP Telephony Network
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
IPv4 IP version 4
IPv6 IP version 6
IPX Internet Packet Exchange
IS-IS Intermedia System-Intermedia System;
ISP Interim inter-switch Signaling Protocol
ITU International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
Standardization Sector

L
L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
LAN Local Area Network
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LCP Link Control Protocol
LDP Label Distribution Protocol
LER Label switching Edge Router
LPU Line Processing Unit
LSP Label Switched Path

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

LSR Label Switch Router


M
MAC Media Access Control
MBGP Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol
MD5 Message Digest 5
MIB Management Information Base
MP Multilink PPP
MPLS Multi-protocol Label Switch;
MSDP Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
MSTP Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MTU Maximum Transmission Unit

N
NAT Network Address Translation
NLS Network Layer Signaling
NP Network Processor
NTP Network Time Protocol
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory

O
OSPF Open Shortest Path First

P
PAP Password Authentication Protocol
PBB Provider Backbone Bridge
PE Provider Edge
PFE Packet Forwarding Engine
PIC Parallel Interference Cancellation
PIM-DM Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode
PIM-SM Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode
POP Point Of Presence

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

POS Packet Over SDH/SONET


PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PQ Priority Queue
PT Protocol Transfer
PVC Permanent Virtual Channel

Q
QoE Quality of Experience
QoS Quality of Service

R
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial in User Service
RAM Random-Access Memory
RED Random Early Detection
RFC Requirement for Comments
RH Relative Humidity
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RMON Remote Monitoring
ROM Read Only Memory
RP Rendezvous Point
RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol
RSVP-TE RSVP-Traffic Engineering

S
SAP Service Advertising Protocol
SCSR Self-Contained Standing Routing
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SFU Switch Fabric Unit
SLA Service Level Agreement
SNAP SubNet Attachment Point
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SONET Synchronous Optical Network

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

SP Strict Priority
SPI4 SDH Physical Interface
SSH Secure Shell
STM-16 SDH Transport Module -16
SVC Switching Virtual Connection

T
TCP Transfer Control Protocol
TE Traffic Engineering
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TM Traffic Manager
ToS Type of Service
TP Topology and Protection packet

U
UBR Unspecified Bit Rate
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UNI User Network Interface
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair

V
VBR-NRT Non-Real Time Variable Bit Rate
VBR-RT Real Time Variable Bit Rate
VC Virtual Circuit
VCI Virtual Channel Identifier
VDC Variable Dispersion Compensator
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VLL Virtual Leased Line
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service
VPN Virtual Private Network
VRP Versatile Routing Platform
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

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Product Description A Acronyms and Abbreviations

W
WAN Wide Area Network
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing
WRED Weighted Random Early Detection
WRR Weighted Round Robin

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