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NONRECREATIONOUTGRANTAPPLICATION

ARequestfortheUseoftheWatersofB.EverettJordanLaketo
DemonstratetheInSituEffectsofanAlgaecideandPhosphorous
LockingTechnologiesonAlgalConcentrations



Submittedbythe
NorthCarolinaDepartmentofEnvironmentalQuality
DivisionofWaterResources







October5,2017

NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

TableofContents
ApplicantInformationandPointsofContact...............................................................................................1
IntroductionandDescriptionoftheProposedAction..................................................................................2
PhaseI.......................................................................................................................................................2
DivisionofWaterResourcesSampling.................................................................................................2
ContractorSampling.............................................................................................................................5
PhaseII......................................................................................................................................................7
DivisionofWaterResourcesSampling.................................................................................................7
ContractorSampling.............................................................................................................................7
ApplicationofAlgaecide.......................................................................................................................7
ApplicationofPhosphorousLockingTechnology.................................................................................8
Purpose,Need,andObjective......................................................................................................................8
AlternativesConsidered..............................................................................................................................10
ApplicationofJustAlgaecideAlternative...........................................................................................10
ApplicationofJustPhosphorousLockingTechnologyAlternative.....................................................11
ApplicationofBothAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyAlternative(Preferred
Alternative).........................................................................................................................................11
NoActionAlternative..........................................................................................................................11
Justification.................................................................................................................................................11
ProjectDurationandTimeline....................................................................................................................12
ProjectLocation..........................................................................................................................................13
ProjectMethods.........................................................................................................................................13
AnticipatedImpacts....................................................................................................................................14
Topography.....................................................................................................................................14
Geology...........................................................................................................................................14
Soils.................................................................................................................................................14
Floodplains......................................................................................................................................14
SurfaceHydrology...........................................................................................................................14
WaterQuality..................................................................................................................................14
AirQuality.......................................................................................................................................15
Noise...............................................................................................................................................15
CulturalResources..........................................................................................................................15
ManagedLands...............................................................................................................................16
Aesthetics........................................................................................................................................16
HazardousWaste............................................................................................................................17
Vegetation.......................................................................................................................................18
FishandWildlife..............................................................................................................................18

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

Wetlands.........................................................................................................................................19
LandUse..........................................................................................................................................19
EndangeredandThreatenedSpecies.............................................................................................19
Transportation................................................................................................................................20
Recreation.......................................................................................................................................20
WaterSupplyandConservation.....................................................................................................21
EnergyNeeds..................................................................................................................................22
Safety..............................................................................................................................................22
RequiredPermitsandCertifications...........................................................................................................22
References..................................................................................................................................................24
Attachments................................................................................................................................................25
1SePROCorporationsJordanLakeWaterQualityRestoration20172018PilotProjectsummary,
datedMay3,2017............................................................................................................................26
2PortionofSessionLaw201757,AnActtoMakeAppropriationsforcurrentOperationsofState
Departments,Institutions,andAgencies,andforOtherPurposes(a.k.a.the20172018State
Budget),entitledInSituNutrientManagementStrategies..............................................................34
3NorthCarolinaDivisionofWaterResourcesSamplingPlan..............................................................36
4SePROCorporationSamplingPlan.....................................................................................................42
5JordanLakeWaterQualityRestorationPlan(August7,2017)..........................................................48
6PAK27AlgaecideProductlabel........................................................................................................52
7PAK27AlgaecideSafetyDataSheet(SDS).......................................................................................55
8PAK27AlgaecideEPARegistrationundertheFederalInsecticide,Fungicide,andRodenticideAct
(FIFRA)...............................................................................................................................................69
9PAK27AlgaecideTechnicalDataSheet............................................................................................81
10PhoslockProductlabel...................................................................................................................86
11PhoslockSafetyDataSheet(SDS).................................................................................................89
12AnOverviewofPhoslockandUseinAquaticEnvironments......................................................102

ListofTables
Table1HistoricChlorophylla,TotalPhosphorous,pH,andTurbidityConcentrationsintheMorgan
CreekArm................................................................................................................................................9
Table2FederallyListedThreatenedandEndangeredSpeciesinChathamCounty,NC..........................20
Table3SummaryofAnticipatedImpacts..................................................................................................23

ListofFigures
Figure1NCDivisionofWaterResourcesWaterQualitySamplingSites...................................................4
Figure2ProposedSePROSamplingSites...................................................................................................6
Figure3ProposedProjectTimeLineBasedontheSePROCorporationProposal....................................12
Figure4ProposedProjectArea.................................................................................................................13
Figure5PhoslockBeingAppliedtoSurfaceWaters...............................................................................17
Figure6PAK27BeingAppliedtoSurfaceWaters...................................................................................17

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

ApplicantInformationandPointsofContact
Applicant:
JayZimmerman
NCDepartmentofEnvironmentalQuality,DivisionofWaterResources
1611MailServiceCenter
Raleigh,NC276991611
Jay.Zimmerman@ncdenr.gov
9197079027

Grantee:
StateofNorthCarolina

AdditionalPointofContact:
NCDivisionofWaterResourcesProjectPointsofContact:

LindaCulpepper
NCDepartmentofEnvironmentalQuality,DivisionofWaterResources
1611MailServiceCenter
Raleigh,NC276991611
Linda.Culpepper@ncdenr.gov
9197079014

DavidWainwright
NCDepartmentofEnvironmentalQuality,DivisionofWaterResources
1611MailServiceCenter
Raleigh,NC276991611
David.Wainwright@ncdenr.gov
9197079045

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

IntroductionandDescriptionoftheProposedAction
The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ or Department), Division of Water
Resources(DWR)isproposingtoundertakeaprojectwithinthewatersofB.EverettJordanLake.The
projectisbeingproposedasademonstrationprojectwhichwillincludetheapplicationofanalgaecide
and phosphorous locking technology. The DWR will enter into a contract with a contractor for the
applicationofalgaecideandphosphorouslockingtechnology(phosphorouslockingchemical).Althougha
contractorhasnotbeenselectedbytheDWRatthistime,inresponsetothetothelegislationdirecting
thestudytheSePROCorporationhassubmittedaprojectproposal,samplingplan,andadditionaldetails
totheDWR.Fordiscussionpurposes,detailsoftheproposal(Attachment1)andothersubmittalsare
providedthroughouttheapplication.Theprojectwilldeterminetheeffectivenessofusingacombination
ofalgaecideandphosphorouslockingtechnologytoreducechlorophyllalevelsintheproposedproject
area,theMorganCreekArmofB.E.JordanLake.Chlorophyllalevelsintheprojectareaandotherareas
ofJordanLakehavechronicallyexceededthestatecriteriaof40g/L.

Theproposedprojectwillbedividedintotwophases.PhaseIwillinvolvewaterqualitysamplingbythe
DWR.TheDWRhasseveralhistoricalwaterqualitymonitoringstationsinandneartheprojectareaat
whichdatawillcontinuetobecollected.Additionalsamplingsitestofurtherbolsterwaterqualitydata
fortheprojecthavebeenestablished.Itisexpectedthatthecontractorwillcollectwaterqualitysamples
in and around the project area to better determine quantities and application rates of algaecide and
phosphorous locking chemicals required to meet project objectives as well as application schedules.
AlgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalswillbeappliedaspartofPhaseIIandwaterqualitysampling
bytheDWRwillcontinueinordertodeterminetheefficacyofanyalgaecideandphosphorouslocking
chemical applications. It is expected that the contractor will continue sampling to determine what
treatmentswillbenecessaryandatwhatratesaswellastodeterminetheefficacyoftreatments.

PhaseI
Phase I will include water quality sampling regimes by the DWR and the contractor. The DWR began
samplingfor theproposedprojectinlateAugust2017.Itisexpected thatsampling performedbythe
contractorwouldbeginassoonaspossibleafterallnecessarycontractsareinplace.

DivisionofWaterResourcesSampling
For Phase I sampling, the DWRs Water Sciences Section (WSS) has implemented a sampling regime
designedtofocusprimarilyonbackgrounddata.PerNCGeneralAssembly(NCGA)SessionLaw201757
(seeAttachment2),theDWRmustbeginanytestingorsamplingactivitiesrequiredtosupportpermit
applicationsandapprovalsforthedemonstrationprojectbySeptember1,2017.Tosatisfythisdeadline,
theDWRbeganprojectrelatedwaterqualitysamplinginmidAugust2017.

DatacollectedbytheDWRwillbeusedtoestablishbaselineconditionsfortheproject.Samplingwilloccur
at least once a month during Phase I. Samples are being collected throughout the water column with
certainsamplesbeingtakenfromthephoticzoneandnearthebottom.AcopyoftheDWRsamplingplan
isincludedasAttachment3.

Samplingwillincludethefollowingparameters:

DissolvedOxygen

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

pH
Conductivity
Temperature
Nutrients
Chlorophylla
Turbidity
Metals
TotalSuspendedSolids
SettleableSolids
AlgalToxins
SedimentMetals
BenthicMacroinvertebrateCommunityStructure
AquaticToxicity
PhytoplanktonCommunityStructureandDensity

Basedonfunding,staffconstraints,andtime,theDWRwouldalsoliketosamplefor:

FishCommunity(inpartnershipwithNCWRC)
Zooplankton
SedimentToxicology(inpartnershipwithNCSU)
Measuresedimentdepthinapplicationareaandoutsideapplicationareatodeterminepotential
movementandsettlementofthephosphorouslockingchemical
WholeEffluentToxicity(WET)Testtodetermineshorttermperoxideeffectsduringapplication
ofchosenalgaecide

Samplingwilloccuratsevenlocations.Tobetterdeterminetheeffectsoftheapplicationofanyalgaecide
and phosphorous locking chemical, not all sampling sites are located within the project area. A map
showingthesevensamplingsitesisincludedasFigure1.

Twosites(CPF086CUPSandCPF086C)willbelocatedwithintheMorganCreekArm.Datafromthesesites
willbeconsideredbackgrounddataandwillbecomparedtodatacollectedatthesesitesduringPhaseII
whenalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalsareapplied.

Twoothersites(CPF081A1BandCPF081A1C)willbelocatedwithintheNewHopeCreekArm.Previous
datacollectedbytheWSShasshownthatthesetwositesactasastatisticallyacceptablesurrogatefor
thetwositeslocatedwithintheMorganCreekArm.Datafromthesetwositeswillbeusedtodetermine
whatwouldbeexpectedtonaturallyoccurintheMorganCreekArmifalgaecideandphosphorouslocking
chemicalswerenotappliedduringPhaseII.

Threesites(CPF086D,CPF086F,andCPF086G)willbelocateddownstreamofMorganCreekArmandthe
NewHopeCreekArmonthemainstem.OnesiteislocatedneartheconfluenceoftheMorganCreekArm
andNewHopeCreekArm.ThetwomostdownstreamsitesarelocatedoneithersideoftheFarrington
RoadBridge.Althoughitisbelievedthatanyeffectsfromalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemical
willbeprimarilycontainedwithintheproposedprojectarea,thesethreesiteswillbeusedtoassessany
potentialdownstreameffectstheapplicationofalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalwillhave,
shouldanyoccur.

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

Figure1NCDivisionofWaterResourcesWaterQualitySamplingSites

CPF086CUPS
CPF081A1B

CPF086C

CPF081A1C

CPF086D

CPF086F

CPF086G

Legend
DWR Sample Site
Proposed Project Area

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

ContractorSampling
ItisexpectedthatthecontractorwillperformwaterqualitysamplingduringPhaseI.Samplingwouldbe
necessary to determine background conditions and determine the frequency and concentrations of
algaecide and phosphorous locking chemical applications required to meet project objectives during
Phase II. Since a contractor has not been selected at this time, specific sampling information is not
currentlyavailable.Itisexpectedthatthecontractorwillhavedifferentobjectivesandrequiredifferent
dataandinformationthanthatoftheDWRandwillthereforewanttodeveloptheirownsamplingregime.

Althoughacontractorhasnotbeenselectedatthistime,theSePROCorporationhassubmitteda
proposalfortheprojecttotheDWRwhichincludedasamplingplan.TheSePROsamplingplanis
discussedbelowandisincludedasAttachment4.

WhileSePROwouldcollectwaterqualitydataforbackgroundpurposes,thesamplingwouldalsobeused
to determine the frequency and concentrations of algaecide and phosphorous locking chemical
applicationsrequiredtomeetprojectobjectivesduringPhaseII.

SePRO proposes using a sampling and analysis program known as SeSCRIPT. SeSCRIPT is an analytical
laboratoryservicesprogramprovidedbySePROwhichprovidesacomprehensivesuiteofanalyticaland
treatmentprescriptionservicefortheassessmentandmanagementofbothwaterqualityandalgae.The
analysis incorporates USEPA analytical methods and site specific prescription services for improved
managementofalgaeandwaterquality(SePROCorporation,2017)

Under the proposal, samples would be collected monthly or twice monthly. Twice monthly sampling
wouldinclude:

Turbidity
Chlorophylla
PhytoplanktonCommunityStructureandDensity
AlgalToxins
pH
DissolvedOxygen
Temperature

MonthlySamplingwouldinclude:

TotalPhosphorous
OrthoPhosphorus
TotalKjeldahlNitrogen(TKN)
Nitrate
Nitrite
Alkalinity
Hardness

Additionally,SePROwouldconductaonetimehydroacousticsurveyoftheproposedprojectarea.The
surveywouldbeexpectedtolast12days,andoccursometimebetweenSeptemberandDecember2017.
SePROwouldalsoconducttwosedimentandphosphorousfractioningstudies.Datawouldbeusedto

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

determine the various phosphorous fractions and assess nutrient reflux. Results would be used in
finalizingthetreatmentapplicationsinPhaseII.

SePROwouldestablishatotalof28sitesresultinginanextensivesamplingnetwork.Twentysiteswould
belocatedwithintheprojectarea;anadditionaleightwouldbelocatedwithintheNewHopeCreekArm.
Waterqualitysampleswouldbecollectedattwentysites.Eightsiteswouldbededicatedtosediment
sampling. Locations of proposed SePRO sampling sites are presented in Figure 2. A copy of SePROs
proposed sampling plan is included as Attachment 4 with additional sampling details provided in
Attachment5.
Figure2ProposedSePROSamplingSites

Legend
Water Qualiuty and Sediment Sample
Water Quality Sample
Sediment Sample
Proposed PAK27 Algaecide Application Area
Proposed PAK27 and Phoslock Application Area

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

PhaseII
PhaseIIisplannedtobeginimmediatelyafterPhaseI,anticipatedtobegininJuly2018withadditional
waterqualitysamplingbytheDWRandthecontractor.PhaseIIwillalsoincludetheapplicationofan
algaecideandphosphorouslockingchemical,forwhichvariousapprovalswillberequired.Basedonthe
anticipatedtimerequiredtoobtainallnecessaryapprovals,theDWRbelievesalgaecideandphosphorous
lockingchemicalapplicationscouldbegininthespringof2019.Applicationsofalgaecideandphosphorous
locking chemical would ideally occur during the algal growing season which, in the project area, is
generallyconsideredAprilOctober.

DivisionofWaterResourcesSampling
TheDWRwillcontinuetosampleforthesameparametersatthesamesamplingsitesdiscussedpreviously
forPhaseIoftheproject.However,samplingfrequencywillincreasefromonceamonthtoatleasttwice
a month, depending upon the contractors algaecide and phosphorous locking chemical application
schedules.SamplingwillcontinueforthedurationofPhaseII.Datawillbeusedtodeterminetheefficacy
ofthealgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemical.

ContractorSampling
Itisanticipatedthatsamplingwillneedtocontinuetodeterminetherateandtimingofalgaecideand
phosphorouslockingchemicalapplications.Sinceacontractorhasnotbeenselectedatthistime,sampling
informationisnotcurrentlyavailable.

TheSePROproposalwouldcontinuesamplingforthesameparametersatthesamesitesasthoseinPhase
I.WaterqualitydatacollectedbySePROduringPhaseIIwouldbeusedtoimplementanActionThreshold
Approach(ATA).Rateandtimingofalgaecideapplicationswillbedeterminedonanongoingbasis,and
would only be applied in quantities and at times necessary to maintain project objectives. If action
thresholdsareexceeded,asdeterminedbysamplingresults,thenanappropriateapplicationofalgaecide
wouldbeapplied.

ApplicationofAlgaecide
Since a contractor has not yet been selected, the DWR is not certain which algaecide will be used.
However,duetowaterqualityconcerns,theDWRwillnotallowacopperbasedalgaecidetobeused;
therefore,aperoxidebasedalgaecideorothernoncopperbasedalgaecidewouldbeselected.TheSePRO
proposalwouldusePAK27algaecide.PAK27isaperoxidebasedalgaecide(activeingredientsodium
carbonateperoxyhydrate).Itcanbeusedasbothaselectiveandbroadspectrumalgaecide,designedto
control sensitive green algae and many cyanobacteria/bluegreen algae. It is NSF/ANSI Standard 60
CertifiedforuseindrinkingwateratmaximumlabeledratesandisOrganicMaterialsReviewsInstitute
(OMRI) certified for organic use. It is USEPA registered as an algaecide/algaestat (SePRO Corporation,
2017).

It is anticipated that the contractor will perform water quality monitoring throughout Phase II to
determinewhen,where,andhowmuchalgaecidewillneedtobeappliedtomeetandmaintainproject
objectives.TheSePROproposalwouldapplyalgaecideovertheentire750acreprojectarea(seeFigure
3).Becauseacontractorhasnotbeenselected,thenumberofapplicationsrequiredandapplicationrates
arenotknownatthistimebutwouldbedeterminedthroughcontinuedwaterqualitysampling.

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

UndertheSePROproposal,PAK27wouldbeappliedintheprojectareauptoeighttimes.Applications
wouldtakeplaceoverasingleday,butmaytakelongerdependingonweather.AccordingtotheSePRO,
the cumulative quantity of PAK27 necessary for a project such as what is being proposed would not
exceed254metrictons(280U.S.tonsor559,974pounds)(personalcommunication,2017).Theproduct
label,SafetyDataSheet,USEPAFIFRARegistration,andTechnicalDataSheetforPAK27algaecidehave
beenincludedasAttachments6,7,8,and9,respectively,forreferencepurposes.

Anyalgaecideappliedaspartoftheproposedprojectistohelplowerchlorophyllaconcentrationswithin
theprojectarea.ItisexpectedthatanyproductwouldbedeliveredbytrucktotheFarringtonPointBoat
Rampneartheprojectareawhereitwillbeloadedontoaboat(s)forapplication.Productwouldbemixed
withambientlakewaterbeforebeingsprayedasaslurryontothewatersurfacebehindaboat(s).

ApplicationofPhosphorousLockingTechnology
In conjunction with an algaecide, a phosphorous locking chemical will also be included as part of the
proposedproject.Sinceacontractorhasnotbeenselectedyet,itisunknownwhatphosphorouslocking
chemical would be used. However, the SePRO proposal would use Phoslock phosphorous locking
technology,whichwouldmeettherequirementssetforthbytheSessionLaw201757.Phoslockwould
beappliedtotheupper300acresoftheprojectareaasshowninFigure2.

Phoslock is a patented phosphorous locking or binding material developed by the Commonwealth


ScientificandIndustrialResearchOrganization,anAustraliannationalscienceagencyandwasfirstused
in the United States in 2010 in California. Phoslock contains a fivepercent lanthanum (a naturally
occurringearthelement)embeddedwithinaclaymatrix,producedbyapatentedionexchangeprocess
where lanthanum ions displace sodium ions within the clay matrix. The formulation process absorbs
lanthanumintoanontoxiccarriersuchthatthelanthanumretainsitscapacitytobindphosphatewhen
appliedtoanaquaticenvironmentandresultsinanontoxicmineralthatbecomesaninertcomponent
ofthesedimentoncesettled(SePROCorporation,2011).Itactsbypermanentlybindingwithfreereactive
phosphorous in the water column quickly after application and then settles to the bottom of the
waterbody. After settling on the bottom, lanthanum LaPO4.nH2O (Rhabdophane) continues to filter
phosphorous by binding free reactive phosphorous from the sediment where phosphorous binding
continuesuntilallbindingsitesarefull.ThebindingofphosphoroustoPhoslockispermanent(SePRO
Corporation,2017),soonceabsorbed,phosphorousisnotrereleasedbackintothewatercolumn.The
typicalapplicationrateislessthan150mg/L(408pounds/acrefoot)(SePROCorporation,2011).According
toSePRO,foraprojectsuchastheonebeingproposed,itwouldrequireacumulativeapplicationnotto
exceed325metrictons(358U.S.tonsor716,502pounds)(personalcommunication,2017).Theproduct
label and Material Safety Data Sheet for Phoslock have been included as Attachments 10 and 11,
respectively,forreferencepurposes.

ItisexpectedthatanyproductusedbyacontractorwouldbedeliveredbytrucktotheFarringtonRoad
BoatRampneartheprojectareawhereitwillbeloadedontoaboat(s).Productwouldbemixedwith
ambientlakewaterbeforebeingsprayedasaslurryontothewatersurfacebehindaboat(s).

Purpose,Need,andObjective
The Morgan Creek Arm of B.E. Jordan Lake has been listed on the States 303(d) list for excessive
chlorophyll a concentrations since 2004, and remains on the 2014 303(d) list (the most recently

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

approved).OnSeptember20,2007,theUSEPAapprovedaTMDLforB.E.JordanLakethatismeantto
address total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations and thereby chlorophyll concentrations. An
addendumtothe2007TMDLwasapprovedbytheUSEPAinApril2014forexcessivepHandturbidity
concentrationsresultingfromalgalgrowth.AsshowninTable1,theDWRs2016waterqualitysampling
results in Morgan Creek showed a mean chlorophyll a concentration of 50.8g/L and a 71.4 percent
exceedancerateofthe40g/L.TurbidityandpHconcentrationscontinuetoexceedStatecriteriaaswell.
DespitetheTMDLandtheamendment,chlorophylla,turbidity,andpHconcentrationsremainhighinthe
MorganCreekArm.Ifsuccessful,theproposedactionwillassistinreducingchlorophyllaconcentrations
aswellasphosphorous,turbidity,andpHconcentrations.

Table1HistoricChlorophylla,TotalPhosphorous,pH,andTurbidityConcentrationsintheMorganCreekArm

2009
2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2016
Calculation

Chlorophylla Concentration(g/L)
Mean 89.0 54.0 54.0 55.0 50.0 62.0 63.8 50.8 59.8
Minimum 20.0 22.0 12.0 35.0 24.0 20.0 32.0 12.0 12.0
Maximum 129.0 98.0 110.0 82.0 73.0 100.0 116.0 84.0 129.0
n 9 17 17 17 16 17 17 17 127
n>40g/L 7 10 10 13 10 15 13 10 88
%Exceedance * 59.0% 59.0% 76.0% 63.0% 88.0% 76.5% 71.4% 69.3%
TotalPhosphorousConcentration(mg/L)
Mean 0.14 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.10
Minimum 0.09 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.00
Maximum 0.18 0.15 0.20 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.20
n 9 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 88
pH(S.U.)
Mean 8.00 8.20 8.10 8.00 7.80 8.00 8.30 8.20 8.1
Minimum 7.20 7.10 7.00 7.10 6.30 7.20 5.30 7.00 5.3
Maximum 9.00 9.10 9.20 9.40 9.40 9.10 9.30 9.50 9.5
n 9 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 88
n>9.0S.U. 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 1 17
%Exceedance * 6.0% 12.0% 12.0% 12.0% 12.0% 23.5% 7.1% 19.3%
Turbidity(NTU)
Mean 33.30 20.00 19.00 19.00 18.00 21.00 20.50 17.70 21.1
Minimum 16.00 8.90 6.40 9.40 8.40 12.00 12.00 7.90 6.4
Maximum 45.00 39.00 32.00 40.00 27.00 34.00 40.00 33.00 45.0
n 9 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 88
n>25NTU 7 5 4 2 2 4 4 3 31
%Exceedance * 29.0% 24.0% 12.0% 12.0% 24.0% 23.5% 21.4% 35.2%
*Exceedancepercentagewasnotcalculatedduetothenumberofsamplestaken
Source:http://deq.nc.gov/about/divisions/waterresources/waterresourcesdata/waterscienceshome
page/intensivesurveybranch/fallsjordanlakesmonitoring
Thepurposeoftheproposedactionistodetermineifacombinationofanalgaecideandphosphorous
lockingchemicalcanbeusedtoeffectivelyreduceandmaintaintheconcentrationofchlorophyllainthe
projectareabelow40g/L,maintainpHlevelsbetween6.09.0S.U.,andreduceturbiditylevelsbelow

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

25.0NTUforthedurationofthealgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalapplications.Theresultsof
thestudywillalsobeusedtodeterminethefeasibilityandscalabilityoftreatingthewholelakeinasimilar
mannerinthefuture.

TheneedoftheproposedactionistoreduceandmaintainchlorophyllaconcentrationsbelowtheState
waterqualitycriteriaof40g/L,decreaseturbiditybelow25NTU,andreducepHlevelstobetween6.0
9.0S.U.inordertomaintainwaterqualityandmeettherequirementsoftheTMDLandtheamendment.

Oneobjectiveistoreachandmaintainchlorophyllaconcentrationswhichareconsistentlybelow40g/L
during the algaecide and phosphorous locking chemical application period. This target aligns with the
TMDLthat hasbeenapprovedbythe USEPAin2007.While theStatedoes nothavenutrientcriteria,
another objective is to reduce the available phosphorous that corresponds with a consistent 40g/L
chlorophyllaconcentration.SinceincreasedturbidityandpHlevelsarelinkedtoexcessivealgalgrowth,
theprojectalsoaimstoreduceandmaintainturbiditylevelsbelowtheStatecriteriaof25NTUandpH
between6.09.0S.U.

ThesurfacewatersoftheMorganCreekArmarecurrentlyclassifiedbytheStateasWSIV(WaterSupply
IV);NSW(nutrientsensitivewaters),CA(criticalarea).Thisdesignationmakesthiswatersuitableforall
ClassCuses,meaningthewatershallbeprotectedforsecondaryrecreation,fishing,aquaticlifeincluding
propagationandsurvival,andwildlife.InadditiontotheStatedesignatedusesintheMorganCreekArm,
theUSACEhastheirownsetofCongressionallyauthorizeduses,whicharefloodcontrol,recreation,water
supply,waterquality,andfishandwildlifeenhancement.Tobesuccessful,theprojectshallnotinterfere
inanywaywithStatedesignatedorCongressionallyauthorizedusesofMorganCreekorthelakeitself.

AlternativesConsidered
Fouralternativeswereconsideredfortheproposedaction:

1. ApplicationofJustAlgaecideAlternative
2. ApplicationofJustPhosphorousLockingTechnologyAlternative
3. Application of Both Algaecide and Phosphorous Locking Technology Alternative (Preferred
Alternative)
4. NoActionAlternative

ApplicationofJustAlgaecideAlternative
Thisalternativeincludestheapplicationofjustanalgaecide.Theapplicationofthealgaecideintheproject
areawouldlowertheconcentrationofchlorophyllatothetargeted40g/L.Thereductioninalgaeshould
alsolowerpHandturbidityconcentrations.Thequantityofalgaecidethatwouldbeneededtoachieve
andmaintainchlorophyllaconcentrationsbelow40g/Lwouldbedeterminedbytheresultsofthewater
qualitysamplingperformedinPhaseIandPhaseII,butwouldbemuchgreaterthantheconcurrentuse
of a phosphorous locking material with the algaecide. The increase in algaecide required for this
alternative would also increase the expense of the project. Due to the large increase of algaecide
necessarytomeetthepurposeandneedoftheprojectandassociatedcosts,thisisnotthepreferred
alternative.

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

ApplicationofJustPhosphorousLockingTechnologyAlternative
Thisalternativeincludestheapplicationofaphosphorouslockingchemicalonlyandwouldnotinclude
theapplicationofanyalgaecide.Thiswouldaddressthechlorophyllconcentrationsindirectlybydepriving
cyanobacteriaofanecessarynutrientrequiredforgrowth.Theamountofphosphorouslockingchemical
requiredtoachievechlorophyllaconcentrationsatorbelow40g/Lwouldbeconsiderablyhigherifnot
used in conjunction with an algaecide, and would significantly increase the cost of the project. Actual
applicationrateswouldbedeterminedthroughwaterqualitysamplingeffortsoccurringduringPhaseI
andPhaseII.Duetotheincreasedquantityofphosphorouslockingtechnologymaterialandtheassociated
costs,thisisnotthepreferredalternative.

Application of Both Algaecide and Phosphorous Locking Technology Alternative (Preferred


Alternative)
Thisalternativewouldincludeconcurrentapplicationsofanalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemical.
This alternative would address chlorophyll a concentrations by first reducing cyanobacteria
concentrationswithapplicationsofanalgaecide.Onceconcentrationshavebeenreduced,applications
of phosphorous locking chemical would help keep the concentrations down by reducing available
phosphorous necessary for regrowth. Subsequent applications of the algaecide would aim to keep
chlorophyll concentrations below the target 40g/L. The reduction in algae would also lower pH and
turbidityconcentrations.Thistwochemical,balancedapproachwouldrequirelessofeachchemicalover
applyingthemindividually.Theactualapplicationratesandtimeswouldbedeterminedusingtheresults
ofthewaterqualitymonitoringperformedinPhasesIandII.Sincethequantityofeachmaterialrequired
isreduced,thefinancialcostofimplementationwouldalsobereducedoverasinglechemicalalternative.

Controllingbothconcentrationsofcyanobacteriaandavailablephosphoroussimultaneouslyisthemost
effective and efficient way to obtain project objectives over using just a single chemical approach.
Additionally,thefinancialcostwouldbesignificantlylessthanthesinglechemicalalternatives.Forthese
reasons,thecombinationofanalgaecideandphosphorouslockingmaterialisthepreferredalternative.

NoActionAlternative
The no action alternative would not apply any algaecide or phosphorous locking chemical within the
project area. With the TMDL in place, it is assumed that the 40g/L target would eventually be met;
however,itcouldtakemanyyearsperhapsdecadestoreachthisgoalonapermanentbasis.Basedon
thehistoricaldatapresentedinTable1,itisdoubtfulthatunderexistingconditionsconcentrationswould
achievethetarget40g/Linthereasonablyforeseeablefuture;therefore,thepurposeandneedofthe
projectwouldnotbemet.Thereductionofchlorophyllacouldbeachievedquickershouldsuspended
TMDLBMPsorotherprogramsbeimplemented;however,itisuncertainwhich,ifany,wouldorcouldbe
implemented.Sinceitisnotlikelythatthegoalsoftheprojectwouldbemetinthereasonablyforeseeable
future,thisisnotthepreferredalternative.

Justification
DuetothewaterqualityimpairmentsinJordanLake,theNCGeneralAssembly(NCGA)inSessionLaw
201757 has mandated the NCDEQ study alternative technologies for insitu approaches to nutrient
management in Falls and Jordan Lakes (see Attachment 2). This study shall include algaecide and

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

phosphorouslockingtechnologiesthathavebeencertifiedbytheUSEPAforuseindrinkingwatersources.
The Morgan Creek Arm has been chosen as the proposed project area because it is believed that the
available funding ($1.3 million) will allow treatment of an area that size, the fact that the DWR has
establishedsamplesitesinandaroundtheMorganCreekArmandthereforehaslongtermhistoricaldata,
andhistoricaldatahasshownthattheNewHopeCreekArmisasuitablesurrogatefortheMorganCreek
Armandcanthereforeactasabaselineduringtheproject.

TheotheralternativespecifiedinSessionLaw201757,FallsLake,isalsoaUSACEmanagedlakeandis
subjecttothesameapprovalsandpermitsastheprojectareaandotherareasofJordanLake.

ProjectDurationandTimeline
A contractor has not been selected as of this time, therefore it would be difficult to present a
comprehensivetimeline.However,SePROintheirproposalhasprovidedenoughinformationtoestablish
a project timeline, but would be subject to change based on various factors, mainly receiving all final
approvalsandpermits.BasedontheproposalandDWRsamplingefforts,theprojectwouldendDecember
2019, with a project duration of 28 months. An anticipated timeline based on the SePRO proposal is
presentedinFigure3.

PhaseIwasstartedinAugust2017whenwaterqualitysamplingbytheDWRbeganandwouldlastuntil
approximatelyJune30,2018(10months).SePROsampling,oranysamplingbyacontractor,wouldbegin
shortlyafteracontractisinplace.

PhaseIIwouldbeginaroundJuly1,2018andendapproximatelyDecember2019(18months).PAK27
andPhoslockapplicationswillbepartofPhaseII,butwontcommencepriortoallfinalapprovalsbeing
received. Ideally, PAK applications would occur between March and December 2019 and Phoslock
applicationswouldoccurbetweenMarchandMay2019.

Sinceanoutgrantorotherapprovalswouldnotberequiredforwaterqualitysampling,anytemporary
licenseandoutgrantrequestsrequiredbytheUSACEwouldbefortheestimatedtenmonths(March2019
December2019)necessarytoapplyalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicals.
Figure3ProposedProjectTimeLineBasedontheSePROCorporationProposal

2017 2018 2019 2020


March

March
Sept.

Sept.

Sept.
May

May
Aug.

Oct.
Nov.

Aug.

Oct.
Nov.

Aug.

Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

Feb.

Apr.

Dec.

Dec.
June

Feb.

Apr.

June

Feb.
July

July
Jan.

Jan.

Jan.

PhaseI BaselineWaterQualitySampling
DWR

BaselineWQSampling
PhaseII
WQSamplingforTreatmentEfficacy
PhaseI BaselineWaterQualitySampling
SePRO

WaterQualitySamplingforTreatmentSpecifics
PhaseII PAK27Application
Phoslock

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

ProjectLocation
AsshowninFigure4,theproposedprojectareawillbewithintheapproximately750acresoftheMorgan
CreekArmofB.E.JordanLake,inthenorthwestportionofthelake.
Figure4ProposedProjectArea

Arm
reek
an C
OVERVIEW Morg

ke
La
d an
or
J
E.
B.

Legend

Proposed Project Area


ProjectMethods
WaterqualitysampleswillbecollectedbyboththeDWRandthecontractor.Sampleswillbecollectedby
boat(s)launchedfromtheFarringtonPointBoatRamp,whichisincloseproximitytotheprojectarea.The
DWRwilluseautomatedsamplerstocollectcertainsamplesonanhourlybasis.Sampleswillbecollected
throughoutthedurationoftheproposedactionproposedtobeSeptember2017toDecember2019.
Samplefrequencywillbemonthlyortwiceamonth,dependingupontheparameter.

The DWR contractor is expected to collect water quality samples and will apply an algaecide and
phosphorouslockingchemicalbyboat.Algaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalswilllikelybeapplied
bymixingthechemicalwithambientlakewaterandsprayingtheslurryontosurfacewatersfromtheback
ofaboat(s).

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

AnticipatedImpacts
Listedbelowaretheanticipatedimpactsfromtheproject.Formostresources,theproposedactionwould
havenoorveryminimalimpact.AsummaryofanticipatedimpactsisincludedasTable3.

Topography
Noconstructionorlanddisturbingactivitywilloccurasaresultofthisproject.Neithertheproposedaction
northenoactionalternativewouldnegativelyaffectorchangetopography.

Geology
Neithertheproposedactionnorthenoactionalternativewouldnegativelyaffectorchangethegeology.

Soils
Noconstructionorlanddisturbingactivitywilloccurasaresultofthisproject.Neithertheproposedaction
northenoactionalternativewouldnegativelyaffectorchangesoils.

Floodplains
The proposed action would not affect or change floodplains. Neither the proposed action nor the no
actionalternativewouldnegativelyaffectfloodplains.

SurfaceHydrology
Neither the proposed action nor the no action alternative would negatively affect or change surface
hydrology.

WaterQuality
Sinceonepurposeandneedoftheprojectistoimprovewaterquality,theproposedactionwouldhave
aneffectonwaterquality.Theproposedactionisexpectedtoimprovewaterqualitywithintheproposed
projectarea.Thenoactionalternativewouldalsobeexpectedtoimprovewaterqualitywithintheproject
area; however, historical data shows it would not take place nearly as quickly as implementing the
proposedaction.

Thepurposeoftheproposedactionistodecreasechlorophylla,pH,andturbidityconcentrations.This
willimprovewaterqualityfromtheStateperspective.Theapplicationofanalgaecidewillimprovewater
qualitybyreducingtheabundanceandoccurrenceofcyanobacteriawithintheprojectarea,whichwould
thenbeexpectedtoproduceclearerwater.Thiswouldbeperceivedasapositiveimpactonwaterquality.

Thereductionofgenerallyundesirable,cyanotoxinproducingbacteriacouldleadtoasituationwhere
morepreferredalgaeareallowedtogrow.Thiswouldbeapositiveimpacttotheecosystemasmore
desirablealgaeareavailableforgrazing.

Theuseofanalgaecidewillresultinalargeexpirationofcyanobacteria,manyspeciesofwhichproduce
atoxin.MicrocystiniscapableofbeingproducedbymostofthecyanobacteriaintheJordanLakesamples
(e.g. Pseudanabaena, Anabaenopsis). It has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor to fish, altering
activity of enzymes critical to steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Physiological stress and
damagedgonadtissue(lesions,cellapoptosis,andtesticularultrastructurealteration)infishhavebeen
documented following microcystin exposure. Saxitoxin and BMAA (MetylaminoLalanine) are
neurotoxins potentiallyproducedbyCylindrospermopsis;these canaccumulate upthefoodchainand
causeriskstowildlifeandhumans.However,withtherapidbindingandsettlingofboththenuisance

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

algaeandassociatedalgaecide,minimaltransferofcontaminants(e.g.turbidityandorganicmatter)is
expectedtooccurtodownstreamareaswiththeproposedaction.Clarityandsettlingoccursrapidly,and
withaproactivetreatmentapproach,strategicuserates,nomeasurablereleaseofcellcomponents(e.g.
toxins,taste/odorcompounds)hasbeenobservedshorttermtothewatercolumn(SePROCorporation,
2014).Potentialtoxinsandtaste/odorcompoundsareoftensettledtosedimentswherebiodegradation
canoccurmorerapidly.Additionally,thisoffsetsthepotentialhighernaturalsenescencereleaserates
thatwilllikelyoccurinunmanagedscenarios.Followinganeffectivetreatment,totaltoxinlevels(i.e.in
cellandinwaterfractions)canonlydecrease,andtotaltoxiniswhereriskscomefromandwhatregulated
guidelinesarebasedon(SePROresponsetoDWRprojectrelatedquestions).

TheaveragedepthoftheMorganCreekArmisshallow.Depthsaretypicallylessthantenfeetdeep;most
oftheareaappearstobefivefeetorlessindepth,especiallyintheupperportions(iBoating,2017and
WSSobservations).Duetheshallowdepthoftheprojectarea,itisquitepossiblethatthephosphorous
lockingchemicalmaterialcouldbecomeresuspendedduringsignificantadverseweathereventsresulting
fromveryhighwindsand/orsignificantflows.Sucheventswouldlikelyresuspendnativesedimentsas
well, both of which could be moved outside of the project area and settle elsewhere in the lake. Any
suspendedphosphorouslockingchemicalwouldlikelyresettlequickly.

Theproposedactionwillnotincreaseorremovewaterfromwithintheprojectareaorlake,andtherefore
willnotaffectdownstreamflowquantities.

Therewillbesomeeffectonwaterqualityasaresultoftheproposedaction.Theproposedactionhasthe
potential to lead to several beneficial impacts to water quality. Any effects to water quality would be
temporaryandwouldbeexpectedtodiminishaftertheapplicationsofalgaecideandphosphorouslocking
chemicalscease.Thenoactionalternativewouldalsohaveapositiveeffectonwaterquality,butwould
take an undetermined length of time to improve water quality compared to that expected from the
proposedproject.

AirQuality
Alltheproposedalternativeswouldrequiretheuseofdeliveryvehicles,boats,andvariousothervehicles.
Itisexpectedthatthesewouldbefueledbypetroleumbasedproducts,whichwouldcreateexhaust.The
effectstoairqualityfromtheproposedactionwouldbeintermittent,negligible,andimmeasurableona
largescale.Thenoactionalternativewouldhavenoeffectonairquality.

Noise
Therewouldminimaladditionaltruckandvehicletrafficassociatedwiththeprojectduetodeliveryof
product and boats used to perform water quality monitoring and apply the product. However, these
associatednoiselevelswouldnotbeabovewhatoccursduetorecreationalboatandgeneraltrafficduring
atypicalday.Theproposedactionwouldnotsignificantlyaffectorchangenoiseintheprojectareaand
allactivitieswouldoccurduringdaylighthours.Thenoactionalternativewouldnotresultinanyadditional
noiseimpacts.

CulturalResources
Theproposedactionwillnotaffectanyterrestrialculturalresources.SamplinginPhaseIandIIincludes
some sediment coring sampling to determine the amount of phosphorous bound in the sediment.
Althoughsedimentgrabswillnotbedeep,typicallythreetofourinchesdeep,thereisthepossibilitythat
shallowsubmergedarcheologicalsitescouldbeimpacted.Tomitigateanypotentialimpactstosites,both

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

theDWRandthecontractorwillworkcloselywiththeUSACEtoestablishsitesandcollectsamplesaway
fromknownsubmergedarcheologicalsites.Shoulditbediscoveredthatasubmergedarcheologicalsite
isbeingdisturbed,activitieswillceaseimmediatelyandtheUSACEwillbenotified.

Bycollectingsedimentandothersamplesawayfromknownsubmergedarcheologicalsites,noimpacts
toculturalresourcesareexpected.Thenoactionalternativewouldnotaffectculturalresources.

ManagedLands
All water quality sampling and algaecide and phosphorous locking chemical applications would be
performedbyboat.BoatswouldbelaunchedanddeliveryofproductwouldoccurattheFarringtonPoint
BoatRamp(whichisincloseproximitytotheprojectarea),apubliclyaccessibleboatrampownedbythe
USACE but managed by the NCWRC. Product will be offloaded from truck and onto boat(s) perhaps
requiringaforklift.Whileitisunlikelytheboatrampandparkingareawillnotneedtobefullyclosed
duringthisprocess,someareasmaybetemporarilyinaccessibleduringdeliveryandproductapplication
days.Sincepubliclyaccessibleaccesswillbeutilized,accesstolandsurroundingtheproposedproject
area, including those managed by the USACE, Triangle Land Conservancy, and NC Wildlife Resources
Commissionwouldnotberequired.

Theapplicationofalgaecidecouldoccurinasingleday.Phosphorouslockingchemicalapplication(s)could
takemultipledays.Duetothis,onsitestorageofchemicalsmaybenecessary.Storagewouldlikelyconsist
ofasteelshippingtypecontainerormoveablepodtypecontainer.Anystoragecontainerusedwillbe
lockedwhennotinusetopreventunauthorizedaccess.Toreduceimpactstorampusage,thestorage
containercanbestoredinthecorneroftheparkinglotoranotheroutofthewayplacenearby.During
productdeliveries,aforkliftmayalsobestoredonsite.

Theproposedactionwillhaveatemporary,intermittentimpactattheFarringtonRoadBoatRampbut
willnotaffectothermanagedlands.Thenoactionalternativewouldnotaffectanyboatrampsorother
managedlands.

Aesthetics
Negligible, temporary effects on aesthetics will likely occur with the application of an algaecide and
phosphorouslockingchemical.Anyalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalwillbeappliedbyboat,
likelyasaslurry.Theslurryfromapplicationmaybevisibleonthesurfaceofthewaterasitisapplieduntil
it dissipates by mixing with ambient lake water. According to SePRO, Phoslock will dissipate and be
completely unnoticeable in the water column usually within a few hours of application (personal
communication, 2017). PAK27 are hardly visible on the water surface after application (personal
communication,2017).Anyvisualeffectsstemmingfromtheapplicationsaretemporaryandwouldoccur
onlyduringapplicationsofalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemical.Forreferencepurposes,images
ofPhoslockandPAK27beingappliedareprovidedasFigures5and6.

Additional impacts will likely occur within the project area after the application of an algaecide. The
purpose of an algaecide is to reduce green algae and many cyanobacteria/bluegreen algae within the
water column. When this reduction occurs, it should be expected that the water will become clearer.
Water clarity is expected to return to preapplication condition as the effects of algaecide and
phosphorouslockingchemicaldiminishandalgaebegintoregrow.Thelengthoftimewaterwouldremain
clearerandtowhatextentitwouldclearisdifficulttoestablishasmanyfactorswilldeterminethis.

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

Theproposedactionwillhavevarying,temporaryeffectsonaestheticswhichareexpectedtobemostly
positive.Thenoactionalternativewillhavenoeffectonaesthetics.
Figure5PhoslockBeingAppliedtoSurfaceWaters


PhotobySePROCorporation

Figure6PAK27BeingAppliedtoSurfaceWaters


PhotosbyAquaTechnex,LLC

HazardousWaste
Theproposedactionwouldnotaffectanyknownhazardouswastesites.

Somealgaecides,suchasPAK27,haveawastecodeofhazardouswaste(D001,Ignitablewaste).Unmixed
material,ifspilled,couldbeconsideredhazardouswaste.Anypotentialimpactswillbemitigatedthrough
properhandlingandapplication.Anyspillsofrawmaterialwillbecleanedupimmediatelyusingapproved
procedures; any leftover material will be will be removed from the project area, and handled and
disposedofproperlyaccordingtolabelinstructions.

Theproposedactionwillposeaveryminimalhazardousmaterialrisk;thenoactionalternativewillnot
resultintheintroductionofhazardousmaterials.Neithertheproposedactionorthenoactionalternative
willaffecthazardouswastesites.

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

Vegetation
Theproposedalternativewouldnothaveanimpactonterrestrialvegetationastheprojectwilloccur
withinthesurfacewatersoftheMorganCreekArm.

AmacrophytesurveyperformedbytheDWRstaffinOctober2013revealedtheabsenceofsubmersed
macrophytesintheMorganCreekArm(NCDWR,2014).SinceconditionswithintheMorganCreekArm
have generally remained unchanged since 2013, it is expected that very little submersed aquatic
vegetationgrowth,ifany,hasoccurredsincethesurvey.Shouldsubmersedmacrophytesbepresent,they
could potentially be negatively impacted by the application of a phosphorous locking chemical. Since
submersed macrophytes require nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, altering available
phosphorouscouldpotentiallyhaveanegativeeffectonsuchvegetationleadingtodecreasedgrowth.
Theextenttowhichadecreaseinavailablephosphorouswouldaffectsubmersedmacrophytegrowthis
unknown,butwouldlikelybeminimal.Sincetheapplicationofaphosphorouslockingchemicalwouldbe
shortterm,itwouldbeexpectedthatthesespecieswouldrecovertopreapplicationdensitieswithina
reasonablelengthoftimewhentheapplicationstopsandavailablephosphorousconcentrationsreturn
topreapplicationlevels.

Thesurveyalsorevealedsomeemergentspecies,whichincludedwaterwillow(Justiciaamericana)and
buttonbush(Cephalanthusoccidentalis).Aswiththesubmersedmacrophytes,nitrogenandphosphorous
are required for growth, so a decrease in available phosphorous could have a negative impact on
emergent species. The extent to which a decrease in available phosphorous would affect emergent
macrophytegrowthisunknown,butwouldlikelybenegligible.Sincetheapplicationofaphosphorous
lockingchemicalwouldbeshortterm,itshouldbeexpectedthatthesespecieswouldbeabletorecover
topreapplicationdensitieswhentheapplicationstopsandavailablephosphorousconcentrationsreturn
topreapplicationlevels.

Thereductionofgreenalgaeandcyanobacteria/bluegreenalgaeisexpectedtomakethewatercolumn
clearer.Aclearerwatercolumncouldallowforincreasedgrowthofanyexistingmacrophytesassunlight
would be able to penetrate deeper into the water column. The introduction of new submerged
macrophytesisalsopossible.Ifthisweretooccur,itispossiblethatmacrophytegrowthcouldinclude
exoticornonnativespecies.Ifthisweretohappenitmaybenecessarytoimplementaplantoeradicate
orcontrolthem.

Theproposedactionwill nothaveanyeffectonterrestrialvegetationorisit expectedto significantly


affectemergentorsubmersedvegetationintheprojectarea.Anyimpactstoemergentorsubmersed
vegetation due to implementing the proposed action would be short term in nature. The no action
alternativewouldnotresultinanyimpactstosubmergedoremergentaquaticvegetation.

FishandWildlife
Itislikelythattheuseofanalgaecidewillhaveaneffectonfishpopulationsalthoughtheextentisnot
fullyknown.

Fryandfingerlingsofvariousfishspecieswilloftenfeedonzooplankton.Whilezooplanktonfeedonalgae,
cyanobacteriaareoftennotparticularlypalatabletozooplanktonduetotheirsizeandpotentialeffects
fromtoxinswheningested,althoughtheymaychoosetograzeoncyanobacteriaintheabsenceofother
foodsources(Haney,1987).Therefore,itisunlikelythatthereductionincyanobacteriawillaffectfish
throughadecreaseinzooplanktonpopulations.However,manyyoungfishalsograzecopepodswhich

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

commonlyfeedoncyanobacteria.Itisbelievedthattheuseofanalgaecidewillleadtoadecreasein
cyanobacteriaandwouldnegativelyimpactthecopepodfoodsourceforfryandfingerlings.Additionally,
the use of a hydrogen peroxide based algaecide will likely lead to direct mortality of copepods. It is,
therefore,verylikelythatfryandfingerlingswillbenegativelyimpacted.Largerfish,ifable,couldseek
otherareasofthelakewherefoodismoreabundantandthereforetheeffectsofanalgaecideonlarger
fish or the overall fish population is unknown. The extent of impacts an algaecide will have on
zooplankton, copepods, fry, fingerlings, juvenile, and adult fishes is difficult to predict as many yet
undetermined factors need to be considered (i.e. application rate, duration, interval, copepod grazing
rates, etc.). Should the project be allowed to proceed, the DWR has the intent to perform an aquatic
wholeeffluent toxicity (WET) on whatever algaecide is selected to better understand the effects on
copepodsandhencefishpopulations.TheDWRwouldalsoliketopartnerwiththeNCWRCtoperform
fishsurveysduringtheprojecttobetterunderstandtheeffectsonfishpopulationsandstructure.

Bioassaystudiesperformedontwofishspecies,Melanotaeniaduboulayi(Duboulaysrainbowfish)and
Oncorhynchusmykiss(rainbowtrout)indicatethatphosphorouslockingchemicalssuchasPhoslockdo
notexhibittoxiceffectsatlevelsthatwouldbeappliedintheprojectarea.Additionalstudiesshowthat
lanthanum,anactivecomponentinPhoslock,doesnotbioaccumulateinmuscleoffish.Itdoes,however,
accumulate in fish liver and hepatopancreas tissue. The study showed that once applications ceased,
concentrationsinfishliverandhepatopancreastissuereturnedtobaselineconcentrationswithinafew
months.Basedontheresultsofthestudy,humanswouldnotbeabletoingestnearenoughfishinone
daytoseetheeffectoflanthanumcontainedinaffectedfishtissue(Attachment12)

Theproposedactionwouldlikelyhaveaneffectonfishandwildlife.Anyreductionsin cyanobacteria,
zooplankton, and copepod populations will diminish after treatments end, and would therefore be
temporary in nature. Other wildlife that depend on fish as a food source may potentially be affected
throughadecreaseinafishpopulations,especiallyifadditionalfoodsourcesarenotreadilyavailableto
fillanyvoidcreatedbyadecreaseinfishpopulations,shouldavoidarise.Theuseofaphosphorouslocking
chemicalmayhaveatemporaryeffectonfishliverandhepatopancreastissue.Anyimpactsassociated
with a phosphorous locking chemical would be expected to be temporary in nature. The no action
alternativewouldnothaveaneffectonfishorwildlife.

Wetlands
Therearewetlandsinareasaroundtheproposedprojectarea.However,sincetheprojectwilltakeplace
withinthesurfacewatersofJordanLake,nowetlandswillbeaffectedbytheproposedactionortheno
actionalternative.

LandUse
Theproposedactionwouldnotresultinachangeinlanduse.Neithertheproposedactionnortheno
actionalternativewouldaffectorchangelanduse.

EndangeredandThreatenedSpecies
AccordingtotheNCNaturalHeritageProgram,therearefourfederallylistedspeciesinChathamCounty
(NCNHP,2017),whichfullycontainstheproposedprojectarea.Theresultsofthesearchareshownin
Table 2. The proposed action would not affect the Cape Fear shiner, redcockaded woodpecker or
harperella,asnoneofthehabitattypesarefoundwithintheproposedprojectarea.

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

Table2FederallyListedThreatenedandEndangeredSpeciesinChathamCounty,NC

Taxanomic Scientific Common


Group Name Name StateStatus FederalStatus Habitat Record
Matureforestsnearlarge
Baldand bodiesofwater(nesting);
Haliaeetus
Bird BaldEagle Threatened GoldenEagle rivers,lakes,andsounds Current
leucocephalus
ProtectionAct (foraging)[breedingevidence
only]
Freshwater Notropis CapeFear CapeFeardrainage(endemic
Endangered Endangered Current
Fish mekistocholas Shiner toNorthCarolina)
Matureopenpineforests,
Picoides Redcockaded
Bird Endangered Endangered mainlyinlongleafpine Historical
borealis Woodpecker
[breedingevidenceonly]
Vascular Ptilimnium
Harperella Endangered Endangered Rockyriverbeds Current
Plant nodosum
NCNaturalHeritageProgram,July2017;http://ncnhp.org/data/speciescommunitysearch
Aspreviouslydiscussed,thereisapossibilitythatfishpopulationscouldbeaffectedintheprojectarea
when cyanobacteria concentrations are decreased. Bald eagles are known to be nesting on lands
surroundingthelake,andfeedonfishwithinthelake.Whileitispossiblethatthisfoodsourceforbald
eagles could be diminished in the project area, relative to the size of Jordan Lake, the project area is
relativelysmall.Itshould therefore be expectedthatfishlargeenoughforeaglestoprey uponwould
migratetootherpartsofthelakeasnecessaryandthatbaldeaglesandotherpiscivorousbirdswould
forageinothernearbyunaffectedareasofthelake.

Itispossiblethattheproposedactioncouldnegativelyimpactbaldeagles,buttheeffectswouldlikelybe
minimalandimmeasurableashuntingbirdswouldlikelymovetoothernearbypartsofthelake.The
proposedactionwouldnothaveanyeffectonotherlistedspecies.Thenoactionalternativewouldnot
haveanyeffectonendangeredorthreatenedspecies.

Transportation
Theprojectwillrequiredeliveryofalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalproductstotheproject
sitebytruck.Boatswillbenecessaryforwaterqualitysamplingandproductapplications.However,these
tripswillnotbeasignificantfactorfortheoveralltransportationnetworkinandaroundtheprojectarea.
Nonewtransportationfacilitieswillberequiredorwouldbeexpectedotherwiseasaresultofthisproject.
Theeffectsontransportationfromtheproposedactionwouldbeinsignificantandimmeasurable.Theno
actionalternativewouldhavenoeffectontransportation.

Recreation
Theapplicationofanalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalmayhaveverytemporary,intermittent
effect on recreational activities during algaecide and phosphorous locking chemical applications.
However,accordingtoSePRO,therearenoinwaterrestrictionsduringorafterapplicationofPhoslock
orPAK27(personalcommunication,2017).Therefore,swimming,boating,fishing,andotherrecreational
activitiesintheprojectareawilllikelynotneedtoceaseorbedelayedasaresultoftheproposedaction.
Thecontractorshouldbeabletoworkaroundanyactivitiesbeingundertakenintheprojectareabythe
publicduringapplication.ShouldPAK27orPhoslockbeused,nolocationsorareaswithintheproject
areathatwouldneedtobeclosedorhavelimitedaccessduringtheproject(personalcommunication,
2017).

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NCDEQB.E.JordanLakeAlgaecideandPhosphorousLockingTechnologyDemonstrationProject

AsdiscussedintheManagedLandssection,duetoitsproximitytotheprojectarea,itislikelythatthe
contractorwouldusetheFarringtonPointBoatRampforlaunchingboatsandloadingproductonboats.
Activitieswillresultintemporaryaccessrestrictionstoportionsoftheboatramp,butwillnotcompletely
closetheboatramp.Theseinterruptionswouldbetemporaryandintermittent,beinglimitedonlytodays
ofproductdeliverandwhenapplicationsoccur.

TheproposedactionwillleadtotemporaryaccessclosurestooneoftheFarringtonPointBoatRamps
(otheronsiterampsshouldbeunaffected)butisnotexpectedtohaveanimpacttootherrecreational
activitiesorfacilities.Thenoactionalternativewouldnothaveanimpactonrecreation.

WaterSupplyandConservation
Water supply is a Congressionally authorized use of Jordan Lake. The Towns of Cary and Apex have a
drinking water intake in the east central part of the lake, supplying drinking water to approximately
300,000residents,mostlyontheeasternsideofthelake.TheTownshavecontractswithsevenotherlocal
municipalities and have a total withdrawal allocation of 63 MGD. The proposed project area is
approximatelysixmilesnorthoftheApex/Carywatertreatmentplantintake.Duetothisdistance,effects
fromtheproposedactiontotheintakearenotlikelytooccur.Nonetheless,SessionLaw201757requires
any algaecide or phosphorous locking technology used in the project to be USEPA certified for use in
drinking water sources (see Attachment 1). Therefore, the DWR would require the contractor use an
algaecideandphosphorouslockingchemicalthatareapprovedfor,andhavebeensuccessfullyusedin,
drinkingwaterreservoirssononegativeeffectswouldbeexpectedshouldtreatedwaterorchemicals
reachtheintake.

Sincephosphorouslockingchemicalsdonotdissolveinthewatercolumn,anyapplicationwillresultina
bottomsedimentationlayerasthechemicalsettlesandwillbeconsideredfillinthelake.Thissettledlayer
would be directly correlated to the amount of phosphorous locking chemical applied. Without a
contractorandspecificapplicationdetails,itisunknownhowmuchphosphorouslockingchemicalwould
berequiredtomeettheprojectobjectives.AccordingtoSePRO,theamountofPhoslockthatwouldbe
necessarytomeetprojectobjectiveswouldnotexceed325metrictons(358U.S.tonsor716,300pounds),
resultinginafillvolumeof386cubicyards.Ifthisquantityweretobeappliedover300acres,asproposed
bySePRO,andweretosettleevenly,alayerapproximately0.0096inchesthick(0.243mm)wouldexist
onthebottomandbeintegratedintothebottomsediments.Inperspective,thiswouldamountto0.2393
acrefeet, or 0.00017 percent of the lake volume (140,430 acrefeet at elevation 216 feet) or 0.0005
percentofthewatersupplyallocation(45,810acrefeet)ofthelake.

TherearecurrentlynoplansbytheStateofNorthCarolina(orSePRO)toremove(i.e.dredge)orotherwise
mitigateanyofthephosphorouslockingmaterialthatisappliedtothelake.Duetothecostinvolveditis
not anticipated that the contractor would be willing to remove or mitigate any phosphorous locking
materialapplied.Therefore,thesedimentlayercreatedbythesettlingofthismaterialwillbeapermanent
additiontothelake.

Theuseofaphosphorouslockingchemicalwouldhaveapermanentimpacttotheallocatedconservation
poolofthelakeintheformoffill.Theextentofthisimpactwilldirectlycorrelatetothequantityapplied,
whichhasyettobedetermined.Thenoactionalternativewouldnothaveaneffectonthewatersupply
orconservationofthelake.

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EnergyNeeds
Theenergyneedsoftheprojectwouldbeminimalandwouldbemostlyintheformofpetroleum.Gasoline
would be necessary to power the delivery trucks, vehicles, and boats. The energy needs would be
expectedtoberatherinsignificant.Thenoactionalternativewouldnotrequireanypetroleumorother
formofenergy.

Safety
Neitherthepreferredalternativenorthenoactionalternativewouldcreatenewsafetyconcerns.

RequiredPermitsandCertifications
Duetothenatureoftheprojectcertainpermitsandcertificationswillberequired.Theyare:

1. USACE404PermitrequiredforfillinJordanLake
2. NCDEQ401CertificationrequiredforfillinJordanLake
3. NCDEQNPDESPermitrequiredforapplicationofalgaecideandphosphorouslockingchemical

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Table3SummaryofAnticipatedImpacts

Alternative
Resource
Preferred NoAction
Noa dvers ei mpa cttotopogra phyi ntheprojects tudy Noa dvers ei mpa cttotopogra phyi nthe
Topogra phy
a rea . projects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttogeol ogyi ntheprojects tudy Noa dvers ei mpa cttogeol ogyi ntheproject
Geol ogy
a rea . s tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttos oi l s i ntheproject
Soi l s Noa dvers ei mpa cttos oi l s i ntheprojects tudya rea .
s tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttofl oodpl a i ns i ntheprojects tudy Noa dvers ei mpa cttofl oodpl a i ns i nthe
Fl oodpl a i ns
a rea . projects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttos urfa cehydrol ogyi ntheproject Noa dvers ei mpa cttos urfa cehydrol ogyi n
Surfa ceHydrol ogy
s tudya rea . theprojects tudya rea .
Tempora ry,mos tl ypos i ti vei mpa cts towa terqua l i tyi n Noa dvers ei mpa cttowa terqua l i tyi n
Wa terQua l i ty
theprojects tudya rea . projects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttoa i rqua l i tyi ntheprojects tudy Noa dvers ei mpa cttoa i rqua l i tyi nthe
Ai rQua l i ty
a rea . projects tudya rea .
Noa dvers enoi s ei mpa cts i nprojects tudy
Noi s e Noa dvers enoi s ei mpa cts i nprojects tudya rea .
a rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttocul tura l res ources i ntheproject Noa dvers ei mpa cttocul tura l res ources i n
Cul tura l Res ources
s tudya rea . theprojects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttoma na gedl a nds i ntheproject Noa dvers ei mpa cttoma na gedl a nds i n
Ma na gedLa nds
s tudya rea . theprojects tudya rea .
Noperma nenti mpa cts toa es theti cs i nprojects tudy
Noa dvers ei mpa cttoa es theti cs i nthe
Aes theti cs a rea .Wi l l ha vei nterni ttent,verytempora ryi mpa cts a t
projects tudya rea .
s urfa ceduri ngchemi ca l a ppl i ca ti ons .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttoha za rdous wa s tes i tes i nproject
Noa dvers ei mpa cttoha za rdous wa s te
Ha za rdous Wa s te s tudya rea .Mi nutepotenti a l forha za rdous wa s tei f
s i tes i ntheprojects tudya rea .
PAK27s pi l l eda ndnotcl ea nedupa ppropri a tel y.
Noi mpa cttoterres tri a l vegeta ti on;potenti a l mi nor, Noa dvers ei mpa cttovegeta ti oni nthe
Vegeta ti on
tempora ryi mpa cttoa qua ti cvegeta ti on projects tudya rea .
Wi l l l i kel yha ves omei mpa ctonfi s hpopul a ti ons ;ful l Noa dvers ei mpa cttofi s ha ndwi l dl i fei n
Fi s ha ndWi l dl i fe
extentcurrentl yunknown. theprojects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttowetl a nds i ntheprojects tudy Noa dvers ei mpa cttowetl a nds i nthe
Wetl a nds
a rea . projects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttol a ndus ei ntheprojects tudy Noa dvers ei mpa cttotra ns porta ti oni nthe
La ndUs e
a rea . projects tudya rea .
Enda ngereda nd Potenti a l mi ni ma l i mpa cttoenda ngereda nd Noa dvers ei mpa cttoenda ngereda nd
Threa tened threa teneds peci es coul doccuri ntheprojects tudy threa teneds peci es i ntheprojects tudy
Speci es a rea . a rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cts totheprojects tudya rea .
Noa dvers ei mpa cttol a ndus ei nthe
Tra ns porta ti on Addi ti ona l tra ffi crewui redforprojectwoul dbe
projects tudya rea .
immea s ura bl e.
Sometempora ry,i ntermi ttenti mpa cts a tboa tra mp; Noa dvers ei mpa cttorecrea ti oni nthe
Recrea ti on
noperma nenti mpa cts i nprojects tudya rea projects tudya rea .
Thea ppl i ca ti onofPhos l ockwi l l res ul ti na
Wa terSuppl ya nd Noa dvers ei mpa cttowa ters uppl ya nd
perma nentqua nti tyoffi l l bei nga ddedtotheproject
Cons erva ti on cons erva ti oni ntheprojects tudya rea .
s tudya rea .
Noa ddi ti ona l energyrequi rments bes i des thos e
EnergyNeeds neces s a ryforproductdel i very,a ppl i ca ti on,a ndwa ter Noa ddi ti ona l energyrequi rements .
qua l i tys a mpl i ng.
Nonews a fetyi mpa cts orconcerns i ntheprojects tudy Nonews a fetyconcerns i nprojects tudy
Sa fety
a rea . a rea .

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References
Haney,J.F.(1987).FieldStudiesonZooplanktonCyanobacteriaInteractions.NewZealandJournalof
MarineandFreshwaterResearch,21,167475.Retrievedfrom
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved
=0ahUKEwiX_7n0k8jVAhVMziYKHSqNCMoQFgg8MAM&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tandfonline.c
om%2Fdoi%2Fpdf%2F10.1080%2F00288330.1987.9516242&usg=AFQjCNEqD9IW_wuqOzzyIXzsr
A5WgieeVQ

iBoating.(2017,August1).GPSNauticalCharts.Retrievedfromgpsnauticalcharts.com:http://fishing
app.gpsnauticalcharts.com/iboatingfishingwebapp/fishingmarinecharts
navigation.html#13/35.8325/78.9969

NCDWR.(2014).ADemonstrationProjectShowingtheImpactofFloatingInLakeLongDistance
CirculatorsinB.E.JordanLake.Raleigh,NC:NCDENR.

NCNHP.(2017,August7).NorthCarolinaNaturalHeritageProgram.Retrievedfrom(ChathamCounty)
Species/CommunitySearch:http://www.ncnhp.org/data/speciescommunitysearch

personalcommunication.(2017,August7).ShaunHyde,SePROCorporation.

SePROCorporation.(2011).PhoslockPhoshorousLockingTechnologyAnOverviewofPhoslockand
UseinAquaticEnvironment.Carmel,IN:SePROCorporation.

SePROCorporation.(2014).ManagingTasteandOdorinDrinkingWaterbyControllingtheSource
Algae.Carmel,In.:SePROCorporation.

SePROCorporation.(2014).WaterQualityRestorationinLagunaNiguelLake.Carmel:SePRO
Corporation.Retrievedfrom
http://www.sepro.com/documents/Phoslock/CaseStudies/Phoslock%20Case%20Study%20
%20Laguna%20Niguel.pdf

SePROCorporation.(2014).WaterQualityRestorationofaPhosphorousImpairedFloridaLake.Carmel,
IN:SePROCorporation.

SePROCorporation.(2017,June29).SePROPhoslock.RetrievedfromSePROCorporation:
http://www.sepro.com/phoslock/

SePROCorporation.(2017,June39).SeProCorporationAboutUs.RetrievedfromSePROCorporation:
http://sepro.com/AboutUs.aspx

SePROCorporation.(2017,June29).SePROCorporationPAK27Algaecide.RetrievedfromPAK27
Algaecide:http://sepro.com/default.php?page=pak27

SePROCorporation.(2017,July13).SeSCRIPTAnalysis.RetrievedfromSePROCorporation:
http://www.sepro.com/default.php?page=sescript

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Attachments

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Attachment1

1SePROCorporationsJordanLakeWaterQualityRestoration20172018PilotProject
summary,datedMay3,2017

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Attachment2

2PortionofSessionLaw201757,AnActtoMakeAppropriationsforcurrent
OperationsofStateDepartments,Institutions,andAgencies,andforOther
Purposes(a.k.a.the20172018StateBudget),entitledInSituNutrient
ManagementStrategies

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Attachment3

3NorthCarolinaDivisionofWaterResourcesSamplingPlan

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Attachment4

4SePROCorporationSamplingPlan

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Attachment5

5JordanLakeWaterQualityRestorationPlan(August7,2017)

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Attachment6

6PAK27AlgaecideProductlabel

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Attachment7

7PAK27AlgaecideSafetyDataSheet(SDS)

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Attachment8

8PAK27AlgaecideEPARegistrationundertheFederalInsecticide,Fungicide,and
RodenticideAct(FIFRA)

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Attachment9

9PAK27AlgaecideTechnicalDataSheet

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Attachment10

10PhoslockProductlabel

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Attachment11

11PhoslockSafetyDataSheet(SDS)

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Attachment12

12AnOverviewofPhoslockandUseinAquaticEnvironments

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