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Operation of steam turbine is based upon the principle that the steam issuing from a
small opening attains a high velocity .this velocity attained during the expansion of the
steam depends on the initial and final heat contents of steam. The difference of the initial
and final heat contents represent the heat energy converted into kinetic energy.

 Classification of Steam turbines.

 According to the action of steam on moving blades, the steam turbines of two types
 Impulse turbines
 Reaction turbines
 Impulse turbines
In steam turbines, the steam expands completely in stationary nozzles, there being
no pressure drop over the moving blades or runner. In doing so, the steam attains a high
velocity and impinges against the blades fixed on the rotor periphery. This results in the
impulsive force on the moving blades which set the rotor rotating. The rotor may be built-up
rotor or integral rotor. A built up rotor consists of a forged steel shaft on which separate
forged steel discs are shrunk and keyed. In an integral rotor the wheels and shaft are formed
from one solid forging.
 Reaction turbine
In this turbine, the steam does not expand in nozzles but expand as flow over the rotor
blades, the blade will, therefore, act also as nozzle. The expansion of steam as it flows over the
blade is adiabatic; any friction losses between the steam and blades are converted into heat,
which, in turns will reheat the steam. The effect of this is to dry or superheat the steam as it
flows over the blades. Reaction turbines are characterised by a relatively low rpm.

 Commercial turbines use series combination of impulse and reaction type because
steam can be used more efficiently by using impulse and reaction blades on the same
 According to the type of flow of steam, the steam turbines used are two types
 Axial flow type
 Radial flow type
 Axial flow type
The steam flow over the blades in direction parallel to the axis of the wheel.
 Radial flow type
The blades are arranged radially so that the steam enters at the blade tip nearest
the axis of the wheel and flows towards the circumference.

 Depending upon whether the back pressure is below or above atmospheric pressure
steam turbines are of two types.
 Condensing turbines
 Non-condensing turbines

 Central -station turbines.

Turbines employed for driving alternators at synchronous speed usually 3000 rpm
And have capacities ranging from 16 to 1500 MW.
 Reheating turbines
Steam is return after partial expansion to the boiler for resuperheating and then
allowed to expand to back pressure.
 Superposed or Topping turbines
These are high pressure non-condensing turbines installed in low pressure steam
 Back pressure type steam turbines
Where process of heating steam is required at pressure these types of turbines are used,
which utilizes the pressure difference available between live steam and back pressure of the
process steam.
 bleeders or extraction Turbines
In such turbines part of steam leaves the turbine casing before the exhausted, for feed
water heating.
 Extraction –induction turbines
Such turbines have provisions for both removing and introducing steam into the
turbines at intermediate points.

 Steam nozzles
 Function:-its function is converting the heat energy of steam into Kinetic Energy. The
difference between the initial and final heat contents represents the heat energy
converted into Kinetic Energy.
 Working:- Nozzles develop a high velocity jet of steam for driving a steam turbines . This
is achieved by allowing the steam to expand from region of high pressure at inlet and
low pressure at outlet. With the expansion of steam through nozzle its velocity and
specific volume both increases.
 Types:-Depending upon its shape nozzle are of two types
 Convergent-divergent type
 Convergent type
In convergent divergent nozzle, x section decrease minimum it reaches the section
called nozzle throat and then it incrases as shown in second figure.

In the convergent type nozzle, the nozzle exit is the throat itself.
 Compounding of steam turbines
In single stage turbines steam expanded in single ring of nozzles from the boiler
Pressure down to the exhausted pressure, resulting in extremely high velocity. In such
turbines blade tips stress and disc function losses will very high resulting in poor efficiency.
Therefore compounding is necessary its gives reasonable blade tip speeds in turbines.
Compounding is of two types, velocity compounding in which the steam is expanded from
boiler pressure to condenser pressure in nozzles. And second is Pressure compounding where
Equivalent to the number of simple impulse stage is in series. The pressure drop occurring in
each stage is only a portion of total pressure drop.