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Thermal Physics

2 Thermal Physics
1. Simple kinetic molecular model of
matter
2. Thermal properties
3. Transfer of thermal energy

1. A swimmer climbs out of a swimming pool Bulb Bore


on a warm, dry day. Almost immediately A Thick glass Narrow
he begins to feel cool. B Thick glass Wide
Why is this ? C Thin glass Narrow
A. The water allows a convection current to D Thin glass wide
remove heat from his skin.
B. The water takes latent heat from his
body in order to evaporate 4. A glass jug is designed so that it does not
C. The water on his skin is a good break when boiling water is poured into it.
conductor of heat What sort of glass should be used ?
D. The water prevents infra-red radiation
from reaching his body

2. Ice at -10C is heated at a constant rate


until it is water at + 10C .
Which graph shows how the temperature
changes with time ?

5. A substance consists of particles that are


close together and moving past each
other at random. Te average speed of the
particles gradually increasing.
What best describes the substance ?
A. a liquid being boiled to form a gas
B. a liquid being heated
C. a solid being heated
D. a solid being melted to from a liquid

6. A liquid-in-glass thermometer consists of a


bulb containing a liquid. The liquid can
expand into a very thin capillary tube.

3. A clinical thermometer is designed to


respond quickly to a change in
temperature and to have a high sensitivity.
The liquid in the thermometer is replaced by
another liquid that expands more for the
same temperature rise.

The new thermometer will have


A. greater sensitivity and greater range
Which design features should the clinical B. greater sensitivity but less range
thermometer have ?

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Thermal Physics

C. the same sensitivity and the same needed to raise the temperature of a 2 Kg
range block by 20 0 C.
D. the same sensitivity but grater range What value for specific heat capacity is
given by these results ?
7. The diagram shows a vacuum flask and an A. 130 J/(kg C)
enlarged view of a section through the B. 520 J/(kg C)
flask wall. C. 52 000 J/(kg C)
D. 104 000 J/(kg C)

11. A person cannot unscrew the lid of a pot


of jam. He finds that the lid can be
unscrewed after it has been held under
hot, running water for a few seconds.

The main reason for the silvering is to reduce


heat transfer by
A. conduction only
B. radiation only
C. conduction and convection Why is this ?
D. conduction and radiation A. the air pressure in the jar falls
B. the glass expands
8. What factors increase the rate of C. the jam melts
evaporation of a liquid ? D. the lid expands

12. The diagram shows a thick copper plate


that is very hot. One side is black and the
other is shiny.
A student places her hands the same
distance from each side as shown.

9. Four mercury-in-glass thermometers are


made with different dimensions

Her left hand feels warmer than her right hand.


Which statement is the correct conclusion
from the experiment ?
A. the black side is the hotter than the
Which will have the greatest sensitivity ? shiny one
A. 10 cm long and bore 0.75 mm wide B. the black side radiates more heat
B. 15 cm long and bore 0.50 mm wide C. the shiny side radiates more heat
C. 25 cm long and bore 0.10 mm wide D. the shiny side is cooling down faster
D. 30 cm long and bore 0.25 mm wide than the black side

10. In an experiment to find the specific heat


capacity of a metal , is found that 5200 J is

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Thermal Physics

13. Some of the more energetic molecules in a liquid The change in shape occurs because
leave the surface , leaving the rest of the liquid A. a brass contracts more than invar
slightly cooler. B. brass expands when it cools down
What is the name given to this process ? C. invar and brass contract by equal
A. boiling amounts
B. condensation D. invar contracts more than brass
C. evaporation
D. freezing 18. Density changes are responsible for which
method of thermal energy transfer ?
14. A substance consists of particles that are close A. conduction only
together and moving past each other at random. B. convection only
The average speed of the partials is gradually C. radiation only
increasing. D. conduction, convection and
What best describes the substance ? radiation
A. a gas being heated
B. a liquid being heated 19. A liquid is heated.
C. a solid being heated Which statement is incorrect ?
D. a solid being melted A. the molecules expand
B. the molecules gain energy
15. Which thermometer is the best foe measuring C. the molecules move further apart
rapidly changing temperature ? D. the molecules move faster
A. a clinical thermometer
B. a liquid-in-glass thermometer 20. What describes the molecular structure of
C. a thermo couple a liquid ?
D. all thermometers are equally good

16. Some ice cubes are taken from a deep freeze


and placed in a metal container. The container is
heated at a constant rate and readings of
temperature and time are taken. The results are
recorded on a graph.
Which temperature corresponds to 0 C ?
21 A thermocouple thermometer uses a
voltmeter to measure the e.m.f generated
between two junctions. The junctions are at
temperatures t1 and t2. To calibrate the
thermometer , fixed points are needed.

17. The diagram show a bimetallic strip when it is at


room temperature after it has been cooled.

What are the values of t1 and t2 when the


thermometer is calibrated at the steam point
?

t1 t2
A 0 C 0 C
B 0 C 100 C
C 25 C 0 C
D 25 C 125 C

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Thermal Physics

21. What is the definition of heat capacity ? C. Fewer molecules are left in the liquid
A. the quantity of heat required to raise the D. Some of the most energetic molecules
temperature of an object through 1 C leave the liquid
B. the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 kg substance through 25. When ice melts to become water , which
1 C force must be overcome ?
C. the quantity of heat required to convert A. the attraction between electrons and the
an object from solid to liquid with out a nucleus
change in temperature B. the attraction between the atoms in the
D. the quantity of heat required to change 1 molecule
kg of substance from solid to liquid with C. the force between molecules
out a change in temperature D. the force of gravity

22. Fillings in teeth should made from a 26. A substance is heated in an enclosed space
material which until it becomes a gas
A. expands more than the tooth when After heater is removed , the temperature is
heated recorded in regular intervals . The graph
B. expands by the same amount as the plotted temperature against time graph.
tooth when heated
C. expands less then the tooth when
heated
D. does not expand when heated

23. A double –glazed window has two sheets


of glass separated by a layer of air.
Thermal energy is conducted through the
layer of the air. The amount of conduction
and convection varies with thickness of the
layer of air, as shown in the graph

What does the section PQ represents ?


A. boiling
B. condensing
C. melting
D. solidifying
Which thickness of air produces the smallest
energy transfer 27. A student is given a thermometer that reads 1
A. 0.5 cm because there is little C in pure melting ice and 101 C in pure
convection boiling water . She uses it to measure the
B. 1.0 cm because the total thermal temperature of some water before and after it
energy transfer is least is heated.
C. 1.5 cm because the total thermal
energy transfer is small and The increase in temperature of water
conduction is low calculated from her results is
D. 2.0 cm because there is little A. 1 C is too low
conduction B. Correct
C. 1 C is too high
24. A liquid evaporates rapidly. D. 2 C is too high
Why does it cool ?
A. Air molecules remove heat by 28. Fiber is used for home insulation in cold
contact with the liquid surface country, as shown in the diagram.
B. Energy is lost by convection currents

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Thermal Physics

Heat cannot easily escape through the ceiling


because the fiber
31. Assuming the temperature remains constant ,
A. traps air
which combination correctly describes the
B. is warm
volume and shape of a gas or liquid ?
C. is tightly packed
D. heats the roof space
Gas or Volume Shape
liquid
29. The diagram shows four similar cans. Each can
contains the same volume of water initially at 80 A Gas Fixed Not fixed
B Gas Not fixed Not fixed
C. After five minutes , which can will contain the
C Liquid Fixed fixed
coolest water ?
D liquid Not fixed fixed

32. An axle is too large to fit into the hole in a


wheel that is made of the same metal.

How can the axle be made to fit into the hole.


A. By cooling the axle alone
B. By cooling the wheel alone
C. By cooling both the axle and the wheel
D. By heating both the axle and the wheel

33. A 2 kg mass of copper is heated for 40 s by a


30. Which graph shows the relationship between the heater that produces 100 J/s.
pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas at The specific heat capacity of copper is 400
constant temperature ? J/(kg K)
What is the rise in temperature ?
A. 5K C. 20 K
B. 10K D. 50 K

34. In a vacuum flask , which methods of heat


transfer are prevented by the vacuum ?
A. conduction only
B. convection only
C. conduction and convection only
D. conduction ,convection and radiation

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Thermal Physics

35. A student has three sealed plastic bags. One C. Expands less than the hole in the tooth
bag is full of gas, one of liquid and one of solid. D. Does not expand when heated
The student squeezes each bag to see if it
changes shape, and warms each bag to see if 39. Hat energy is supplied at the same rate to 100
it expands. g of paraffin and to 100 g of water in similar
containers.
Why does the temperature of the paraffin rise
more quickly ?
A. the paraffin has a larger specific heat
capacity than water
B. the paraffin has a smaller specific heat
Which bag contains gas ? capacity than water
A. the one that changes shape easily C. the paraffin is less dense than water
and expands the least when heated D. the paraffin is more dense than water
B. the one that changes shape easily
and expands the most when heated 40. A teacher has a large tank of water in which
C. the one that is fixed in shape and he wants to set up a convection current.
expands the least when heated
D. the one that is fixed in shape and
expands the most when heated

36. The diagram shows a cross-section through a


rain-water puddle formed in a shallow hole in a
road surface.

Which of the following arrangements would do


this ?
Over a period of time air temperature , wind A. cooling at X C. heating at Y
speed and wind direction remain constant. B. cooling at Y D. heating at Z
What happens to the rate of evaporation of
water from the puddle ? 41. What will not affect the rate of evaporation
A. it decreases , because the surface area from the surface of a liquid ?
decreases A. Depth of the liquid
B. it increases, because the puddle gets B. Draughts above the surface of the liquid
shallower C. Surface area of the liquid
C. it increases , because the surface area D. Temperature of the liquid
decreases
D. it remains constant 42. What makes a thermometer sensitive to small
changes in temperature ?
37. A new liquid is tested to decide whether it is A. A bulb with a thin glass wall
suitable for use in a liquid-in-glass B. A shiny liquid in its bore
thermometer. C. A stem with a thick glass wall
It is found that the liquid does not expand D. A very narrow bore
uniformly with temperature.
What will be the effect of this on the scale of 43. A hot liquid is carefully poured into a beaker.
the thermometer? The graph shows how its temperature
A. it has a short range changes as it cools towards room
B. it is not linear temperature.
C. the markings are too close together
D. the marking are too far apart

38. The fillings for a hole in a tooth should be


made from a material that
A. Expands more than the hole in the tooth A.
B. Expands by the same amount as the
hole in the tooth

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Thermal Physics

Which processes are taking place at region X 47. What conditions of temperature and surface
? area would produce the most rapid
A. boiling and evaporation evaporation from a pool of water on a road
B. condensation only surface ?
C. evaporation only
D. solidification and evaporation Temperature Surface area
A High Large
44. The diagram shows a room seen from above. B High Small
It is cold outside the room. The room is heated C Low Large
by a small fire in the fireplace. D Low small

48. The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer


depends on the volume of the liquid used and
the diameter of the bore of the thermometer.
Which change will produce the greatest
increase in sensitivity ?

Volume of Bore diameter


liquid
A High Large
B High Small
C Low Large
D Low small
Where is most heat lost by convection ?
A. carpet 49. The energy required to change liquid water
B. chimney into water vapour at the same temperature is
C. glass window called latent heat of vaporization.
D. solid wall What does this energy do ?
A. increases the average separation of the
45. An experiment is carried out as shown in the water molecules
diagram. B. increases the average speed of the
water molecules
C. raises the temperature of the air near
the water
D. splits the water molecules into their
separate atoms

50. A 2 kW kettle containing boiling water is


placed on a balance. It is left there and
continues to boil for 5 minutes. The balance
reading changes by 0.2 kg.
Why does the ice take a long time to melt, What does this information give as a value for
even through the water at the top of the tube is the specific latent heat of vaporization of water
boiling ? ?
A. convection never occurs in water A. 2000 J/ kg
B. ice is a poor conductor of heat B. 3000 J/kg
C. the gauze prevents the energy reaching C. 50 000 J /kg
the ice D. 3 000 000 J /kg
D. water s a poor conductor of heat
51. The heat from the hot water in a metal radiator
46. What is a property of both liquids and gases ? passes through the metal and then spreads
A. they always fill their containers around the room ?
B. they are incompressible What are the main processes by which the
C. they can flow heat is transferred through the radiator and
D. they have molecules in fixed positions then spread around the room ?

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Thermal Physics

Through the Around the In which part of the curve is latent heat
Metal radiator Room released ?
A conduction conduction A. PQ C. RS
B conduction Convection B. QR D. ST
C Radiation Conduction
D Radiation convection 56. The diagram shows the design for an alarm.

52. Which of the following correctly compares the


forces between the molecules in steam, water
and ice ?
Weakest  strongest forces
forces
A ice steam water
B ice water steam
C steam water ice
The mercury pellet moves and completes the
D water steam ice
circuit.
Why does this happen ?
53. On a hot day , a drink in a bottle can be kept
cool by standing it in a bowl of water and
placing a wet cloth over it.

57. Water at the top of a hot-water tank is heated


and the water becomes hot. No water enters
Why is the drink kept cool ? or leaves the tank.
A. Hot air cannot escape from the bottle
B. The cloth conducts heat from the bottle
into the water
C. The drink cannot evaporate from the bottle
D. Water evaporating from the cloth cools the
drink

54. Which instrument is most suitable for


measuring a rapidly changing temperature ?
A. alcohol-in-glass thermometer
B. clinical thermometer
C. mercury-in-glass thermometer
D. thermocouple
Water at the bottom of the tank stays cold for
55. The graph shows the cooling curve of a hot
some time.
substance.
Why is this ?
A. cold water at the top of the tank falls to the
bottom
B. hot water at the top of the tank rises to the
top
C. water is a poor conductor of heat
D. the insulation is a poor conductor of heat

58. The diagram represents molecules in a liquid.


A and C are molecules in a liquid.

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Thermal Physics

B and D are molecules with a low amount of 62. A bar made of half wood and half copper has
energy. a piece of paper wrapped tightly round it.
Which molecule is most likely to be leaving the The bar is heated strongly at the center for a
liquid by evaporation ? short time , and the paper goes brown on one
side only.

Which side goes brown, and what does this


show about and copper ?
59. The size of a balloon increases when the
pressure inside it increases.
The balloon gets bigger when it is left in the
heat from the Sun.

63. The diagrams show part of a water-heating


system which is working by convection.
Which diagram shows the most likely flow of
Why does this happen ? water in the system ?
A. the air molecules inside the balloon all
move outwards when it is heated
B. the air molecules inside the balloon are
bigger when it is heated
C. the air molecules inside the balloon move
more quickly when it is heated
D. the number of air molecules inside the
balloon increases when it is heated

60. What must expand in order to show the


temperature rise in a mercury-in-glass
thermometer ?
A. the glass bulb
B. the glass stem
C. the mercury
D. the vacuum
64. When water evaporates , some molecules
61. The table shows the melting points and boiling escape ?
points of four substances. Which molecules escape ?
Which substance is a liquid at room A. the molecules at the bottom of the liquid
temperature of 20 C ? with less energy than others
B. the molecules at the bottom of the liquid
with more energy than others
C. the molecules at the surface with less
energy than others
D. the molecules at the surface with more
energy than others

65. Two metal boxes containing air are standing in


a room. Box X is on top of a heater. Box Y is
on a bench. The boxes are left for a long time.

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Thermal Physics

68. A person holds a glass beaker in one hand


and fills it quickly with hot water. It takes
several seconds before his hand starts to feel
the heat.
Why is there this delay ?
Which line in the table best describes the A. glass is a poor conductor of heat.
average speed of the molecules in the B. Glass is a good conductor of heat
containers ? C. water is a poor conductor of heat
D. water is agood conductor of heat

69. The diagram shows a heater used to heat a


tank of cold water.

66. The top of the mercury thread in a mercury-in-


glass thermometer reaches point X at 0C and
point Z at 100 C

What is the main process by which heat


moves through the water ?
A. conduction
B. convection
Where might it be at a temperature below the C. evaporation
ice-point ? D. radiation
A. point W
B. point X 70. A balloon is inflated in a cold room. When the
C. point Y room becomes much warmer , the balloon
D. point Z becomes larger.
How does the behaviour of the air molecules
67. The same quantity of heat energy is applied to in the balloon explain this ?
four different blocks. The temperature rise A. the molecules become larger
produce is shown on each block. B. the molecules evaporate
C. the molecules move more quickly
Which block has the highest thermal D. the molecules repel each other
capacity ?
71. A substance is heated at a steady rate. It
changes from a solid to a liquid, and then to a
gas.
The graph shows how its temperature
changes with time ?

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Thermal Physics

72. An engineer wants to fix a steel washer on to a Which thermometer reading changes and
steel rod. The rod is just too big to fit into the why ?
hole of the washer.

How can the engineer fit the washer onto the


rod ?
A. cool the washer and put it over the rod
B. cool the washer and rod to the same
temperature and push them together 75. Viewed through a microscope, very small
C. heat the rod and then place it in the hole partials can be seen moving with Brownian
D. heat the washer and place it over the rod motion.
Which line in the table is correct ?
73. An experiment is set up to find out which metal
is the best conductor of heat. Balls are stuck
with wax to rods made from different metals,
as shown in diagram X.
The rods are heated at one end. Some of the
balls fall off, leaving some as shown in
diagram Y.
Which lebelled metal is the best conductor of
heat ?
76. A measured mass of gas is placed in a
cylinder at atmospheric pressure and is then
slowly compressed.

The temperature of the gas does not change.


What happens to the pressure of the gas ?
A. it drops to zero
B. it decrease , but not to zero
C. it stays the same
D. it increases

77. The graph shows the change in temperature


of a material as it is heated.
Which part of the graph shows when the
material is boiling ?

74. Thermometer X is held above an ice cube and


thermometer Y is held the same distance
below the ice cube. After several minutes, the
reading on one thermometer changes. The ice
cube does not melt.

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Thermal Physics

How do the smoke particles move in Brownian


78. An experiment set up is shown . motion ?
A. all in the same direction
B. at random
C. in circles
D. vibrating about fixed points

82. Driving a car raises the temperature of the


tyres.
This cause the pressure of the air in the tyres
to increase.
Why is this ?
A. air molecules break up to form separate
atoms
B. air molecules expand with the rise in
temperature
C. the force between the air molecules
What does the pressure gauge show as the air increases
in the flask becomes hotter ? D. the seed of the air molecules increases
A. a steady pressure
B. a decrease in pressure 83. To mark a temperature scale on a
C. an increase in pressure thermometer, fixed points are needed.
D. an increase and then a decrease in Which is a fixed point ?
pressure A. The bottom end of the thermometer tube
B. The top end of the thermometer tube
79. an iron bar is held with one end in a fire. The C. The temperature of pure melting ice
other end soon becomes too hot to hold. D. The temperature of pure warm water

84. Four blocks , made of different materials, are


each given the same quantity of internal(heat)
energy.

Which block has the greatest thermal


capacity ?
How has the heat traveled along the iron bar ?
A. by conduction
B. by convection
C. by expansion
by radiation

80. The diagram shows a block of ice places in a


warm room.
At which point is the temperature the lowest ?

81. Brownian motion is seen by looking at smoke 85. A long thin bar of copper is heated evenly
particles through a microscope. along its length.

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Thermal Physics

C. Aluminium has a higher thermal


capacity than water
D. Aluminium has lower thermal capacity
than water

89. Diagram 1 shows apparatus being used to


What happens to the bar ? observe smoke particles.
A. becomes lighter Diagram 2 shows how a smoke particle moves
B. it becomes longer randomly.
C. it becomes shorter
D. it nebs at the ends

86. A beaker contains water at room temperature.

How could a convection current be set up in


the water?
A. Cool the water at X
B. Cool the water at Y
C. Stir the water at X
D. Stir the water at Y

87. Two plastic cups are placed one inside the


other. Hot water is poured into the inner cup
and a lid is put on top as shown.

Why do the smoke particles move randomly


What statement is correct ? ?
A. Heat loss by radiation is prevented by A. they are hit b y air molecules
the small air gap B. they are less dense than air
B. No heat passes through the sided of C. they are moved by convection currents
either cup D. they gain energy from the light
C. The bench is heated by convection from
the bottom of the outer cup 90. Bread can be cooked by placing it below, but
D. The lid is used to reduce heat loss by not touching, a heating element.
convection

88. 1 kg of water and 1 kg of aluminium are


heated to the same temperature and then
allowed to cool in a room.
Why does the aluminium cool more quickly
than the water ?
A. Aluminium contracts more than water Which process transfers thermal energy from
B. Aluminium does not evaporate but water the heating element to the bread ?
does A. Conduction C. insulation
B. Convection D. radiation

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Thermal Physics

91. The graph shows how the temperature of hot 94. A measured mass of gas is placed in a
liquid wax changes with time as the wax is cylinder at atmospheric pressure and is then
allowed to cool. slowly compressed.
At which labeled point on the graph are both
liquid wax and solid wax present ?

If the temperature of the gas does not


change, what happens to the pressure of the
gas ?
A. it drops to zero
B. it decreases , but not to zero
C. it stays the same
D. it increases

95. A mercury-in-glass thermometer is to be used


to measure temperature from 0C to 100 C
92. The diagram shows a refrigerator. The cooling Why is mercury suitable ?
unit is places at the top. The cooling unit cools A. mercury expands when heated
the air near it. B. mercury has a boiling point below 100C
C. mercury has a melting point above 0 C
D. mercury is poor conductor

96. A block is heated at a constant rate.


Eventually the melted ice boils.
The graph shows how the temperature
changes with time.

What happens to the density of this air as it


cools and how does it moves ?

How many minutes did it take to melt all the


ice ?
A. 4 C. 11
B. 7 D. 13
93. Some gas sealed in plastic bag is placed in a
refrigerator to cool down. 97. How does thermal energy(heat energy) travel
How do the gas molecules behave when this through the vacuum between the Earth and
happens ? Sun ?
A. they move more quickly and are closer A. by conduction
together B. by convection
B. they move more quickly and are further C. by radiation
apart D. by radioactive decay
C. they move more slowly and are closer
together 98. Which line in the table correctly describes
D. they move more slowly and are further whether the molecules of a solid, liquid and
together apart gas are moving or stationary ?

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Thermal Physics

D. conduction, convection and radiation

102. The diagrams show four identical pieces of


ice that are heated in test tubes of water.
In which test-tube will the ice take the longer
time to melt ?

99. The diagram shows how the atoms in a


substance rearrange themselves during a
change of state.

Which change of state is shown ?


A. gas to liquid
B. liquid to gas
C. liquid to solid
D. solid to liquid

100. Equal masses of two different liquids are put


into identical beakers. They are heated from
20 to 30 by heaters of the same power. Liquid
2 takes twice as long to heat as liquid 1.

103. Some water molecules escape from the


surface of a lake.
Which name is given to this process ?
A. boiling
B. convection
C. evaporation
D. radiation

104. The diagram represents gas molecules


Which statement is correct ? contained in a cylinder. The pistion is moved
A. both liquids receive the same amount of slowly downwards and the temperature of the
energy gas stays the same.
B. liquid 1 receives more energy than liquid
2
C. the thermal capacity of liquid 1 is equal
to the thermal capacity of liquid 2
D. the thermal capacity of liquid 1 is less
than the thermal capacity of liquid 2

101. There is a vacuum between the double


walls of a vacuum flask.
Which type of heat transfer are reduced by the
vacuum ? Whys does the pressure of the gas increase ?
A. conduction and convection A. The molecules collide harder with the
B. conduction and radiation walls
C. convection and radiation

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Thermal Physics

B. The molecules collide more often with


the walls
C. The molecules move more quickly
D. The number of molecules increases.

105. To mark the lower fixed point of a Celsius


scale on a thermometer, the thermometer
should be placed in
A. pure alcohol
B. pure distilled water
C. pure melting ice
D. pure mercury

106. A glass flask full of cool water is placed in a


container of hot water.

110. A knife is being sharpened on a rotating


sharpening-stone. A spark flies off and lands
on the operator’s hand. The spark is very hot ,
very small piece of metal. The operator feels
nothing.
What will happen to the level of water at X as What does this show about the piece of metal
the cool water becomes warmer ? ?
A. it will fall A. it has a high thermal capacity
B. it will rise B. it has a low thermal capacity
C. it will rise then fall C. it is a good conductor of heat
D. it will stay the same D. it is a poor conductor of heat

107. A beaker of water is heated at its base. 111. Which substance is a liquid at a room
Why does the water at the base rise ? temperature of 25 C?
A. It contracts and becomes less dense
B. It contracts and becomes more dense
C. It expands and becomes less dense
D. It expands and becomes more dense

108. A drop of liquid falls on a student’s skin and


quickly evaporates.
What is the effect on the skin and the reason ?
A. the skin cools because the most 112. How does heat from the Sun reach the
energetic molecules escape from the Earth ?
liquid. A. Conduction only
B. the skin cools because the most B. Convection only
energetic molecules remain in the liquid C. Radiation only
C. the skin warms because the most D. Conduction, convection and radiation
energetic molecules escape from the
liquid 113. A gas cylinder is left outside on a sunny day.
D. the skin warms because the most The Sun heats the gas inside the cylinder.
energetic molecules remain in the liquid What happens to the gas molecules ?
A. they collide less often
109. A suspension of pollen grains in water is B. they expand
observed under a microscope. The pollen C. they move closer together
grains are seen to be moving all the time. D. they move more rapidly
Which diagram illustrates this motion ?

IGCSE Physics 16 Namrata David Publications


Thermal Physics

114. Water spilled on the ground on a hot day 117. A thermometer with no scale is taped to a
evaporates. ruler as shown. When placed in steam, the
Which diagram represents the change in mercury level rises to 22 cm. When placed in
arrangement of the particles in water as it pure melting ice, the mercury level falls to 2
evaporates ? cm.

Which temperature is shown by the mercury


level in the diagram ?
A. 6 C C. 30C
B. 8 C D. 40 C
115. A block of ice heated until it has all melted.
The water that is produced is then heated until 118. Which line in the table is correct about
it boils. conduction and convection ?
Which line in the table states what happens to
the temperature of the ice while it is melting ,
and to the temperature of the water while it is
boiling ?

119. The table lists the melting points and the


boiling points of four different substances
A,B,C and D.
Which substance is a gas at 25 C ?

116. A heating element is positioned in a narrow


sealed tube of liquid.
What would be the best place to position the
heating element in order to obtain the best
circulation of the liquid through the tube ?

120. The diagram shows four blocks of steel. The


same quantity of heat is given to each block.
Which block shows the greatest rise in
temperature ?

IGCSE Physics 17 Namrata David Publications


Thermal Physics

124. A beaker of water is heated at its base.


Why does the water at the base rise ?
A. It contracts and becomes less dense
B. It contracts and becomes more dense
C. It expands and becomes less dense
D. It expands and becomes more dense

125. A drop of liquid falls on a student’s skin and


quickly evaporates.
What is the effect on the skin and the reason ?
A. the skin cools because the most
energetic molecules escape from the
liquid.
B. the skin cools because the most
121. A wooden wheel can be strengthened by energetic molecules remain in the liquid
putting a tight circle of iron around it. C. the skin warms because the most
energetic molecules escape from the
liquid
D. the skin warms because the most
energetic molecules remain in the liquid

126. A double –glazed window has two


sheets of glass separated by a layer of air.
Thermal energy is conducted through the
Which action would make it easier to fit the
layer of the air. The amount of conduction
circle over the wood ?
and convection varies with thickness of the
A. cooling the iron circle
layer of air, as shown in the graph
B. heating the iron circle
C. heating the wooden wheel
D. heating the wooden wheel and cooling
the iron circle

122. Which statement refers to convection ?


A. it does not involve energy transfer
B. it is transfer of heat energy without the
movement of particles
C. it only occurs in liquids or gases
D. it only occurs in solids
Which thickness of air produces the smallest
123. Spoons made of different materials were energy transfer
placed in four cups of coffee poured from the A. 0.5 cm because there is little
same jug. convection
Which spoon will be hottest to touch at end X ? B. 1.0 cm because the total thermal
energy transfer is least
C. 1.5 cm because the total thermal
energy transfer is small and
conduction is low
D. 2.0 cm because there is little
conduction

IGCSE Physics 18 Namrata David Publications