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TUBULAR COLUMN

Mallesh M1, M Asif 2, Sreyas G G3

1Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, UBDT College of Engineering, Davangere, Karnataka, India

2 M.Tech Student, Civil Engineering Department,UBDT College of Engineering, Davangere,Karnataka,India

3Asst.Professor, Civil Engineering Department, N.S.S College of Engineering, Palakkad, Kerala, India

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Abstract - The nonlinear behaviour of concrete-filled understand the behaviour of the composite columns from

stainless steel tubular columns is discussed in this paper. A the year 1960s. From these investigations, different design

nonlinear 3-D finite element model was developed for the codes have been formulated to reflect the design

analysis of the composite columns. The pin-ended axially philosophies and practices in the respective countries, such

loaded composite columns had different lengths, which varied as Australia, China, Japan, USA and European countries.

from short to long columns. The nonlinear material properties

In recent few decades, finite element (FE) technique

of the composite column’s components comprising stainless

is becoming increasingly popular for modelling CFST

steel tube and concrete were incorporated in the model. The

columns thanks to the existence of many commercially

effect of concrete confinement and interface between the

available software, such as ABAQUS and ANSYS. FE analysis

stainless steel tube and concrete infill was also considered

allows the direct modelling of the composite action between

allowing the bond behaviour to be modelled. The finite

the steel and concrete components, and different factors,

element model has been validated against tests recently

such as local and global imperfections, residual stresses and

conducted on concrete- filled stainless steel tubular columns.

boundary conditions, can be considered more precisely. The

The composite column strengths, load–axial strain

prediction accuracy of a FE model, however, is greatly

relationships and failure modes were predicted from the finite

affected by the input parameters, especially by the selection

element analysis and compared well against that measured

of a suitable concrete model. FE analysis is now used

experimentally. Furthermore, the variables that influence the

routinely for design and research problems. To embrace the

composite column behaviour and strength comprising

development of materials, new FE models may need to be

different lengths, external diameter-toplate thickness (D/t)

developed to improve the prediction accuracy. To serve this

ratios and concrete strengths were investigated in a

purpose, sufficient test data need to be collected and used to

parametric study. The parametric study has shown that the

verify the prediction accuracy.

increase in column strengths owing to the increase in concrete

strength is more significant for the columns having L/D ratios We can say that Ambitious researches related cfst “concrete

less than 6 as well as for the columns having D/t ratios less filled steel tubular” columns started at the beginning of the

than 50.The composite column strengths obtained from the twentieth century by Swain and Holmes in 1915 , who first

finite element analysis were compared with the design attempt to understand the behavior of this type of composite

strengths calculated using Eurocode 4 for composite columns. structures then came Kloppel and goder was carried out

It is shown that the EC4, in most cases, accurately predicted tests on short columns with different slenderness values and

the design strength for axially loaded concrete filled stainless different types of loading axial loading and eccentric . Shams

steel tubular columns. (1997) A detailed analytical study was performed using

Keywords: Concrete filled stainless steel tubular column, three dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis to

Nonlinear analysis, Finite Element analysis, contact elements, identify the response of CFT columns under axial loading.

ANSYS Based on that study shams concluded the following.It is

found that the Diameter/thickness, unconfined compressive

INTRODUCTION strength of concrete, and cross-sectional shape have

Due to the excellent composite action between the steel significant effect on the response of CFT columns, and then

tube and concrete, concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) the relative effect is quantified. The confinement effect in

columns are becoming increasingly popular and used in circular columns is higher than in square columns due to a

various structures throughout the world. Extensive more uniform stress distribution.

experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1108

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

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O’Shea and Bridge (1997) made an experimental work to vertical direction only, direction z–z. The load was applied in

describe the behavior of circular concrete filled steel tubular increments and the nonlinear geometry was included in the

column, the pipes been used in that research has the analysis. The load was applied as a static concentrated load,

diameter to steel pipe thickness ratio range : (55-200) , and which is identical to the real situation in pin-ended columns.

length to diameter ratio equal to 3.5 . H. Hu et al. (2003)

made a nonlinear finite element model for concrete filled Modelling of confined concrete

steel tubular columns using abaqus software , the

experimental data were collected from Schneider (1998) and The idealized uniaxial response for the compressive

Huang et al. (2002) . stress–strain curves of both unconfined and confined

concrete, where fc is the unconfined concrete cylinder

Yu , Zha , Ye and She (2009) a unified formulation is compressive strength which is equal to 0.8(fcu), and fcu is

proposed to predict the composite compressive strength of the unconfined concrete cube compressive strength. The

circular concrete-filled steel tube (CCFST) columns . The corresponding unconfined strain (εc) is taken as 0.003 for

formula is obtained from the analytic solution of an elastic plain concrete as recommended by the ACI Specification. The

composite cylinder under axial compression . The formula is corresponding unconfined strain (εc) is taken as 0.003for

further calibrated by introducing a number of correlation plain concrete as recommended by the ACI Specification To

coefficients that are validated by test results. Suliman Hassan define the full equivalent uniaxial stress– strain curve for

Abdalla (2012) tested a total of one hundred and three confined concrete,three parts of the curve have to be

specimens the compressive behavior of the Concrete Filled identified The first part is the initially assumed elastic range

Steel Tubes (CFSTs) and the Confined Concrete Filled Steel to the proportional limit stress. The value of the proportional

Tubes (CCFSTs) under axial compressive loads is limit stress is taken as 0.5 (fcc) as given by Huetal. While the

experimentally investigated. initial Young’s modulus of confined concrete (E cc) is

reasonably calculated using the empirical equation given by

Finite Element Modelling ACI. Poisson’s ratio (ucc) of confined concrete is taken as

Surface-to-surface contact is usually used for the interaction 0.25.

simulation of the steel tube and concrete. A contact surface Ecc = 4700√fcc MPa

pair comprised of the inner surface of the steel tube and the

outer surface of concrete core can be defined. “Hard contact” Material modelling of stainless steel section

in the normal direction can be specified for the interface, The measured stress–strain curve for the stainless

which allows the separation of the interface in tension and steel used in the tests was used in this study. The material

no penetration of that in compression. For CFST columns, behaviour provided by ANSYS (using the PLASTIC option)

there is little or no slip between the steel tube and concrete

allows for a nonlinear stress–strain curve to be used. The

since they are loaded simultaneously. For this reason, the

first part of the nonlinear curve represents the elastic part up

column's behaviour is not sensitive to the selection of

to the proportional limit stress with Young’s modulus of 195

friction coefficient between steel and concrete. Friction

coefficients of 0.25, 0.3 and 0.6 were used by Schneider, Lam GPa and Poisson’s ratio equals to 0.3 were used in the finite

et al. and Han et al. respectively. element model. Since the buckling analysis involves large in-

elastic strains, the nominal (engineering) static stress–strain

curves were converted to true stress and logarithmic plastic

Boundary conditions and load application true strain curves

The concrete-filled stainless steel tubular columns

investigated in this study were pinned at both ends. In the

tests, the pin-ended columns were achieved by means of

designed hinge assemblies. In the finite element (FE) model,

the hinge assemblies were modelled as rigid upper and

lower plates, which were allowed to rotate about the axis of

the plate, direction y–y. The upper and lower end plates

nodes were connected to the matching specimen end nodes.

The centre of the outside surface of the bottom plate was

restrained against all degrees of freedom while that of the

top plate, the loading position, was allowed to displace in the Part (1) Part (2) Part (3)

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1109

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Modelling steps of concrete-filled stainless steel tubular Comparison of deformed shapes at failure for concrete-filled

columns. Part (1) Modelling of circular tubes using shell stainless steel tubular long column specimen (a)

elements, Part (2) Modelling of concrete using solid Experimental and (b) Numerical.

elements and Part (3) Modelling of loading plates using

solid elements Verification of finite element model

The finite element model of pin-ended axially loaded

concrete filled-stainless steel circular tubular columns

developed in this study was verified against the tests

detailed in Ellobody and Ghazy. The composite column

strengths obtained from the tests (PTest) and finite element

analyses(PFE) are compared.

and finite element results. The mean value of PFE/PTest ratios

is 0.99 with the corresponding coefficient of variation (COV)

of 0.021

Buckling mode (Eigenmode 1) for concretefilled stainless Parametric study and discussions

steel tubular columns.

The verified finite element model was used to

investigate the effects of the change in concrete strength,

column slenderness and column length on the behaviour and

strength of concrete- filled stainless steel circular tubular

columns.

columns investigated in the parametric study (PFE) and

failure modes were predicted using the developed finite

element model. It can be seen that for the columns having a

low Diameter/thickness ratio of 25, the increase in column

strength owing to the increase in concrete strength is

significant for all column lengths. While, the increase in

column strengths for the columns having higher

Diameter/thickness ratios of 50 and 75 owing to the increase

(a) (b)

Comparison of deformed shapes at failure for circular hollow in concrete strength is more significant for the columns

section specimen (a) Experimental and (b) Numerical having Length/Diameter ratios less than 6.The concrete

crushing failure mode was observed for the columns having

compact sections with a Diameter/thickness ratio of 25 and

concrete strengths 30 and 60 MPa. The local buckling failure

mode was observed for the columns having a higher

Diameter/thickness ratio of 75 and Length/Diameter ratios

of 3 and 6 as well as observed for the columns having an

intermediate Diameter/thickness ratio of 50,

Length/Diameter ratios of 3 and 6 and higher concrete

strengths of 90 and 120 MPa. The combined (local buckling &

concrete crushing) failure mode was observed for the

compact columns having a Diameter/thickness ratio of 25

and a Length/Diameter ratio of 6 as well as for the columns

having a Length/Diameter ratio of 3 and higher concrete

(a) (b) strengths 90 and 120 MPa. Also, the combined (local

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1110

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

buckling & concrete crushing) failure mode was observed in change in the lengths, external diameter-to-plate thickness

the columns having an intermediate Diameter/thickness ratios and concrete strengths. It is shown that the increase in

ratio of 50, Length/Diameter ratios of 3 and 6 and concrete column strengths owing to the increase in concrete strength

strengths of 30 and 60 MPa. Finally, the flexural buckling is more significant for the columns having Length/Diameter

failure mode was observed in all columns having a ratios less than 6 as well as for the columns having

Length/Diameter ratio of 12. Diameter/thickness ratios less than 50. The composite

column strengths obtained from the finite element analyses

It can be seen that the increase in column strength owing were compared with the design strengths calculated using

to the increase in concrete strength is significant for the Eurocode 4 for composite columns. Generally, it is shown

columns having Diameter/thickness ratios less than 50.This that the EC4, in most cases, accurately predicted the design

is attributed to that, for stockier cross-sections, failure strength for axially loaded concrete filled stainless steel

occurs at higher strains, hence the concrete’s strength and tubular columns.

stainless steel’s strain hardening become more significant.

While, the strength of the column shaving higher REFERENCES

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