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Definition 3.1.

1
Suppose that 𝑉 and 𝑊 are vector spaces over the same field F. A linear
transformation from 𝑉 to 𝑊 is a function 𝑇: 𝑉 → 𝑊 which satisfies:

(i) If 𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑉, then 𝑇(𝑢 + 𝑣) = 𝑇(𝑢) + 𝑇(𝑣).

(ii) If 𝑣 ∈ 𝑉 and 𝑘 ∈ 𝐹, then 𝑇(𝑘𝑣) = 𝑘𝑇(𝑣).

Lemma 3.1.3
Suppose that 𝑇: 𝑉 → 𝑊 is a linear transformation.

(i) 𝑇(0⃗)=0 ⃗.
(ii) Let 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 ∈ 𝑉. Then for all scalars 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑇(𝑎1 𝑣1 +
𝑎2 𝑣2 +. . . +𝑎𝑛 𝑣𝑛 = 𝑎1 𝑇(𝑣1 ) + 𝑎2 𝑇(𝑣2 )+. . . +𝑎𝑛 𝑇(𝑣𝑛 ).

Theorem 3.1.4
Assume that 𝑉 and 𝑊 are vector spaces. Suppose that {𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 } is a
basis of 𝑉 and {𝑤1 , 𝑤2 , … , 𝑤𝑛 } ∈ 𝑊 are arbitrary (not necessarily distinct).
Then there is a unique linear transformation 𝑇 ∶ 𝑉 → 𝑊 such that 𝑇(𝑣1 ) =
𝑤1 , 𝑇(𝑣2 ) = 𝑤2 , …, 𝑇(𝑣𝑛 ) = 𝑤𝑛 .

Theorem 3.15.
Suppose that 𝐺: 𝐹 𝑛 → 𝐹 𝑚 is a linear transformation. Then there exists a
unique 𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix A such that 𝐺 = 𝑇𝐴 .
Theorem 3.1.7
Suppose that 𝐻: 𝑈 → 𝑉 and 𝐺: 𝑉 → 𝑊 are both linear transformations.

(i) Then the composition 𝐺 ∘ 𝐻: 𝑈 → 𝑊 is a linear transformation.

(ii) If 𝐻 = 𝑇𝐴 ∶ 𝐹 𝑚 → 𝐹 𝑛 and 𝐺 = 𝑇𝐵 ∶ 𝐹 𝑛 → 𝐹 𝑠 where 𝐴 is an 𝑛 × 𝑚
matrix and B is a 𝑠 × 𝑛 matrix, then 𝐺 ∘ 𝐻 = 𝑇𝐵𝐴 . Hence, [𝐺 ∘ 𝐻] =
[𝐺][𝐻] and 𝑇𝐵𝐴 = 𝑇𝐵 ∘ 𝑇𝐴 .