Anda di halaman 1dari 5

ßßÌÝÝ Ì»-¬ Ó»¬¸±¼ êïóîððç

ݱ´±®º¿-¬²»-- ¬± Ô¿«²¼»®·²¹æ ß½½»´»®¿¬»¼

Ü»ª»´±°»¼ ·² ïçë𠾧 ßßÌÝÝ Ý±³³·¬¬»» íò Ì»®³·²±´±¹§ 5.1.6 White Synthetic (SBR) Rubber
Îßêðå ®»ª·-»¼ ïçëîô ïçëìô ïçëéô ïçêðô 3.1 colorfastness, n.—the resistance of Balls 9-10 mm (3/8 in.) dia. 70 Durome-
ïçêïô ïçéðô ïçéîô ïçèê ø¬·¬´» ½¸¿²¹»÷ô a material to change in any of its color ter hardness for Test 1B (see 12.1)
ïçèçô ïççíô ïççìô ïççêô îððíô îððê characteristics, to transfer of its color- 5.1.7 Teflon fluorocarbon gaskets (see
ø¬·¬´» ½¸¿²¹»÷ô îððéô îððçå ®»¿ºº·®³»¼ ant(s) to adjacent materials or both, as a 7.4.2 and 12.2).
ïçëêô ïçêîô ïçêëô ïçêèô ïçêçô ïçéëô result of the exposure of the material to 5.1.8 Preheater/storage module (see
ïçèðô ïçèëå »¼·¬±®·¿´´§ ®»ª·-»¼ ïçéíô any environment that might be encoun- 7.4, 12.1 and 12.3).
ïçéìô ïçéëô ïçéêô ïçèïô ïçèíô ïçèìô tered during the processing, testing, stor- 5.2 Scales for rating test results.
ïççïô ïççëô ïççèô îððîô îððìô îððèå age or use of the material. 5.2.1 AATCC Chromatic Transference
»¼·¬±®·¿´´§ ®»ª·-»¼ ¿²¼ ®»¿ºº·®³»¼ îððïò 3.2 laundering, n.—of textile mate- Scale (see 12.4).
ﮬ´§ »¯«·ª¿´»²¬ ¬± ×ÍÑ ïðëóÝðêò rials, a process intended to remove soils 5.2.2 Gray Scale for Color Change (see
and/or stains by treatment (washing) with 12.4).
an aqueous detergent solution and nor- 5.2.3 Gray Scale for Staining (see
ïò Ы®°±-» ¿²¼ ͽ±°» mally including subsequent rinsing, ex- 12.4).
tracting and drying. 5.3 Reagents and materials.
1.1 These accelerated laundering tests
are to evaluate the colorfastness to laun- 5.3.1 Multifiber test fabrics (8 mm
dering of textiles which are expected to ìò Í¿º»¬§ Ю»½¿«¬·±²- [0.33 in.] filling bands) containing ace-
withstand frequent laundering. The fabric tate, cotton, nylon, silk, viscose rayon
NOTE: These safety precautions are and wool. Multifiber test fabrics (8 mm
color loss and surface changes resulting
for information purposes only. The pre- [0.33 in.] filling bands) and (15 mm [0.6
from detergent solution and abrasive ac-
cautions are ancillary to the testing proce- in.] filling bands) containing acetate, cot-
tion of five typical hand or home launder-
dures and are not intended to be all inclu- ton, nylon, polyester, acrylic and wool
ings, with or without chlorine, are
sive. It is the user’s responsibility to use (see 12.5).
roughly approximated by one 45 min test
safe and proper techniques in handling 5.3.2 Bleached cotton test fabric, 32 I
(see 9.2-9.6). However, the staining ef-
materials in the test method. Manufactur- 32 ends I picks/cm (80 I 80 ends I
fect produced by five typical hand or
ers MUST be consulted for specific de- picks/in.) construction, 100 ± 3 g/m 2 (3.0
home launderings cannot always be pre-
tails such as material safety data sheets ± 0.1 oz/yd2), desized without fluorescent
dicted by the 45 min test. Staining is a
and other manufacturer ’s recommenda- whitening agent (see 12.5).
function of the ratio of colored to undyed
tions. All OSHA standards and rules 5.3.3 1993 AATCC Standard Refer-
fabrics, fiber content of fabrics in the
must also be consulted and followed. ence Detergent WOB (without fluores-
wash load and other end-use conditions
which are not always predictable. 4.1 Good laboratory practices should cent whitening agent and without phos-
be followed. Wear safety glasses in all phate) or 2003 AATCC Standard
1.2 When this test method was origi-
laboratory areas. Reference Liquid Detergent WOB (see
nally developed, various options of this
method were intended to evaluate the 4.2 All chemicals should be handled 10.5 and 12.7).
color change and staining by five home with care. 5.3.4 1993 AATCC Standard Refer-
or commercial launderings, on an accel- 4.3 The 1993 AATCC Standard Refer- ence Detergent (with fluorescent whiten-
erated basis. Throughout the years, com- ence Detergent WOB may cause irrita- ing agent) (see 10.5 and 12.6).
mercial laundering procedures have tion. Care should be taken to prevent ex- 5.3.5 Water, distilled or deionized (see
changed and commercial cleaning today posure to skin and eyes. 12.8).
involves many different types of pro- 4.4 An eyewash/safety shower should 5.3.6 Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)
cesses, dependent on the type of product be located nearby for emergency use. bleach (see 12.9).
being cleaned that cannot be duplicated 4.5 Manufacturer’s safety recommen- 5.3.7 Sulfuric acid (H 2SO4), 10% (see
by one accelerated laboratory procedure. dations should be followed when operat- 12.9.1).
In 2005, all references to commercial ing laboratory testing equipment. 5.3.8 Potassium iodide (KI), 10% (see
laundering were removed as it is not 12.9.1).
known if these procedures accurately rep- ëò ß°°¿®¿¬«-ô λ¿¹»²¬- ¿²¼ Ó¿¬»®·¿´- 5.3.9 Sodium thiosulfate (Na 2S2O3),
licate typical commercial laundering pro- ø-»» ïîòï÷ 0.1N (see 12.9.1).
cesses used today. 5.3.10 Crockmeter test cloth cut in 50
5.1 Accelerated laundering machine. mm (2 in.) squares (see 12.10).
5.1.1 A laundering machine for rotat- 5.3.11 White cards (specimen mounts)
îò Ю·²½·°´»
ing closed canisters in a thermostatically with Y tristimulus value at least 85%.
2.1 Specimens are tested under appro- controlled water bath at 40 ± 2 rpm.
priate conditions of temperature, deter- 5.1.2 Stainless steel lever lock canis- êò Ì»-¬ Í°»½·³»²-
gent solution, bleaching and abrasive ac- ters Type 1 500 mL (1 pt), 75 I 125 mm
tion such that the color change is similar (3.0 I 5.0 in.) for Test No. 1A. 6.1 The sizes of the specimens required
to that occurring in five hand or home 5.1.3 Stainless steel lever lock canisters for the various tests are as follows:
launderings. The color change is obtained Type 2 1200 mL, 90 I 200 mm (3.5 I 8.0 50 I 100 mm (2.0 I 4.0 in.) for Test
in a conveniently short time. The abra- in.) for Tests No. 1B, 2A, 3A, 4A and 5A. No. 1A,
sive action is a result of the frictional ef- 5.1.4 Adapter plates for holding canisters 50 I 150 mm (2.0 I 6.0 in.) for Tests
fects of fabric against canister, the low li- (see 5.1.3) on laundering machine shaft. No. 1B, 2A, 3A, 4A and 5A.
quor ratio and the impact of the steel balls 5.1.5 Stainless steel balls, 6 mm (0.25 6.2 Test only one specimen in each
on the fabric. in.) in diameter. canister.

èê ÌÓ êïóîððç ßßÌÝÝ Ì»½¸²·½¿´ Ó¿²«¿´ñîðïð

Copyright © 2009 American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
6.2.1 Test one specimen per laboratory 6.5.2 Option 2. Prepare two 110 m lution to make a total volume of 150 mL.
sample. Replication may be advisable for (120 yd) skeins of each yarn. Fold the Prepare this solution separately for each
improved precision. skein so that there is a uniform amount of canister.
6.3 To determine staining in Tests No. yarn across a 50 mm (2 in.) width with a 7.3.4 For all the tests, add the desig-
1A and 2A, use multifiber test fabric. To length appropriate for the procedure to be nated number of stainless steel balls or
determine staining in Test No. 3A, use ei- used. Keep one skein of each sample as white rubber balls to each canister.
ther multifiber test fabric or bleached cot- an unwashed original. Sew or staple 7.4 The two options for preheating the
ton test fabric. With respect to Test No. 3A, Crockmeter test cloth squares (see 12.10) canisters to the test temperature are by
the use of multifiber test fabric is optional or squares of bleached cotton test fabric use of the laundering machine or the pre-
but the staining of acetate, nylon, polyester having approximately the same weight heater/storage unit. If the canisters are to
and acrylic is disregarded unless one of folded over each end of the layered yarn be preheated in the laundering machine,
these fibers is present in the fabric being specimen. Attach a multifiber test fabric proceed to 7.4.2.
tested or known to be in the final garment. according to 6.4.1 or 6.4.2. 7.4.1 Place the canisters in the pre-
For Test 3A, multifiber test fabric with heater module at the prescribed test tem-
heat-sealed edges is recommended. Stain- éò Ю±½»¼«®» perature. They are to remain in the
ing is not determined in Tests No. 4A and module for at least 2 min. Enter a well
5A (see 12.11 and 12.12). 7.1 Table I summarizes the conditions crumpled test specimen into each canister.
6.4 Specimen preparation. of the tests. 7.4.2 Clamp the covers on the canis-
6.4.1 Preparation with multifiber test 7.2 Adjust the laundering machine to ters. A Teflon fluorocarbon gasket (see
fabric with individual component bands maintain the designated bath tempera- 5.1.6) may be inserted between the neo-
8 mm (0.33 in.) wide or with bleached ture. Prepare the required volume of prene gasket and the top of each canister
cotton test fabric. Prepare pieces with a wash liquor. Preheat this solution to the to prevent contamination of the wash so-
50 mm (2.0 in.) square of multifiber test prescribed temperature. lution by the neoprene. Fasten the 75 I
fabric cloth or bleached cotton test fabric 7.3 Run Test No. 1A in 75 I 125 mm 125 mm (3.0 I 5.0 in.) lever lock canis-
(as required) sewn, stapled or suitably (3.0 I 5.0 in.) lever lock stainless steel ters vertically and the 90 I 200 mm (3.5
attached along one 50 mm (2.0 in.) edge canisters. Run Tests No. 2A, 3A, 4A and I 8.0 in.) lever lock canisters horizontally
of the test specimen and in contact with 5A in 90 I 200 mm (3.5 I 8.0 in.) lever in the adapters on the rotor of the laun-
the face of the material. When multifiber lock stainless steel canisters. dering machine in such a manner that
test fabric is used, attach it so that each of 7.3.1 For Tests No. 1A, 1B, 2A and when the canisters rotate, the covers
the six fiber bands is along the 50 mm 3A, add to the canister the amount of de- strike the water first. Place an equal num-
(2.0 in.) edge of the specimen with the tergent solution designated in Table I. ber of canisters on each side of the shaft.
wool on the right. The fiber bands in the 7.3.2 For Test No. 4A, prepare a 1500 For canisters preheated in the module,
multifiber test fabric will be parallel to the ppm available chlorine solution. For 1 L, proceed to 7.7.
lengthwise direction of the test specimen. determine the amount of stock sodium 7.5 Start the rotor and run it for at least
hypochlorite bleach solution (see 12.9) to 2 min to preheat the canisters.
6.4.2 Preparation with multifiber test
dilute as follows: 7.6 Stop the rotor and with a row of
fabric with individual component bands
15 mm (0.6 in.) wide. Prepare pieces with 159.4/% NaOCl = g to add canisters in an upright position, unclamp
a 50 I 100 mm (2.0 I 4.0 in.) rectangle of Weigh the correct amount of bleach into a the cover of one canister, enter a well
multifiber test fabric sewn, stapled or volumetric flask and dilute to 1 L. To crumpled test specimen into the solution
suitably attached centered along one 100 each canister, add 5 mL of 1500 ppm and replace the cover, but do not clamp it.
mm (4.0 in.) or 150 mm (6.0 in.) edge of available chlorine solution and 45 mL of Repeat this operation until all the canis-
the test specimen and in contact with the detergent solution making a total volume ters in the row have been loaded. Then
face of the material. Attach it so that each of 50 mL. clamp the covers in the same order in
of the six fiber bands will be parallel to 7.3.3 For Test No. 5A, determine the which the canisters were loaded (delay
the widthwise direction of the specimen. amount of stock sodium hypochlorite clamping the covers to allow equalization
Attach and secure the wool band at the bleach solution (see 12.9) to dilute as of pressure). Repeat this operation until
top of the specimen to avoid fiber loss. follows: all rows of canisters have been loaded.
6.4.3 It is recommended that knitted 7.7 Start the laundering machine and
4.54/% NaOCl = g to add run it at 40 ± 2 rpm for 45 min.
fabrics be sewn or stapled at the four
edges to equivalent size pieces of Weigh the correct amount of bleach into a 7.8 The rinsing, extracting and drying
bleached cotton test fabric to avoid rolled graduated cylinder and add detergent so- procedures are the same for all the tests.
edges and to assist in obtaining a uniform
test result over the entire surface. Attach
the multifiber test fabric to the face of the
knitted fabric. Ì¿¾´» ׉̻-¬ ݱ²¼·¬·±²-¿
6.4.4 For pile fabric specimens with a л®½»²¬ л®½»²¬ л®½»²¬
pile lay direction, attach the multifiber Ì»³° ̱¬¿´ б©¼»® Ô·¯«·¼ ߪ¿·´¿¾´»
test fabric at the top of the specimen with Ô·¯«±® Ü»¬»®¹»²¬ Ü»¬»®¹»²¬ ݸ´±®·²» Ò±ò Ò±ò ±º
the pile lay direction pointing away from Ì»-¬ ʱ´«³» ±º ̱¬¿´ ±º ̱¬¿´ ±º ̱¬¿´ ͬ»»´ Ϋ¾¾»® Ì·³»
the top of the specimen. Ò±ò pÝ øo pî÷ pÚ øo pì÷ ø³Ô÷ ʱ´«³» ʱ´«³» ʱ´«³» Þ¿´´- Þ¿´´- øÓ·²÷
6.5 When the textile to be tested is ïß ìð ïðë îðð ðòíé Ò±²» ïð ìë
yarn, specimens may be tested using Op-
ïÞ¾ íï èè ïëð ðòíé ðòëê Ò±²» ïð îð
tion 1 or Option 2. îß ìç ïîð ïëð ðòïë Ò±²» ëð ìë
6.5.1 Option 1. Knit yarn on an appro- íß éï ïêð ëð ðòïë Ò±²» ïðð ìë
priate sample knitting machine. Prepare ìß éï ïêð ëð ðòïë ðòðïë ïðð ìë
ëß ìç ïîð ïëð ðòïë ðòðîé ëð ìë
specimens and multifiber test fabrics ac-
cording to 6.1-6.4.3. Keep one knitted ¿
λº»® ¬± Í»½¬·±² ç º±® ±¾¶»½¬·ª»- º±® »¿½¸ ¬»-¬ ³»¬¸±¼ò
specimen of each sample as an unwashed ¾
Ì»-¬ ïÞ ·- ¬¸» º·®-¬ ¬»-¬ ¬¸¿¬ ·²½´«¼»- ¬¸» «-» ±º ¬¸» -¬¿²¼¿®¼ ´·¯«·¼ ¼»¬»®¹»²¬ ¿²¼ ¬¸» «-» ±º Ϋ¾¾»® Þ¿´´- ·²-¬»¿¼ ±º
original. ͬ¿·²´»-- ͬ»»´ Þ¿´´-ò

ßßÌÝÝ Ì»½¸²·½¿´ Ó¿²«¿´ñîðïð ÌÓ êïóîððç èé

Copyright © 2009 American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
Stop the machine, remove the canisters Grade 3—change in color equivalent colorimeters and spectrophotometers (see
and empty the contents into beakers, to Gray Scale Step 3. AATCC Evaluation Procedure 6, Instru-
keeping each test specimen in a separate Grade 2.5—change in color equivalent mental Color Measurement and 12.15).
beaker. Rinse each test specimen three to Gray Scale Step 2-3.
times, in beakers, in distilled or deionized Grade 2—change in color equivalent çò ײ¬»®°®»¬¿¬·±² ±º λ-«´¬-
water at 40 ± 3°C (105 ± 5°F) for 1 min to Gray Scale Step 2.
periods with occasional stirring or hand Grade 1.5—change in color equivalent 9.1 Results from these tests are in-
squeezing. To remove excess water, cen- to Gray Scale Step 1-2. tended to approximate the color change
trifuge, blot or pass the test specimens Grade 1—change in color equivalent effects (see 1.1) of five typical home
through wringer rolls. Dry the specimens to Gray Scale Step 1. launderings. These are accelerated tests,
in an air circulating oven in which the 8.1.2 The color change can be quanti- and in obtaining the required degree of
temperature does not exceed 71°C tatively determined by measuring the acceleration some of the conditions, such
(160°F), or tumble dry in a nylon mesh color difference between the unwashed as temperature, were purposely exagger-
bag in an automatic tumble dryer at nor- sample and a test specimen using a suit- ated. The tests have remained largely the
mal cycle, which has an exhaust tempera- able colorimeter or spectrophotometer same over many years while laundry de-
ture of 60-71°C (140-160°F), or air dry. with the appropriate software (see tergents, washers and dryers, laundry
7.9 Allow specimens to condition at 65 AATCC Evaluation Procedure 7, Instru- practices and fabrics have changed (see
± 2% relative humidity and 21 ± 1°C (70 mental Assessment of the Change in AATCC monograph “Standardization of
± 2°F) for 1 h before evaluating. Color of a Test Specimen). Home Laundry Test Conditions,” else-
7.10 Prepare tested fabric specimens 8.2 Evaluation of staining. where in this TECHNICAL MANUAL).
and adjacent fabrics for evaluation by 8.2.1 Evaluate staining (see 12.11) as Consequently, caution in interpreting test
trimming off raveled yarns and lightly directed in AATCC Evaluation Procedure results is advisable.
brushing off any loose fiber and yarn on 2 using the Gray Scale for Staining or as 9.2 Test No. 1A—This test is for evalu-
the fabric surfaces. Brush pile fabric directed in AATCC Evaluation Procedure ating the colorfastness of textiles that are
specimens in required direction to restore 8 using the Chromatic Transference expected to withstand repeated hand
them as nearly as possible to the same Scale. The scale used should be indicated laundering at low temperature. Speci-
pile angle as the untreated specimens. when reporting the test results. mens subjected to this test should show
Specimens should be smoothed or flat- Grade 5—negligible or no color transfer. color change similar to that produced by
tened if they are wrinkled and messy due Grade 4.5—color transfer equivalent to five typical careful hand launderings at a
to washing and/or drying. Specimens Step 4-5 on the Gray Scale for Staining or temperature of 40 ± 3°C (105 ± 5°F).
may be mounted on cards to facilitate Row 4.5 on the 9-step AATCC Chro- 9.3 Test No. 1B—This test is for evalu-
identification and handling in their evalu- matic Transference Scale. ating the colorfastness of textiles that are
ation. For consistency in backing mate- Grade 4—color transfer equivalent to expected to withstand repeated hand
rial, use a white mounting card with Y Step 4 on the Gray Scale for Staining or laundering at cool temperatures. Speci-
tristimulus value of at least 85%. Mount- Row 4 on the 9-step AATCC Chromatic mens subjected to this test should show
ing material must not be visible in the Transference Scale. color change similar to that produced by
area to be viewed and must not interfere Grade 3.5—color transfer equivalent to five typical careful hand launderings at a
with rating as specified in 5.1 of both Step 3-4 on the Gray Scale for Staining or temperature of 27 ± 3°C (80 ± 5°F).
AATCC Evaluation Procedures 1 and 2 Row 3.5 on the 9-step AATCC Chro- 9.4 Test No. 2A—This test is for eval-
for the Gray Scale for Color Change and matic Transference Scale. uating the colorfastness to washing of
Gray Scale for Staining or instrumental Grade 3—color transfer equivalent to textiles that are expected to withstand re-
assessment of color according to AATCC Step 3 on the Gray Scale for Staining or peated low temperature machine launder-
Evaluation Procedure 7, Instrumental As- Row 3 on the 9-step AATCC Chromatic ing in the home. Specimens subjected to
sessment of the Change in Color of a Test Transference Scale. this test should show color change similar
Specimen (see 12.4). Grade 2.5—color transfer equivalent to to that produced by five home machine
7.10.1 Yarn skein specimens should be Step 2-3 on the Gray Scale for Staining or launderings at medium or warm setting in
combed and brushed for improved align- Row 2.5 on the 9-step AATCC Chro- the temperature range of 38 ± 3°C (100 ±
ment of the yarns before comparison with matic Transference Scale. 5°F).
the unwashed original. The original spec- Grade 2—color transfer equivalent to 9.5 Test No. 3A—This test is for evalu-
imens may also need further combing and Step 2 on the Gray Scale for Staining or ating colorfastness to washing of textiles
brushing for uniformity of appearance. Row 2 on the 9-step AATCC Chromatic considered washable under vigorous con-
Transference Scale. ditions. Specimens subjected to this test
èò Ûª¿´«¿¬·±² Grade 1.5—color transfer equivalent to should show color change similar to that
Step 1-2 on the Gray Scale for Staining or produced by five home machine launder-
8.1 Evaluation of color change. Row 1.5 on the 9-step AATCC Chro- ings at 60 ± 3°C (140 ± 5°F), without
8.1.1 Evaluate the color change of the matic Transference Scale. chlorine.
test specimens as directed in AATCC Grade 1—color transfer equivalent to 9.6 Test No. 4A—This test is for evalu-
Evaluation Procedure 1 using the Gray Step 1 on the Gray Scale for Staining or ating the colorfastness to washing of tex-
Scale for Color Change. For improved Row 1 on the 9-step AATCC Chromatic tiles laundered in the presence of avail-
precision and accuracy the specimens Transference Scale. able chlorine. Specimens subjected to
should be rated by more than one rater. 8.2.2 The color transferred to the multi- this test should show color change similar
Grade 5—negligible or no change as fiber test fabric or bleached cotton test to that produced by five home machine
shown in Gray Scale Step 5. fabric square of 6.4.1 can be quantita- launderings at 63 ± 3°C (145 ± 5°F) with
Grade 4.5—change in color equivalent tively determined by measuring the color 3.74 g per L (0.50 oz/gal) of 5% available
to Gray Scale Step 4-5. difference between a piece of the original chlorine per 3.6 kg (8.0 lb) load.
Grade 4—change in color equivalent material and the stained material. Multifi- 9.7 Test No. 5A—This test is for eval-
to Gray Scale Step 4. ber test fabrics (15 mm [0.6 in.]) have fill- uating the colorfastness to washing of
Grade 3.5—a change in color equiva- ing bands of sufficient width to be within textiles that may be laundered in the pres-
lent to Gray Scale Step 3-4. the aperture diameter capability of many ence of available chlorine. Specimens

èè ÌÓ êïóîððç ßßÌÝÝ Ì»½¸²·½¿´ Ó¿²«¿´ñîðïð

Copyright © 2009 American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
subjected to this test should show color 11.2.3 Critical Differences. For the 11.3.1 Summary. An interlaboratory
change similar to that produced by five components of variance reported in test was carried out in 1984 to establish
home machine launderings at 49 ± 3°C 11.2.2, two averages of observed values the precision of Test No. 5A for deter-
(120 ± 5°F) with 200 ± 1 ppm available should be considered significantly differ- mining the effect of chlorine bleach on
chlorine. ent at the 95% probability level if the dif- the colorfastness of fabrics. All speci-
ference is equal to or exceeds the critical mens were laundered in a Launder-
differences shown in Table II. Ometer by one operator. Color change in
ïðò λ°±®¬ Test No. 5A was determined both visu-
ally and instrumentally. Details of the sta-
10.1 Report the test number. Ì¿¾´» ×׉ݮ·¬·½¿´ Ü·ºº»®»²½»-ô Ù®¿¼»-ô tistical analysis of the data can be found
10.2 Report the grade number deter- º±® ¬¸» ݱ²¼·¬·±² Ò±¬»¼¿ in the report, Third Interlaboratory Study
mined for color change in 8.1 and the of Proposed Launder-Ometer Test for
staining grade numbers for the evaluated Í·²¹´»ó É·¬¸·²ó Þ»¬©»»²ó Colorfastness of Fabrics to Chlorine and
fibers in the multifiber test fabric and/or Ò±ò ±º Ñ°»®¿¬±® Ô¿¾ Ô¿¾
Non-Chlorine Bleaches, October 21,
bleached cotton test fabric as determined Ѿ-»®ª¿¬·±²- Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±²
1985, by J. W. Whitworth, Milliken Re-
in 8.2. ï ðòèð ïòïî ïòíé
search Corp., Spartanburg, SC.
10.3 State which scale (Gray Scale for í ðòìê ðòçî ïòîï
ë ðòíê ðòèé ïòïè 11.3.2 Visual Assessment. Four materi-
Staining or AATCC Chromatic Transfer- als were tested at each of five laborato-
ence Scale) was used in evaluating stain- ¿ ries. Three raters visually assessed the
̸» ½®·¬·½¿´ ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ©»®» ½¿´½«´¿¬»¼ «-·²¹ ¬ ã
ing (see 12.13). ïòçë𠩸·½¸ ·- ¾¿-»¼ ±² ·²º·²·¬» ¼»¹®»»- ±º º®»»¼±³ò color change of four specimens. The
10.4 Report the multifiber test fabric components of variance as standard devi-
used and if bleached cotton test fabric ations of colorfastness grades were calcu-
was employed to avoid knit curling. 11.2.4 Staining. Three raters indepen- lated as follows:
10.5 Report the detergent used with dently rated the six fibers of the multifi-
color change and staining results (see ber test fabric (No. 10 and No. 10A) for Single Operator
12.6 and 12.7). 10 materials at six laboratories using the Component 0.38
10.6 Report which laundering ma- Gray Scale for Staining. Of the 60 possi- Within-Laboratory
chine is used. ble fiber/fabric combinations, only 51 Component 0.28
could be used. The components of vari- Between-Laboratory
ance were averaged for the No. 10 and Component 0.27
ïïò Ю»½·-·±² ¿²¼ Þ·¿- No. 10A multifiber test fabrics and ap-
11.3.3 Critical Differences. For the
pear below as standard deviations of
11.1 Precision and bias statements components of variance in 11.3.2, two
staining ratings:
have been developed for Tests No. 2A averages of observed values should be
and 5A. Although correlation work has Single Operator considered significantly different at the
been done, no precision and bias state- Component 0.27 95% probability level if the difference
ments have been developed for Tests No. Within-Laboratory equals or exceeds the critical differences
1A, 3A and 4A. Component 0.34 shown in Table IV.
11.1.1 Because of changes in the deter- Between-Laboratory
gents used in this method, these precision Component 0.25
and bias statements may not apply to data Ì¿¾´» ×ʉݮ·¬·½¿´ Ü·ºº»®»²½»-ô Ù®¿¼»-ô
or information obtained with the cur- 11.2.5 Critical Differences. For the º±® ¬¸» ݱ²¼·¬·±² Ò±¬»¼¿
rently available detergents. components of variance reported in Í·²¹´»ó É·¬¸·²ó Þ»¬©»»²ó
11.2 Test No. 2A. 11.2.4, two averages of observed values Ò±ò ±º Ñ°»®¿¬±® Ô¿¾ Ô¿¾
11.2.1 Summary. An interlaboratory should be considered significantly differ- Ѿ-»®ª¿¬·±²- Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±²
test was carried out in May 1985 to estab- ent at the 95% probability level if the dif- ï ïòðí ïòîç ïòìç
lish the precision of Test No. 2A. A part ference equals or exceeds the critical dif- í ðòëç ðòçè ïòîí
of the test was to determine if the wider ferences shown in Table III. ë ðòìê ðòçï ïòïé
15 mm (0.6 in.) No. 10A multifiber test
fabric could be substituted for the 8 mm ¿
̸» ½®·¬·½¿´ ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ©»®» ½¿´½«´¿¬»¼ «-·²¹ ¬ ã
(0.33 in.) wide No. 10. The complete test Ì¿¾´» ××׉ݮ·¬·½¿´ Ü·ºº»®»²½»-ô Ù®¿¼»-ô ïòçë𠩸·½¸ ·- ¾¿-»¼ ±² ·²º·²·¬» ¼»¹®»»- ±º º®»»¼±³ò
consisted of six laboratories evaluating º±® ¬¸» ݱ²¼·¬·±² Ò±¬»¼¿
10 materials in duplicate by one operator 11.3.4 Instrumental Assessment. Color
Í·²¹´»ó É·¬¸·²ó Þ»¬©»»²ó
using Test No. 2A. Ò±ò ±º Ñ°»®¿¬±® Ô¿¾ Ô¿¾ change as total color difference
11.2.2 Color Change. Three raters Ѿ-»®ª¿¬·±²- Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±² (CIELAB) was measured on a spectro-
from six laboratories independently eval- ï ðòéë ïòîð ïòíç photometer or colorimeter using aper-
uated nine materials in duplicate using í ðòìí ïòðí ïòîë tures ranging in size from 13-51 mm
the Gray Scale for Color Change. The ë ðòíí ïòðð ïòîî (0.5-2.0 in.) in diameter, illuminant D 65 /
components of variance as standard devi- 10° observer or illuminant C/2° observer.
ations of the colorfastness grades (aver- ¿
̸» ½®·¬·½¿´ ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ©»®» ½¿´½«´¿¬»¼ «-·²¹ ¬ ã Six materials were tested at each of six
ages of variances for No. 10 and No. 10A ïòçë𠩸·½¸ ·- ¾¿-»¼ ±² ·²º·²·¬» ¼»¹®»»- ±º º®»»¼±³ò
laboratories. One operator in each labora-
multifiber test fabrics) were calculated as tory tested four specimens of each fabric.
follows: The components of variance for E* ex-
11.2.6 Bias. Tests comparing five
Single-Operator home launderings at 40°C (105°F) with pressed as coefficients of variation were
Component 0.29 one Launder-Ometer Test No. 2A indi- calculated to be:
Within-Laboratory cate there is no bias between the two Single-Operator
Component 0.29 methods for the colorfastness and stain- Component 6.8%
Between-Laboratory ing levels evaluated. Between-Laboratory
Component 0.29 11.3 Test No. 5A, Chlorine Bleach. Component 11.2%

ßßÌÝÝ Ì»½¸²·½¿´ Ó¿²«¿´ñîðïð ÌÓ êïóîððç èç

Copyright © 2009 American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
11.3.5 Critical Differences. For the 12.3 The preheater/storage unit may be a Calculation:
components of variance reported in side unit to the laundering machine or a sepa- % sodium hypochlorite
11.3.4, two averages of observed values rate module with its individual electric heater
and thermostat to control water bath tempera- ø mL Na 2 S 2 O 3 ÷ ø 0.1N ÷ ø 0.03722 ÷
should be considered significantly differ- = óóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóó
ó I 100
tures for heating containers and solutions prior ø 2.00 g NaOCl ÷
ent at the 95% probability level if the dif- to loading the laundering machine.
ference equals or exceeds the critical dif- 12.4 Available from AATCC, P.O. Box The factor 0.03722 is derived by multiplying
ferences shown in Table V. 12215, Research Triangle Park NC 27709; tel: the molecular weight of NaOCl (74.45 g/mol)
919/549-8141; fax: 919/549-8933; e-mail: by 0.001 (mL to L conversion) and dividing; web site: by 2 (mols of thiosulfate per hypochlorite).
Ì¿¾´» ʉݮ·¬·½¿´ Ü·ºº»®»²½»-ô л®½»²¬ ±º 12.5 Bleached cotton test fabric in 32 I 32 12.9.2 Oxidizing power of sodium hy-
Ù®¿²¼ ߪ»®¿¹» º±® ¬¸» ݱ²¼·¬·±²- Ò±¬»¼ ¿ô¾ ends I picks/cm (80 I 80 ends I picks/in.) pochlorite is typically expressed in terms of
construction, 100 ± 3 g/m2 and without fluo- available chlorine, the equivalent amount of di-
Ò±ò ±º Í·²¹´»ó Þ»¬©»»²ó rescent whitening agent should be used. atomic chlorine present. A 5.25% NaOCl solu-
Ѿ-»®ª¿¬·±²- ·² Ñ°»®¿¬±® Ô¿¾±®¿¬±®§ 12.6 The 1993 AATCC Standard Reference tion contains 50,000 ppm available chlorine.
Û¿½¸ ߪ»®¿¹» Ю»½·-·±² Ю»½·-·±² Detergent WOB (without fluorescent whiten- 12.10 Crockmeter test cloth, 32 I 33 ends I
ï ïèòé íêòî ing agent), a compact formulation, is the pri- picks/cm (80 I 84 ends I picks/cm) combed
í ïðòè íîòè mary detergent to be used in this test method. cotton, desized, bleached (no fluorescent whit-
ë èòì íîòï Where the effect of a fluorescent whitening ener or finishing material present) should be
agent is to be evaluated, 1993 AATCC Stan- used.
̸» ½®·¬·½¿´ ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ©»®» ½¿´½«´¿¬»¼ «-·²¹ ¬ ã dard Reference Detergent (with fluorescent 12.11 If staining evaluations are needed for
ïòçë𠩸·½¸ ·- ¾¿-»¼ ±² ·²º·²·¬» ¼»¹®»»- ±º º®»»¼±³ò whitening agent) should be used. Both deter- Tests No. 4A and 5A, they may be carried out
̱ ½±²ª»®¬ ¬¸» ª¿´«»- ±º ¬¸» ½®·¬·½¿´ ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ¬± gents are available from AATCC, P.O. Box using the corresponding Tests No. 2A or 3A,
«²·¬- ±º ³»¿-«®»ô ³«´¬·°´§ ¬¸» ½®·¬·½¿´ ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ¾§ 12215, Research Triangle Park NC 27709; tel: which use no bleach. Test No. 2A is the
¬¸» ¿ª»®¿¹» ±º ¬¸» ¬©± -°»½·º·½ -»¬- ±º ¼¿¬¿ ¾»·²¹ 919/549-8141; fax: 919/549-8933; e-mail: no-bleach alternate for Test No. 5A, and Test
½±³°¿®»¼ ¿²¼ ¬¸»² ¼·ª·¼» ¾§ ïððò; web site: No. 3A is the no-bleach alternate for Test
12.7 The 2003 AATCC Standard Reference No. 4A.
Liquid Detergent WOB (without fluorescent 12.12 If multifiber test fabric is used in con-
11.3.6 Bias. Tests comparing five whitening agents) is a liquid detergent that has junction with Tests 4A or 5A, the wool can ab-
home launderings at 49°C (120°F) with been approved as an alternate to the 1993 sorb the chlorine leaving very little for
one Launder-Ometer Test No. 5A indi- AATCC Standard Reference Detergent WOB bleaching action. The wool may be removed
cate there is no bias between the two for Option 1B only at this time. The use of the from the multifiber test fabric before testing to
Liquid Detergent in other test options is being eliminate this effect.
methods for the colorfastness levels eval- studied. Both detergents are available from 12.13 For very critical evaluations and in
uated (see 12.14). AATCC, P.O. Box 12215, Research Triangle cases of arbitration, grades must be based on
Park NC 27709; tel: 919/549-8141; fax: 919/ the geometric Gray Scale for Staining.
549-8933; e-mail:; web site: 12.14 For additional information pertaining
ïîò Ò±¬»- to the bias between Test No. 5A and five home
12.8 Use distilled water or deionized water washes, refer to Fig. 1 in Interlaboratory Study
12.1 For potential equipment information of not more than 15 ppm hardness to dissolve of Proposed Launder-Ometer Test for Colorfast-
pertaining to this test method, please visit the detergent and for the test solutions. ness of Fabrics to Chlorine and Non-Chlorine
the online AATCC Buyer’s Guide at http:// 12.9 Use sodium hypochlorite bleach pur- Bleaches, Report to AATCC Committee RA60, AATCC provides the pos- chased within the last six months for a stock Colorfastness to Washing Test Methods,
sibility of listing equipment and materials sold solution. November 1984, New York NY by L. B.
by its Corporate members, but AATCC does 12.9.1 To confirm the stock solution’s hy- Farmer and J. W. Whitworth of Milliken
not qualify, or in any way approve, endorse or pochlorite activity, weigh 2.00 g liquid sodium Research Corp., Spartanburg SC, and J. G. Tew,
certify that any of the listed equipment or hypochlorite into an Erlenmeyer flask and di- AATCC Technical Center, Research Triangle
materials meets the requirements in its test lute with 50 mL of deionized water. Add 10 Park NC.
methods. mL of 10% sulfuric acid and 10 mL of 10% 12.15 AATCC Evaluation Procedure 7
12.2 Teflon is a registered trademark of the potassium iodide. Titrate with 0.1N sodium gives a method for computing Gray Scale
DuPont Co., Wilmington DE 19898. thiosulfate until colorless. grades from color measurement data.

çð ÌÓ êïóîððç ßßÌÝÝ Ì»½¸²·½¿´ Ó¿²«¿´ñîðïð

Copyright © 2009 American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists

Minat Terkait