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# Math 156

## I. Basic Counting Principle

Determine the number of outcomes in each event. In other words, determine the size of the sample
space.
1. You select one card from a standard deck of cards.
2. A computer is used to randomly select a number between 1 and 4000.
3. You simultaneously toss a pair of dice and three coins.
4. A software company is hiring two positions: a software engineer and a sales operation
manager. In how many ways can these positions be filled if there are 12 people applying for the
engineering position and 17 people applying for the managerial position?
5. Assuming that no questions are left unanswered, in how many ways can a six-question
true-false quiz be answered?
6. A realtor uses a lock box to store the keys for a house that is for sale. The access code
for the lock box consists of four digits. The first digit cannot be zero and the last digit must be
even. How many different codes are available?

## II. What does an outcome look like?

7. Give an example of one of the outcomes from problem # 3 above; problem # 5; problem #6.

## III. Recognizing Simple v. Compound Probability Events

Directions: Identify whether the stated event is a simple event or a compound event.

## 8. Experiment: A computer picks a number between 1 and 4000

Event A is selecting the number 253.
Event B is selecting a number less than 500.
Event C is selecting an odd number.
Event D is not selecting the number 3120.

## 9. Experiment: Answering all the questions on a 6-question true-false quiz.

Event A is getting a perfect score.
Event B is getting exactly 2 questions correct.
Event C is getting at least 5 correct questions.

10. Experiment: Choose one card randomly from a standard deck of cards.
Event A is selecting an ace.
Event B is selecting a ten of diamonds.

## IV. Determining Probability Values

11. A bag contains 40 marbles: 18 red ones and 22 green ones. If one marble is chosen at random
out of this bag, determine:
A. P(it is a red marble)
B. P(it is a green marble)
C. P( it is not a green marble)

12. A sample of 500 large companies showed that 120 of them offer free psychiatric help to their
employees who suffer from psychological problems. If one company is selected at random from this
sample, what is the probability that this company offers free psychiatric help to its employees who
suffer from psychological problems? What is the probability that this company does not offer free
psychiatric help to its employees who suffer from psychological problems? Do these two probabilities
add up to 1.00? If yes, why?

13. In a large city, 15,000 workers lost their jobs last year. Of them, 7400 lost their jobs because their
companies closed down or moved, 4600 lost their jobs due to insufficient work, and the remainder lost
their jobs because their positions were abolished. If one of these15, 000 workers is selected at
random, find the probability that this worker lost his or her job
A. because the company closed down or moved?
B. due to insufficient work?
C. because the position was abolished?
D. because the company did not close down and did not move?

## E. Do the probabilities in events A, B, & C add up to 1.00? If so, why?

F. Is event D the complement of either event A or event B or event C ? Does that pair
of probability values add up to 1.00?

1. 52 2. 4000 3. 6 x 6 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 288 4. 12 x 17 =
204
5. 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 26 = 64 6. 9 x 10 x 10 x 5 = 4500

7. prob. #3: 62HHT or 15THT prob. #5: TTFFTT or TFFFFT prob. #7: 9306 or 2222

## 8. Event A is a simple event as there is only one number that is 253.

Event B is a compound event as there are many numbers that are less than 500.
Event C is a compound event as there are many odd numbers less than 4000.
Event D is a compound event as there are 3999 other numbers that are not 3120.

9. Event A is a simple event as there is only one way to earn a perfect score.
Event B is a compound event as there are several ways to have exactly 2 questions correct:
either only the 1st & 2nd answers are correct, or only the 1st & 3rd answers are correct, or only the 4th
& 5th answers are correct, or only the 5th & 6th answers are correct, or… (You get the idea.).
Event C is a compound event as there are several ways to get exactly 5 correct answers or
there is getting a perfect paper.

10. Event A is a compound event as there are four possible correct cards – ace of hearts or ace of
spades or ace of diamonds or ace of clubs.
Event B is a simple event as there is only one card of that description.

11. A. 18/40 = 0.45 = 45% B. 22/40 = 0.55 = 55% C. 18/40 = 0.45 = 45%

12. A. 120/500 = 0.24 = 24% B. 380/500 = 0.76 = 76% C. Yes, complementary events.

## 13. A. 7400/15000 = 0.493 = 49.3% B. 4600/15000 = 0.306 = 30.6%

C. 3000/15000 = 0.200 = 20% D. 7600/15000 = .506 = 50.6%
E. Yes, because they are the only 3 simple outcomes in this experiment
F. Yes, event D is the complement of event A; that is why their probabilities add up to 1.00.