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ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

A N I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O D E

FIBER-REINFORCED
PLASTIC PRESSURE
VESSELS

2000 Addenda
July 1, 2000

ASME BOILER AND


PRESSURE VESSEL
COMMITTEE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON
FIBER-REINFORCED
PLASTIC PRESSURE
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS VESSELS
NEW YORK, NEW YORK

Q100W0

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IMPORTANT INFORMATION
ON THE 1998 BOILER AND
PRESSURE VESSEL CODE ADDENDA
DISTRIBUTION SCHEDULE

There is a change in the way the Addenda to the 1998 Edition of the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code are distributed. The 1998 Edition, published July 1, 1998, incorpo-
rates the 1998 Addenda revisions, additions, or deletions. There will be no separate 1998
Addenda issued in a replacement page format. Two additional Addenda to the 1998
Edition, in the form of replacement pages, will be issued on July 1, 1999 and July 1, 2000.

The Summary of Changes published with the 1998 Edition lists and describes the revisions
that are part of the 1998 Addenda. These changes are identified with a margin note, 98,
denoting the affected area.

The Addenda for 1999 and 2000 will also have a Summary of Changes and identifiers
printed on the replacement pages. The revisions, additions, or deletions will be incorporated
directly into the affected pages. It is advisable to retain the title sheets and all replaced
pages for reference.

The effective dates for Code Editions and Addenda are described in the Foreword.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2000 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

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SUMMARY OF CHANGES
Addenda to the 1998 Edition of the Code are issued in the form of replacement pages. Revisions,
additions, or deletions are incorporated directly into the affected pages. It is advisable, however,
that all replaced pages be retained for reference.
Replace or insert the pages listed. Changes given below are identified on the pages by a
margin note, A00, placed next to the affected area. Revisions to the 1998 Edition are indicated
by 98, and revisions in the 1999 Addenda are indicated by A99. For the listing below, the
Page references the affected area. A margin note, A00, placed next to the heading indicates
Location. Revisions are listed under Change.

Page Location Change


xiii–xxii Roster Updated to reflect A00
1 Materials Paragraph 2 revised
16 Table RM-120.1 (1) In second column, ASTM D 10454
corrected by Errata to read ASTM
D 1045
(2) First entry of each group in second
column revised
Table RM-120.2 First entry of each group in second col-
umn revised
19 RM-211 Revised
53.1, 54 RD-1176.1 Equals sign added by Errata to first line
of p. 54
86 RQ-131 Subparagraph (a)(1) revised
RQ-141 Subparagraph (a)(1) revised
101 RT-214 Revised
105 RT-411.2 Revised
RT-411.3 Revised
106 RT-450 Revised
129 Appendices Contents Updated to reflect A00
150.1–150.5 Appendix 6 Added
193, 194 AD-501.2 Eq. (18) corrected by Errata

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[Blank SOC Page] This is electronic page #4 [Blank SOC Page]
PERSONNEL A99
A00
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee
Subcommittees, Subgroups, and Working Groups
As of January 1, 2000
MAIN COMMITTEE CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
D. E. Tanner — Tennessee D. J. Jenkins — Kansas
D. A. Canonico, Chair W. M. Lundy
(Chair) M. Kotb — Quebec, Canada
G. G. Karcher, Vice Chair J. R. MacKay
R. D. Reetz — North Dakota J. P. Larson — Minnesota
J. S. Brzuszkiewicz, Secretary T. G. McCarty
(Vice Chair) K. T. Lau — Alberta, Canada
R. W. Barnes G. C. Millman
A. J. Justin — Ohio (Secretary) J. Lemire — California
F. P. Barton R. A. Moen
R. J. Aben, Jr. — Michigan W. C. Lundine — Oregon
D. L. Berger P. A. Molvie
J. S. Aclaro — Los Angeles, S. E. Lyons — Arkansas
M. D. Bernstein C. C. Neely
California M. A. Malek — Florida
M. N. Bressler T. P. Pastor
E. A. Anderson — Chicago, Il- G. F. Mankel — Alaska
P. J. Conlisk C. J. Pieper
linois I. W. Mault — Manitoba,
R. E. Feigel R. F. Reedy
J. Anderson — South Dakota Canada
J. G. Feldstein B. W. Roberts
R. Barkdoll — Washington H. T. McEwen — Mississippi
R. E. Gimple F. J. Schaaf, Jr.
R. Barlett — Arizona A. W. Meiring — Indiana
M. Gold A. Selz
F. P. Barton — Virginia R. Mile — Ontario, Canada
O. F. Hedden K. K. Tam
M. Bishop — British Columbia, T. J. Monroe — Oklahoma
A. J. Justin D. E. Tanner
Canada M. F. Mooney — Massachu-
D. F. Landers
D. E. Burns — Nebraska setts
C. Castle — Nova Scotia, Y. Nagpaul — Hawaii
Canada J. D. Payton — Pennsylvania
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (MAIN COMMITTEE)
R. R. Cate — Louisiana D. K. Peetz — Missouri
G. G. Karcher, Chair M. Gold L. Chase — Northwest Territo- M. R. Peterson — Alaska
D. A. Canonico, Vice Chair O. F. Hedden ries, Canada D. C. Price — Yukon Territory,
J. S. Brzuszkiewicz, Secretary A. J. Justin R. A. Coomes — Kentucky Canada
J. G. Feldstein T. P. Pastor J. Corcoran — Connecticut R. S. Pucek — Wisconsin
M. H. Diehl, Jr. — Maryland C. D. Redmond — Michigan
D. A. Douin — Illinois T. E. Rennie — Arizona
HONORARY MEMBERS (MAIN COMMITTEE) D. Eastman — Newfoundland D. E. Ross — New Brunswick,
and Labrador, Canada Canada
R. D. Bonner E. J. Hemzy G. L. Ebeyer — New Orleans, M. Shuff — West Virginia
R. J. Bosnak E. C. Kistner, Jr. Louisiana N. Surtees — Saskatchewan,
H. M. Canavan J. E. Lattan E. Everett — Georgia Canada
L. J. Chockie J. LeCoff P. C. Hackford — Utah M. J. Verhagen — Wisconsin
J. S. Clarke F. N. Moschini D. H. Hanrath — North Car- R. B. West — Iowa
W. E. Cooper W. E. Somers olina M. J. Wheel — Vermont
W. D. Doty L. P. Zick, Jr. J. B. Harlan — Delaware R. K. White — New York
R. C. Griffin K. Hynes — Prince Edward T. F. Wickham — Rhode Island
Island, Canada C. S. Withers — Colorado
D. T. Jagger — Ohio
HONORS AND AWARDS COMMITTEE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON POWER BOILERS (SC I)
J. R. MacKay, Chair M. Gold
A. J. Spencer, Vice Chair F. E. Gregor J. R. MacKay, Chair W. L. Lowry
M. R. Argenziano, Secretary D. P. Jones M. D. Bernstein, Vice Chair T. C. McGough
F. P. Barton E. C. Kistner, Jr. P. D. Stumpf, Secretary R. E. McLaughlin
M. D. Bernstein T. P. Pastor D. L. Berger P. A. Molvie
J. G. Feldstein C. J. Pieper E. Everett D. K. Parrish
D. N. French J. T. Pillow
F. R. Gerety R. G. Presnak
MARINE CONFERENCE GROUP J. Hainsworth B. W. Roberts
T. E. Hansen R. D. Schueler, Jr.
J. Tiratto, Chair J. L. Jones J. S. Hunter R. V. Wielgoszinski
L. W. Douthwaite G. F. Wright C. F. Jeerings R. L. Williams

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Subgroup on Design (SC I) Subgroup on External Pressure (SC II)

M. D. Bernstein, Chair C. F. Jeerings R. W. Mikitka, Chair M. Katcher


R. D. Schueler, Jr., Vice Chair K. C. Morrison B. R. Morelock, Secretary E. Michalopoulos
P. A. Molvie, Secretary N. Surtees D. C. Agarwal D. Nadel
M. L. Coats R. V. Wielgoszinski D. J. Green C. E. Spaeder, Jr.
J. D. Fishburn D. S. Griffin C. H. Sturgeon

Subgroup on Ferrous Specifications (SC II)


Subgroup on Fabrication and Examination (SC I)
E. G. Nisbett, Chair W. C. Mack
D. L. Berger, Chair J. M. Lyons B. M. Dingman A. S. Melilli
R. E. McLaughlin, Secretary J. R. MacKay T. Graham J. T. Parsons
R. W. Boyce J. T. Pillow W. N. Holliday E. Upitis
D. N. French M. E. Reese D. A. Jackson R. Zawierucha
J. Hainsworth B. W. Roberts D. C. Krouse A. W. Zeuthen
T. E. Hansen R. D. Schueler, Jr. J. F. Longenecker R. H. Zong
M. H. Iken
Subgroup on International Material Specifications (SC II)

Subgroup on General Requirements (SC I) J. T. Parsons, Chair M. H. Iken


R. R. Seeley, Secretary W. M. Lundy
T. C. McGough, Chair C. F. Jeerings D. C. Agarwal H. Masahisa
M. D. Bernstein, Vice Chair J. M. Lyons J. Cameron F. Osweiller
W. L. Lowry, Secretary R. E. McLaughlin W. D. Doty R. D. Schueler, Jr.
D. L. Berger D. K. Parrish D. M. Fryer R. C. Soin
E. Everett J. T. Pillow J. P. Glaspie E. A. Steen
F. R. Gerety W. E. Somers M. Gold E. Upitis
J. Hainsworth R. L. Williams
Subgroup on Nonferrous Alloys (SC II)

Subgroup on Materials (SC I) D. W. Rahoi, Chair B. Heuer


D. C. Agarwal, Secretary G. C. Hsu
B. W. Roberts, Chair J. P. Libbrecht W. R. Apblett, Jr. M. Katcher
C. E. Spaeder, Jr., Chair F. Masuyama L. G. Coffee A. G. Kireta, Jr.
J. S. Hunter, Secretary J. M. Tanzosh A. Cohen E. Shapiro
D. N. French H. N. Titer, Jr. R. Dirscherl L. E. Shoemaker
J. F. Henry M. H. Gilkey R. C. Sutherlin

Subgroup on Strength, Ferrous Alloys (SC II)


Subgroup on Piping (SC I)
B. W. Roberts, Chair F. Masuyama
T. E. Hansen, Chair W. L. Lowry J. M. Tanzosh, Secretary R. A. Moen
D. L. Berger T. C. McGough W. R. Apblett, Jr. D. W. Rahoi
M. D. Bernstein R. G. Presnak M. Gold C. E. Spaeder, Jr.
P. D. Edwards E. Whittle J. J. Heger R. W. Swindeman
M. H. Iken C. L. Hoffmann B. E. Thurgood

Subgroup on Strength of Weldments (SC II & SC IX)


SUBCOMMITTEE ON MATERIALS (SC II)
C. E. Spaeder, Jr., Chair B. W. Roberts
M. Gold, Chair G. C. Hsu C. Robino, Secretary W. J. Sperko
R. A. Moen, Vice Chair F. Masuyama W. D. Doty J. M. Tanzosh
N. Lobo, Secretary R. K. Nanstad D. W. Rahoi
A. P. Ahrendt E. G. Nisbett
W. R. Apblett, Jr. J. T. Parsons
Subgroup on Toughness (SC II)
M. N. Bressler D. W. Rahoi
J. Cameron B. W. Roberts W. S. Jacobs, Chair J. L. Mooney
W. D. Doty E. Shapiro R. J. Basile C. C. Neely
D. W. Gandy C. E. Spaeder, Jr. J. Cameron T. T. Phillips
M. H. Gilkey R. W. Swindeman W. D. Doty M. D. Rana
J. J. Heger J. M. Tanzosh H. E. Gordon J. W. Stokes
J. F. Henry R. S. Vecchio G. B. Komora E. Upitis
C. L. Hoffmann K. Mokhtarian

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SUBCOMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR POWER (SC III) Working Group on Component Supports (SG-D) (SC III)

C. J. Pieper, Chair D. H. Hanrath R. P. Deubler, Chair A. S. Laurenson


R. M. Jessee, Vice Chair R. S. Hill III R. M. Dulin, Jr., Secretary A. Lee
C. A. Sanna, Secretary C. L. Hoffmann U. S. Bandyopadhyay R. J. Masterson
Y. Asada K.-H. Hsu F. J. Birch A. N. Nguyen
R. W. Barnes C. C. Kim J. R. Cole I. Saito
W. H. Borter D. F. Landers J. C. Finneran, Jr. J. R. Stinson
E. B. Branch W. C. LaRochelle J. C. Hennart
M. N. Bressler W. N. McLean
F. C. Cherny R. A. Moen
G. D. Cooper D. B. Nickerson
R. P. Deubler R. F. Perrin Working Group on Core Support Structures (SG-D) (SC III)
W. D. Doty R. F. Reedy
F. R. Drahos B. B. Scott R. H. Hansen J. F. Mullooly
K. Ennis M. W. Smith K. B. Larsen B. L. Silverblatt
B. A. Erler J. D. Stevenson
G. M. Foster K. R. Wichman

Working Group on Dynamic and Extreme Load Conditions


(SG-D) (SC III)
Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel
and High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (SC III)
D. L. Caldwell, Chair M. Hartzman
G. M. Foster, Chair T. J. Neider P. L. Anderson, Secretary W. S. LaPay
G. J. Solovey, Vice Chair R. E. Nickell M. K. Au-Yang H. Lockert
W. H. Borter D. J. Nolan R. D. Blevins A. E. Meligi
H. H. Chung D. T. Raske P.-Y. Chen P. R. Olson
J. T. Conner T. Saegusa A. Hadjian R. F. Perry
R. R. Doggart R. H. Smith
E. L. Farrow K. B. Sorenson
K. Goldmann J. D. Stevenson
Working Group on Piping (SG-D) (SC III)
D. R. Heath C. J. Temus
R. H. Jones P. Turula
R. S. Hill III, Chair K. A. Manoly
W. H. Lake N. Urabe
P. Hirschberg, Secretary J. C. Minichiello
H. W. Lee C. R. Witt
T. M. Adams S. E. Moore
P. McConnell S. Yukawa
G. A. Antaki A. N. Nguyen
J. R. Cole O. O. Oyamada
A. B. Glickstein R. D. Patel
Subgroup on Design (SC III) R. W. Haupt E. C. Rodabaugh
J. C. Hennart J. R. Santangelo
R. W. Barnes, Chair B. Jarman
R. D. Hookway M. S. Sills
E. B. Branch, Vice Chair R. I. Jetter
R. B. Jenkins G. C. Slagis
A. N. Nguyen, Secretary J. T. Land
D. F. Landers E. A. Wais
T. M. Adams D. F. Landers
Y. Asada W. N. McLean
M. N. Bressler J. C. Minichiello
C. W. Bruny D. B. Nickerson Working Group on Pumps (SG-D) (SC III)
J. R. Cole W. Z. Novak
G. D. Cooper E. C. Rodabaugh R. E. Cornman, Jr., Chair J. W. Leavitt
R. E. Cornman, Jr. I. Saito H. L. Brammer J. E. Livingston
R. P. Deubler J. R. Santangelo P. Burchett D. B. Nickerson
R. E. Gimple G. C. Slagis A. A. Fraser R. A. Schussler
D. H. Hanrath J. D. Stevenson M. Higuchi H. Tafarrodi
R. S. Hill III K. R. Wichman G. R. Jones G. K. Vaghasia

Working Group on Administration (SG-D) (SC III)


Working Group on Valves (SG-D) (SC III)
E. B. Branch, Chair D. F. Landers
R. W. Barnes, Vice Chair W. N. McLean W. N. McLean, Chair S. N. Shields
R. S. Hill III, Secretary D. B. Nickerson E. A. Bake H. R. Sonderegger
C. W. Bruny W. Z. Novak R. R. Brodin J. C. Tsacoyeanes
R. P. Deubler J. R. Santangelo R. Koester R. G. Visalli
J. T. Land J. D. Page

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Working Group on Vessels (SG-D) (SC III) JOINT ACI-ASME COMMITTEE ON
CONCRETE COMPONENTS FOR NUCLEAR SERVICE (SC 3C)
C. W. Bruny, Chair K. A. Manoly
G. D. Cooper D. E. Matthews
B. B. Scott, Chair D. J. Haavik
G. A. Deaver A. Merend
M. F. Hessheimer, Vice Chair D. C. Jeng
D. H. Hanrath G. K. Miller
C. A. Sanna, Secretary T. E. Johnson
W. J. Heilker W. Z. Novak
J. P. Allen III N.-H. Lee
A. Kalnins E. Pelling
J. F. Artuso S. F. Putman
T. M. Khan H. S. Thornton
R. M. Attar R. E. Shewmaker
O. Maekawa
A. C. Eberhardt J. D. Stevenson
B. A. Erler A. Y. Wong
Special Working Group on Environmental Effects (SG-D) (SC III)
W. Z. Novak, Chair C. L. Hoffmann
Y. Asada R. A. Moen
SUBCOMMITTEE ON HEATING BOILERS (SC IV)
W. J. Heilker S. Yukawa
R. S. Hill III
F. P. Barton, Chair R. I. Mullican
P. A. Molvie, Vice Chair E. A. Nordstrom
Special Working Group on Seismic Piping Rules (SG-D) (SC III) M. R. Argenziano, Secretary J. L. Seigle
R. B. Duggan D. E. Tanner
E. B. Branch, Chair V. Matzen
W. L. Haag, Jr. S. V. Voorhees
T. M. Adams J. C. Minichiello
W. M. Hiddleston R. H. Weigel
G. A. Antaki M. S. Sills
J. D. Hoh R. V. Wielgoszinski
T. Isogai E. A. Wais
D. H. Mapes J. I. Woodworth
H. Kobayashi T. Yamazaki
K. M. McTague

Subgroup on General Requirements (SC III & SC 3C)


W. C. LaRochelle, Chair M. R. Minick
Subgroup on Care and Operation of Heating Boilers (SC IV)
K. Ennis, Secretary R. F. Perrin
A. Appleton B. B. Scott
B. H. Berg D. E. Tanner J. I. Woodworth, Chair P. A. Molvie
C. Lizotte D. M. Vickery M. R. Argenziano, Secretary R. I. Mullican
M. J. Meyer D. V. Walshe K. J. Hoey R. H. Weigel
R. Mile J. D. Hoh T. F. Wickham
K. M. McTague

Subgroup on Materials, Fabrication, and Examination (SC III)


C. L. Hoffmann, Chair R. M. Jessee
G. P. Milley, Secretary C. C. Kim Subgroup on Cast Iron Boilers (SC IV)
C. W. Allison R. A. Moen
B. H. Berg H. Murakami K. M. McTague, Chair T. F. Wickham
W. H. Borter C. J. Pieper R. B. Duggan J. I. Woodworth
D. Doyle N. M. Simpson R. H. Weigel
F. R. Drahos R. C. Soin
G. M. Foster W. J. Sperko
G. B. Georgiev K. B. Stuckey
J. E. Harris S. Yukawa Subgroup on Water Heaters (SC IV)
R. W. Jackson
W. L. Haag, Jr., Chair R. I. Mullican
T. D. Gantt D. Smith
Subgroup on Pressure Relief (SC III)
W. M. Hiddleston D. E. Tanner
F. C. Cherny, Chair M. W. Smith F. M. Lucas M. A. Taylor
S. F. Harrison, Jr. A. L. Szeglin K. M. McTague T. E. Trant
E. M. Petrosky B. S. York

Special Working Group on Editing and Review (SC III)


Subgroup on Welded Boilers (SC IV)
R. F. Reedy, Chair D. H. Hanrath
W. H. Borter W. C. LaRochelle P. A. Molvie, Chair J. L. Seigle
M. N. Bressler M. W. Smith T. L. Bedeaux R. P. Sullivan
R. P. Deubler J. D. Stevenson D. H. Mapes D. E. Tanner
B. A. Erler E. A. Nordstrom R. V. Wielgoszinski

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SUBCOMMITTEE ON SUBCOMMITTEE ON PRESSURE VESSELS (SC VIII)
NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (SC V)
T. P. Pastor, Chair J. C. Keenan
T. G. McCarty, Chair O. F. Hedden K. Mokhtarian, Vice Chair G. B. Komora
J. E. Batey, Vice Chair G. W. Hembree A. J. Roby, Secretary K. T. Lau
E. H. Maradiaga, Secretary F. B. Kovacs V. Bogosian R. W. Mikitka
S. J. Akrin R. W. Kruzic R. W. Boyce U. R. Miller
A. S. Birks J. F. Manning S. M. Caldwell C. C. Neely
B. H. Clark, Jr. W. C. McGaughey S. C. Cyr M. D. Rana
W. T. Clayton R. D. McGuire R. M. Elliott K. J. Schneider
R. A. Coomes F. J. Sattler J. R. Farr A. Selz
N. Y. Faransso E. F. Summers, Jr. R. E. Feigel J. R. Sims, Jr.
H. C. Graber J. G. Feldstein A. J. Spencer
G. L. Hollinger E. A. Steen
M. J. Houle K. K. Tam
Subgroup on General Requirements/ W. S. Jacobs E. L. Thomas, Jr.
Personnel Qualifications and Inquiries (SC V) G. G. Karcher

R. D. McGuire, Chair H. C. Graber


Subgroup on Design (SC VIII)
J. E. Batey G. W. Hembree
W. T. Clayton J. R. MacKay U. R. Miller, Chair G. B. Komora
N. Y. Faransso J. P. Swezy R. E. Knoblock, Secretary R. W. Mikitka
R. J. Basile K. Mokhtarian
M. R. Bauman T. P. Pastor
Subgroup on Surface Examination Methods (SC V) M. R. Breach M. D. Rana
S. M. Caldwell G. B. Rawls, Jr.
A. S. Birks, Chair H. C. Graber J. R. Farr C. D. Rodery
S. J. Akrin G. W. Hembree J. P. Glaspie A. Selz
T. Alexander R. W. Kruzic J. A. Hayward S. C. Shah
B. H. Clark, Jr. F. J. Sattler G. L. Hollinger J. W. Stokes
R. A. Coomes E. F. Summers, Jr. W. S. Jacobs K. K. Tam
G. G. Karcher E. L. Thomas, Jr.

Subgroup on Volumetric Methods (SC V)


Subgroup on Fabrication and Inspection (SC VIII)
J. E. Batey, Chair E. K. Kietzman
R. W. Boyce, Chair R. A. Johnson
S. J. Akrin F. B. Kovacs
J. L. Arnold D. J. Kreft
W. T. Clayton R. W. Kruzic
W. J. Bees A. S. Lester III
N. Y. Faransso J. F. Manning
S. C. Cyr F. C. Ouyang
H. C. Graber W. C. McGaughey
H. E. Gordon M. J. Pischke
G. W. Hembree J. R. Mitchell
M. J. Houle M. J. Rice
B. Kellerhall
K. M. Hudson C. D. Rodery
W. S. Jacobs W. P. Webb

Working Group on Acoustic Emissions (SG-VM) (SC V)


Subgroup on General Requirements (SC VIII)
B. H. Clark, Jr. J. F. Manning
P. M. Horrigan J. R. Mitchell R. M. Elliott, Chair A. S. Mann
V. Bogosian C. C. Neely
M. L. Coats A. S. Olivares
J. P. Glaspie S. C. Roberts
Working Group on Radiography (SG-VM) (SC V)
J. C. Keenan K. J. Schneider
G. W. Hembree, Chair N. Y. Faransso K. T. Lau A. J. Spencer
S. J. Akrin H. C. Graber W. E. Laveck, Jr.
T. Alexander F. B. Kovacs
J. E. Batey R. W. Kruzic Subgroup on Materials (SC VIII)
J. Cameron, Chair E. E. Morgenegg
Working Group on Ultrasonics (SG-VM) (SC V) D. C. Agarwal E. G. Nisbett
W. D. Doty J. T. Parsons
W. T. Clayton, Chair W. C. McGaughey W. D. Edsall D. W. Rahoi
O. F. Hedden R. Paillaman D. A. Franklin K. K. Tam
B. Kellerhall F. J. Sattler B. Heuer B. K. Thakur
E. K. Kietzman M. L. Shakinovsky M. Katcher E. Upitis
J. F. Manning W. M. Lundy

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Subgroup on Toughness (SC VIII) Subgroup on Materials (SC IX)
W. S. Jacobs, Chair J. L. Mooney M. L. Carpenter, Chair H. A. Sadler
R. J. Basile C. C. Neely L. P. Connor C. E. Sainz
J. Cameron T. T. Phillips P. D. Flenner C. E. Spaeder, Jr.
W. D. Doty M. D. Rana R. M. Jessee W. J. Sperko
H. E. Gordon J. W. Stokes C. C. Kim M. J. Stanko
G. B. Komora E. Upitis A. H. Miller R. R. Young
K. Mokhtarian

Special Working Group on Heat Transfer Equipment (SC VIII) Subgroup on Performance Qualification (SC IX)

G. B. Komora, Chair R. Mahadeen D. A. Bowers, Chair M. J. Houle


R. P. Zoldak, Secretary U. R. Miller V. A. Bell W. M. Lundy
C. F. Andreone T. W. Norton L. P. Connor R. D. McGuire
S. M. Caldwell F. Osweiller R. A. Coomes P. P. Norris
M. J. Holtz W. A. Treff P. D. Flenner W. K. Scattergood
W. G. Jandrasits S. Yokell G. Herrmann G. W. Spohn III

Special Working Group on High-Pressure Vessels (SC VIII)


Subgroup on Procedure Qualification (SC IX)
J. R. Sims, Jr., Chair M. M. James
P. A. Reddington, Secretary P. Jansson D. A. Bowers, Chair S. D. Reynolds, Jr.
L. P. Antalffy J. A. Kapp R. K. Brown, Jr. M. J. Rice
J. E. Baxter D. P. Kendall R. A. Johnson W. K. Scattergood
R. C. Biel A. K. Khare D. W. Mann W. J. Sperko
T. B. Boyd S. C. Mordre A. H. Miller P. L. Van Fosson
D. J. Burns G. J. Mraz P. P. Norris T. C. Wiesner
P. N. Chaku S. N. Pagay A. S. Olivares P. R. Wilt
E. L. Danfelt E. H. Perez F. C. Ouyang
R. E. Feigel L. M. Picqueur
D. M. Fryer E. D. Roll
J. L. Heck, Jr. W. L. Stewart SUBCOMMITTEE ON
A. H. Honza J. F. Sullivan FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC PRESSURE VESSELS (SC X)
V. T. Hwang F. W. Tatar P. J. Conlisk, Chair A. L. Newberry
D. Eisberg, Vice Chair D. J. Painter
SUBCOMMITTEE ON WELDING (SC IX) A. J. Roby, Secretary D. J. Pinell
K. M. Agrawal J. R. Richter
J. G. Feldstein, Chair A. H. Miller F. L. Brown J. A. Rolston
W. J. Sperko, Vice Chair B. R. Newmark J. L. Bustillos V. Sanchez
J. Labrador, Secretary P. P. Norris T. W. Cowley B. F. Shelley
R. Barkdoll A. S. Olivares T. J. Fowler J. H. Skaggs
D. A. Bowers S. D. Reynolds, Jr. L. E. Hunt P. R. Wilt
M. L. Carpenter G. W. Spohn III J. C. Murphy D. O. Yancey, Jr.
L. P. Connor M. J. Stanko
W. D. Doty P. L. Van Fosson
P. D. Flenner R. R. Young SUBCOMMITTEE ON
M. J. Houle W. K. Scattergood, Honorary NUCLEAR INSERVICE INSPECTION (SC XI)
W. M. Lundy Member
R. D. McGuire O. F. Hedden, Chair D. F. Landers
R. E. Gimple, Vice Chair T. F. Lentz
O. Martinez, Secretary J. T. Lindberg
Subgroup on Brazing (SC IX)
W. H. Bamford, Jr. G. C. Millman
M. J. Pischke, Chair C. F. Jeerings R. L. Beverly C. R. Osman
M. L. Carpenter A. H. Miller J. M. Bloom P. C. Riccardella
M. J. Houle C. Robino R. W. Boyce A. T. Roberts III
C. D. Cowfer L. Sage
D. D. Davis F. J. Schaaf, Jr.
Subgroup on General Requirements (SC IX)
R. L. Dyle R. J. Scott
B. R. Newmark, Chair D. W. Mann T. N. Epps III J. E. Staffiera
R. Barkdoll A. S. Olivares F. E. Gregor R. W. Swayne
P. R. Evans R. A. Weiss W. C. Holston C. W. Tahnk
P. C. Filean K. R. Willens K. Iida R. A. Yonekawa
R. M. Jessee R. D. Kerr K. K. Yoon

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Honorary Members (SC XI) Subgroup on Liquid-Metal–Cooled Systems (SC XI)

S. H. Bush L. R. Katz C. G. McCargar, Chair R. Hundal


L. J. Chockie R. R. MacCary W. L. Chase R. W. King
J. P. Houstrup S. Hattori W. Kwant

Subgroup on Evaluation Standards (SC XI) Working Group on Liquid-Metal Reactor Covers
(SG-LMCS) (SC XI)
W. H. Bamford, Jr., Chair S. Ranganath
W. L. Chase, Chair R. Hundal
J. M. Bloom P. C. Riccardella
S. Hattori
R. C. Cipolla D. A. Scarth
R. M. Gamble W. L. Server
T. J. Griesbach C. A. Tomes Subgroup on Nondestructive Examination (SC XI)
K. Hasegawa A. W. Van Der Sluys
P. J. Hijeck K. R. Wichman C. D. Cowfer, Chair M. R. Hum
D. N. Hopkins G. M. Wilkowski D. C. Adamonis D. Lamond
K. Iida K. K. Yoon B. Bevins G. A. Lofthus
Y. Imamura S. Yukawa F. T. Carr M. C. Modes
J. G. Merkle C. B. Cheezem C. R. Osman
W. T. Clayton F. J. Schaaf, Jr.
F. J. Dodd J. C. Spanner, Jr.
Working Group on Flaw Evaluation (SG-ES) (SC XI) T. N. Epps III C. J. Wirtz
D. O. Henry
R. C. Cipolla, Chair J. G. Merkle
G. H. De Boo, Secretary J. S. Panesar
W. H. Bamford, Jr. S. Ranganath Working Group on Personnel Qualification and Surface,
M. Basol D. A. Scarth Visual, and Eddy Current Examination (SG-NDE) (SC XI)
J. M. Bloom T. S. Schurman
C. J. Wirtz, Secretary R. D. McGuire
E. Friedman W. L. Server
B. L. Curtis M. F. Sherwin
T. J. Griesbach F. A. Simonen
D. O. Henry D. Spake
F. D. Hayes K. R. Wichman
H. E. Houserman J. C. Spanner, Jr.
D. N. Hopkins G. M. Wilkowski
J. J. McArdle III D. S. Whitcomb
K. Iida K. K. Yoon
Y. Imamura S. Yukawa
M. Kupinski A. Zahoor Working Group on Pressure Testing (SG-NDE) (SC XI)
H. S. Mehta V. A. Zilberstein
F. J. Schaaf, Jr., Chair J. M. Boughman
D. Lamond, Secretary T. R. Bugelholl
Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (SG-ES) (SC XI) T. M. Anselmi R. J. Cimoch
T. B. Basso W. N. Keisler
T. J. Griesbach, Chair H. S. Mehta
W. H. Bamford, Jr. J. S. Panesar
H. Behnke W. E. Pennell Working Group on Procedure Qualification
B. A. Bishop S. Ranganath and Volumetric Examination (SG-NDE) (SC XI)
W. F. Brady S. T. Rosinski F. T. Carr, Chair S. R. Doctor
E. Friedman W. L. Server C. D. Cowfer, Chair F. J. Dodd
S. R. Gosselin E. A. Siegel C. E. Larsen, Secretary T. N. Epps III
E. M. Hackett F. A. Simonen D. C. Adamonis B. Kellerhall
P. J. Hijeck T. D. Spry F. L. Becker G. A. Lofthus
M. Kupinski G. L. Stevens N. R. Bentley M. C. Modes
S. D. Leshnoff K. K. Yoon B. Bevins M. Saporito
P. Manbeck S. Yukawa C. B. Cheezem S. M. Walker
W. T. Clayton
Working Group on Pipe Flaw Evaluation (SG-ES) (SC XI)
Subgroup on Repairs, Replacements, and Modifications (SC XI)
D. A. Scarth, Chair K. Hasegawa
G. M. Wilkowski, Secretary D. N. Hopkins W. C. Holston, Chair R. D. Kerr
W. H. Bamford, Jr. K. Iida D. E. Waskey, Secretary D. F. Landers
R. C. Cipolla H. S. Mehta R. W. Boyce R. S. Lewis
N. G. Cofie J. S. Panesar M. N. Bressler M. S. McDonald
S. K. Daftuar K. K. Yoon R. E. Cantrell R. R. Stevenson
G. H. De Boo S. Yukawa R. E. Gimple R. W. Swayne
E. Friedman A. Zahoor C. E. Hartz R. E. Tome
L. F. Goyette V. A. Zilberstein R. A. Hermann R. A. Yonekawa

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Working Group on Design Reconciliation (SG-RR&M) (SC XI) Working Group on Inspection of Systems and Components
(SG-WCS) (SC XI)
T. E. Hiss, Chair D. F. Landers
W. C. Holston, Chair R. W. Swayne E. Throckmorton, Chair I. Mach
J. T. Conner, Secretary A. H. Taufique C. Pendleton, Secretary T. K. McLellan
R. W. Boyce H. J. Thailer G. L. Belew G. C. Park
S. B. Brown R. E. Tome H. Q. Do C. M. Ross
E. V. Imbro R. Fougerousse C. W. Tahnk
T. C. Hinkle K. B. Thomas
Working Group on Responsibilities and Program Requirements M. R. Hum R. A. West
(SG-RR&M) (SC XI) S. D. Kulat J. Whitman
J. T. Lindberg
R. A. Yonekawa, Chair R. S. Lewis
R. R. Stevenson, Secretary M. S. McDonald
S. K. Fisher S. M. Swilley
Working Group on General Requirements (SC XI)
G. M. Foster A. J. Walcutt
R. D. Graham J. Ghergurovich, Alternate A. T. Roberts III, Chair R. K. Mattu
C. E. Hartz R. G. Edl, Secretary L. Sage
D. A. Graham R. J. Scott
Working Group on Welding and Special Repair Processes D. A. Jackson
(SG-RR&M) (SC XI)
D. E. Waskey, Chair R. D. Kerr Special Working Group on Editing and Review (SC XI)
R. E. Cantrell, Secretary B. R. Newton
P. D. Fisher P. P. Norris R. W. Swayne, Chair J. E. Staffiera
A. J. Giannuzzi J. E. O’Sullivan R. L. Beverly C. J. Wirtz
R. A. Hermann K. R. Willens M. P. Lintz
R. P. Indap

Subgroup on Water-Cooled Systems (SC XI) Special Working Group on Plant Life Extension (SC XI)

R. L. Dyle, Chair J. T. Lindberg F. E. Gregor, Chair H. W. Massie, Jr.


G. C. Park, Secretary M. P. Lintz M. P. Lintz, Secretary T. A. Meyer
W. J. Briggs W. E. Norris D. D. Davis D. W. Peltola
T. R. Bugelholl C. Pendleton D. A. Graham D. A. Piccione
D. D. Davis C. W. Tahnk D. L. Harrison V. N. Shah
M. L. Herrera E. Throckmorton P.-T. Kuo
T. C. Hinkle S. M. Walker
S. D. Kulat R. A. West
T. F. Lentz R. M. Kenneally, Alternate SUBCOMMITTEE ON TRANSPORT TANKS (SC XII)

A. Selz, Chair T. P. Pastor


Working Group on Containment (SG-WCS) (SC XI)
P. D. Stumpf, Secretary M. D. Rana
J. E. Staffiera, Chair C. N. Krishnaswamy A. N. Antoniou C. M. Serratella
H. G. Ashar M. P. Lintz C. Becht IV G. R. Stoeckinger
W. J. Briggs D. Naus S. C. Cyr N. Surtees
K. K. N. Chao S. C. Petitgout M. Hennemand J. P. Swezy
M. J. Ferlisi G. W. Robin C. H. Hochman A. P. Varghese
H. T. Hill R. T. Zak G. G. Karcher S. V. Voorhees
R. D. Hough W. E. Norris, Alternate P. P. Laluc C. H. Walters
G. McRae W. L. White
M. R. Minick
Working Group on Implementation of Risk-Based Examination
(SG-WCS) (SC XI)
S. D. Kulat, Chair J. T. Lindberg Subgroup on Design and Materials (SC XII)
J. M. Agold, Secretary I. Mach
S. A. Ali R. K. Mattu M. D. Rana, Chair T. P. Pastor
B. A. Bishop A. McNeill III C. Becht IV J. L. Rademacher
J. W. Connor P. J. O’Regan D. A. Canonico T. A. Rogers
H. Q. Do J. H. Phillips W. D. Doty C. M. Serratella
R. Fougerousse F. A. Simonen G. G. Karcher A. P. Varghese
S. R. Gosselin T. V. Vo P. P. Laluc M. R. Ward
M. R. Graybeal R. A. West M. Manikkam E. Whittle
M. L. Herrera S. L. McWilliams

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Subgroup on Fabrication and Inspection (SC XII) Subgroup on Design Analysis (SC-D)

S. V. Voorhees, Chair D. J. Kreft T. P. Pastor, Secretary A. Kalnins


M. Burch G. McRae M. R. Breach W. J. Koves
D. A. Canonico M. R. Minick P. J. Conlisk T. H. Liu
M. L. Coats N. Surtees A. G. Eggers O. Maekawa
M. Hennemand J. P. Swezy J. L. Hechmer E. L. Thomas, Jr.
L. D. Holsinger G. L. Hollinger R. A. Whipple

Subgroup on General Requirements (SC XII)


Subgroup on Elevated Temperature Design (SC-D)
C. H. Hochman, Chair J. C. Keenan
C. Becht IV, Chair W. J. O’Donnell
T. Alexander T. B. Lee
J. M. Corum, Secretary D. A. Osage
A. N. Antoniou F. A. Licari
C. R. Brinkman J. S. Porowski
J. F. Cannon G. R. Stoeckinger
R. D. Campbell C. C. Schultz, Jr.
J. L. Freiler C. H. Walters
D. S. Griffin L. K. Severud
M. A. Garrett W. L. White
R. I. Jetter D. F. Shaw
K. L. Gilmore L. Wolpert
C. Lawton A. L. Snow

SUBCOMMITTEE ON BOILER AND


PRESSURE VESSEL ACCREDITATION (SC-BPVA) Subgroup on Fatigue Strength (SC-D)

A. J. Spencer, Chair R. L. Williams W. J. O’Donnell, Chair G. Kharshafdjian


C. E. Ford, Vice Chair W. J. Bees, Alternate P. R. Donavin C. Lawton
A. J. Justin, Vice Chair V. A. Bell, Alternate J. A. Hayward A. Merend
K. I. Baron, Secretary V. Bogosian, Alternate J. L. Hechmer H. H. Ziada
M. B. Doherty M. A. De Vries, Alternate D. P. Jones
D. A. Douin P. D. Flenner, Alternate
P. D. Edwards L. J. Kuchera, Alternate
R. M. Elliott W. C. LaRochelle, Alternate Subgroup on Openings (SC-D)
R. G. Friend A. S. Lester III, Alternate
R. C. Howard K. M. McTague, Alternate R. W. Mikitka, Secretary J. P. Madden
B. B. MacDonald G. P. Milley, Alternate M. R. Breach K. C. Morrison
M. L. Sisk P. G. Scheckermann, Alternate G. G. Graven D. R. Palmer
B. C. Turczynski N. Surtees, Alternate V. T. Hwang M. D. Rana
S. C. Lou E. C. Rodabaugh
R. B. Luney
SUBCOMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR ACCREDITATION (SC-NA)

T. E. Quaka, Chair A. J. Spencer


R. R. Stevenson, Vice Chair R. W. Boyce, Alternate Special Working Group on Bolted Flanged Joints (SC-D)
F. E. Zusman, Secretary R. E. Ciemiewicz, Alternate
R. W. Mikitka, Chair S. N. Pagay
V. Bogosian S. Dasgupta, Alternate
G. D. Bibel P. G. Scheckermann
M. N. Bressler P. D. Edwards, Alternate
R. M. Elliott R. W. Schneider
G. Deily S. M. Goodwin, Alternate
A. S. Lester III R. D. Schueler, Jr.
F. R. Drahos D. H. Hanrath, Alternate
E. Michalopoulos A. Selz
J. E. Harris R. C. Howard, Alternate
M. Higuchi K. A. Huber, Alternate
M. Kotb A. J. Justin, Alternate
W. C. LaRochelle N. C. Kist, Alternate SUBCOMMITTEE ON
R. P. McIntyre A. A. Lotfi, Alternate SAFETY VALVE REQUIREMENTS (SC-SVR)
H. B. Prasse O. E. Trapp, Staff Represen-
A. T. Roberts III tative E. C. Kistner, Jr., Chair S. F. Harrison, Jr.
M. D. Bernstein, Vice Chair W. F. Hart
U. D’Urso, Secretary H. D. Michael
SUBCOMMITTEE ON DESIGN (SC-D) J. F. Ball D. K. Peetz
S. Cammeresi J. W. Reynolds
D. P. Jones, Chair U. R. Miller J. A. Cox D. J. Scallan
E. H. Maradiaga, Secretary K. C. Morrison R. D. Danzy A. J. Spencer
R. W. Barnes W. J. O’Donnell D. B. De Michael J. C. Standfast
C. Becht IV R. D. Schueler, Jr. R. J. Doelling J. A. West
G. G. Graven A. Selz R. G. Friend T. J. Ferrigan, Alternate
R. W. Mikitka H. I. Gregg

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Subgroup on Design (SC-SVR) Subgroup on Testing (SC-SVR)

R. G. Friend, Chair S. R. Irvin, Sr. S. F. Harrison, Jr., Chair D. M. Papa


R. D. Danzy P. R. Sievert S. Cammeresi D. J. Scallan
D. B. De Michael A. J. Spencer J. A. Cox B. S. York
R. J. Doelling T. R. Tarbay W. F. Hart
H. I. Gregg J. A. West

Subgroup on General Requirements (SC-SVR)

M. D. Bernstein, Chair D. K. Peetz


J. F. Ball J. W. Reynolds
J. P. Glaspie J. W. Richardson
H. D. Michael J. C. Standfast
C. A. Neumann

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INTRODUCTION

GENERAL DESIGN
1 The use of fiber-reinforced plastics for the manu- General
facture of pressure vessels presents unique materials
3 Adequacy of specific designs shall be qualified
considerations in the design, fabrication, and testing of
by one of two basic methods: 1
these vessels. Metallic vessels, being made from materi-
(a) Class I Design — qualification of a vessel design
als which are normally isotropic and ductile, are de-
through the pressure testing of a prototype;
signed by using well-established allowable stresses
(b) Class II Design — mandatory design rules and
based on measured tensile and ductility properties. In
acceptance testing by nondestructive methods.
contrast, fiber-reinforced plastics are usually anisotropic
and the physical properties are dependent upon the 4 Class I designs based on the qualification of a
fabrication process, the placement and orientation of prototype vessel require that the minimum qualification
the reinforcement, and the resin matrix. It is the purpose pressure of the prototype be at least six 2 times the design
of this Introduction to describe in a general way the pressure. The maximum design pressure is limited to
criteria that were used in preparing Section X, Fiber- 150 psi (1000 kPa) for bag-molded, centrifugally cast,
Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels. and contact-molded vessels; 1500 psi (10000 kPa) for
filament-wound vessels; and 3000 psi (20685 kPa) for
filament-wound vessels with polar boss openings.

MATERIALS 5 Class II designs based on mandatory design rules


and acceptance testing must comply with Article RD-
A00 2 It is not possible to fabricate a reinforced plastic 11 and Article RT-6. The maximum design pressure
pressure vessel of a single basic material for which allowed under this procedure shall be as specified in
there is an ASTM specification. The vessel parts are RD-1120.
made up of various basic materials, such as fiber
reinforcement and resin, which are joined in the presence
of a catalyst to create a composite material that is
formed into a vessel or vessel part by a specified Low Modulus Characteristics
process. The composite material will often have direc-
tional properties which shall be considered in design. 6 Fiber-reinforced plastic laminates may have a
General specifications for the basic materials (fiber modulus of elasticity as low as 1.0 × 106 psi, compared
reinforcement and resin) are stated, as are requirements with that of ferrous materials which may be of the
for determination of elastic properties for the composite order of 30 × 106 psi. This low modulus characteristic
material (laminate) produced. Elastic properties of spe- requires careful consideration of vessel profile in order
cific laminates used in vessel fabrication are required to minimize bending and avoid buckling. Spherical
when mandatory rules are used for vessel design. heads or elliptical heads having an ellipse ratio not
Metallic materials, when used in conjunction with rein- greater than 2:1 are suggested. Spherical heads are
forced fiber laminates, are required to meet ASME suggested when the material has isotropic properties.
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifications, Section Elliptical heads are preferred when the material has
VIII, Division 1. That Section must be used for the anisotropic properties.
design, fabrication, quality control, and inspection of
such metallic parts. However, for hydrostatic leakage 1 Thesetwo methods shall not be intermixed.
testing, these metallic materials that complete the vessel 2 Anexception to this six times factor is applicable to vessels per
are required to meet Section X requirements. RG-404.2 (Filament Winding — With Uncut Filaments).

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1998 SECTION X

Fatigue I and Class II vessels shall be −65°F (−54°C) (see


RD-112).
7 Like metallic materials, the composite material
(laminate) of fiber-reinforced plastic vessels, when
stressed at sufficiently low levels, exhibits good fatigue Fabrication
life. However, its low modulus of elasticity provides
a higher strain per unit of stress than metals used for 11 Many processes are used in the fabrication of
metallic vessels. fiber-reinforced composite materials (laminates). Class
I vessels are limited to four processes, namely, filament
8 Section X, therefore, requires that a Class I design winding, bag molding, contact molding, and centrifugal
that is qualified by testing of a prototype vessel be casting. Class II vessels are limited to two processes,
pressure cycled 100,000 times over a pressure range namely, filament winding and contact molding.
of atmospheric to the design pressure; after this, the
test vessel must withstand a hydrostatic qualification 12 The fabrication of more than one Class I vessel
test not less than six times the design pressure. An may be required to comply with the requirements for
exception to this 100,000 cycle requirement is applicable qualifying a design using the prototype vessel 3 method.
to vessels per RG-404.2 (Filament Winding — With Once a specific design has been qualified, the quality
Polar Boss Openings Only). That classification of vessels of subsequent vessels of the same dimension and design
is designed for a 5:1 factor of safety which requires is to be assured by carefully controlled fabrication
cycling from atmospheric to the design pressure for procedures and rigid Quality Control Programs.
33,000 cycles; after this, the test vessel must withstand 13 Every Class II vessel must be acceptance tested
a hydrostatic qualification test not less than five times as specified in Article RT-6. Such tests must be docu-
the design pressure. mented as having met the acceptance criteria of Article
RT-6 and shall become part of the Fabricator’s Design
9 Class II vessels qualified using mandatory design
Report.
rules and acceptance testing are not required to be
subjected to the above cyclic and qualification pressure
test criteria. Inspection
14 The general philosophy of Section VIII, Division
1, regarding inspection during fabrication is continued
Creep, Stress–Rupture, and Temperature Effects in this Section. Familiarity with the laminate production
10 Fiber-reinforced plastic composite material (lami- processes and the nature of vessel imperfections is
nate) is not subject to creep or failure due to low required of the Inspector. Reliance is placed upon
stress-to-rupture characteristics as are some other materi- careful auditing of the Fabricator’s Quality Control
als. The material does, however, lose ultimate strength Program, close visual inspection of completed vessels
as the temperature is increased and gains strength but by both Fabricator personnel and the Inspector, and
becomes more brittle as the temperature is lowered. acceptance testing where required by this Section.
Its low thermal conductivity and ablative properties are 15 This Section requires that all laminate and second-
other factors significantly affecting the behavior of this ary bonding work be without use of pigments, fillers,
material in the event of fire or other high-temperature or resin putty mixtures except as permitted by the
environment. The maximum design, operating, and test Procedure Specification used in fabricating the vessel
temperatures of Class I vessels are set as follows: or vessel part.
(a) 150°F (66°C) for design temperatures less than
or equal to 150°F (66°C);
(b) 250°F (121°C) or to within 35°F (19°C) of the Liners
glass transition temperature (whichever is lower) for
16 Liners may be used in Section X vessels as a
design temperatures in excess of 150°F (66°C).
barrier between the laminate and the vessel contents.
The maximum design, operating, and test temperatures Such liners shall not be considered part of the structural
of Class II vessels are limited to an inside wall tempera- component of the vessel.
ture of 250°F (121°C) or to within 35°F (19°C) of the
glass transition temperature of the resin (whichever is 3 Prototype vessels used to qualify a design shall not be Code

lower). The minimum design temperature of both Class stamped.

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ARTICLE RM-1
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

RM-100 LAMINATE MATERIALS RM-112 Carbon or Graphite Fibers


Fiber-reinforced plastic materials shall hereinafter be The fiber manufacturer shall certify that the carbon
designated as laminates. or graphite fibers conform to the manufacturer’s specifi-
(a) Laminates, as herein considered, are composite cations for the product and that the minimum strength
structures consisting of one or more of the following and modulus, measured in accordance with ASTM D
reinforcements embedded in a resin matrix: 2343, are not less than 90% of the manufacturer’s
(1) glass published minimum values for resin-impregnated
(2) carbon or graphite strands.
(3) aramid
(b) The Fabricator shall keep on file the published
specifications for all laminate materials used in each
vessel fabrication, the material manufacturer’s recom- RM-113 Aramid Fibers
mendations for storage conditions and shelf life for all The fiber manufacturer shall certify that the aramid
laminate materials, and the material manufacturer’s fibers conform to the manufacturer’s specifications for
certification that each shipment conforms to said speci- the product and that the minimum strength and modulus,
fication requirements. This certification shall be part measured in accordance with ASTM D 2343, are not
of the Procedure Specification. less than 90% of the manufacturer’s published minimum
values for resin-impregnated strands.

RM-114 Fiber Surface Treatment


The surface of glass, carbon, and graphite fiber shall
RM-110 FIBER SYSTEM be treated to provide a bond between the fiber and
resin matrix. Aramid fibers do not normally require
RM-111 Glass Fibers surface treatment.
The glass fibers used in any of the fabrication
processes permitted by this Section shall be one or
more of the following glass compositions:
(a) Type A
RM-120 RESIN SYSTEM
(b) Type E
(c) Type S The resin system shall consist of an epoxy or
(d) Type E-CR polyester /vinyl ester, phenolic, or furan resin plus the
(e) Type C resin manufacturer’s recommended promoters and cur-
The glass manufacturer shall certify that the fibers ing agents. No filler, pigment, thixotrope, or dye which
conform to the manufacturer’s specifications for the will interfere with the natural color of the resin shall
product and that the minimum strength and modulus, be used except as permitted by the Procedure Specifica-
measured in accordance with ASTM D 2343, are not tion. If required by the User, the vessel may be painted
less than 90% of the manufacturer’s published minimum following all required inspections and certifications by
values for resin-impregnated strands. the Inspector.

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RM-121 1998 SECTION X RM-121

A00 TABLE RM-120.1 TABLE RM-120.2 A00


RESIN SYSTEMS REQUIRED CERTIFICATION RESIN SYSTEMS REQUIRED TEST
BY RESIN MANUFACTURER BY VESSEL FABRICATOR

Resin System Required Certification Resin System Required Test


Polyester /Vinyl Ester Polyester /Vinyl Ester

1. Viscosity ASTM D 445 or D 2393 1. Viscosity ASTM D 445 or D 2393


2. Acid Number ASTM D 1045 2. Gel Time and Peak
3. Specific Gravity Wt. per Gallon Cup Exotherm Temp. ASTM D 2471
3. Specific Gravity Appendix 5
Epoxy
Epoxy
1. Viscosity ASTM D 445 or D 2393
2. Epoxide Equivalent ASTM D 1652 1. Viscosity ASTM D 445 or D 2393
3. Specific Gravity Wt. per Gallon Cup 2. Gel Time ASTM D 2471
3. Specific Gravity Appendix 5
Furan /Phenolic
Furan /Phenolic
1. Viscosity ASTM D 445 or D 2393
2. pH Glass Electrode Method 1. Viscosity ASTM D 445 or D 2393
3. Total Volatiles Similar to ASTM D 3030 2. Gel Time Not Applicable
4. Specific Gravity Wt. per Gallon Cup 3. Specific Gravity Appendix 5

RM-121 Resin Specification


test formulation and temperature, and shall be within
The resin materials used in the fabrication of vessels the limits listed in the Procedure Specification. The
shall be the same as those specified in the Procedure test formulation and temperature shall be representative
Specification. Each resin shall be traceable by the name of the formulations used during vessel fabrication. The
of its manufacturer and the trade name or number of tolerance limits for the test formulation (as listed in
that manufacturer. the Procedure Specification) may be established by
The resin manufacturer shall supply to the Fabricator either the resin manufacturer or the Fabricator. The
a Certificate of Analysis for each resin used. It will tolerance limits shall be established using formulation
include the following information: components having manufacturer-specified material
(a) resin identification characteristics. The tolerance limits established shall be
(b) batch number(s) within a sufficiently narrow range such that test results
(c) date of manufacture outside this range would reflect deviations in component
(d) minimum shelf life material characteristics and alert the Fabricator of possi-
In addition, the resin manufacturer shall certify for ble material irregularities.
each batch shipped, the value (and the limits stipulated In addition, the Fabricator shall establish and docu-
in his specification) of the properties identified in Table ment a maximum use temperature for the resin /cure
RM-120.1. system used. This may be in conjunction with the resin
Prior to fabrication, and at subsequent intervals not manufacturer or independent laboratory, and may be
to exceed 14 days, the Fabricator shall test each batch based on heat distortion temperature or glass transition
of resin in accordance with Table RM-120.2 for the temperature. The Fabricator shall redocument the maxi-
appropriate resin to assure that the material characteris- mum use temperature at least every twelve months
tics of the resin have not changed from specified values using current batches of resin and curing agent.
listed in the Procedure Specification. A record of these determinations shall become part
The values obtained for viscosity and specific gravity of the Fabricator’s Quality Control Tests Report and
for the resin alone shall be within the limits of the shall be made available to the Inspector.
manufacturer’s specification for that resin and as listed The data for each batch of resin which is used to
in the Procedure Specification. fabricate a Class II vessel must be recorded on the
The values obtained for gel-time and peak-exotherm Procedure Specification (Form Q-120) and become part
temperature shall be for a particular resin /curing system of the Fabricator’s Design Report for that vessel.

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ARTICLE RM-2
MISCELLANEOUS PRESSURE PARTS

RM-200 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS requirements of Section VIII, Division 1. For hydrostatic


leakage testing, metallic parts shall comply with the
All portions of the vessel which are under the
requirements of RT-450.
jurisdiction of this Section and which are fabricated
of laminate materials by the Fabricator responsible for
the completed vessel, or by other parties, shall conform RM-212 For Class II Vessels
to all applicable requirements of this Section, including
The only metallic parts permitted for Class II vessels
inspection in the shop of the Fabricator. In addition,
shall be removable parts such as multibolted flat flange
parts fabricated by parties other than the Fabricator
covers and fasteners. Such parts shall comply with all
responsible for the completed vessel shall require inspec-
requirements of Section VIII, Division 1.
tion in the shop of the part fabricator and preparation
of a Partial Data Report, Forms RP-2 and RP-4, as
applicable.

RM-210 MISCELLANEOUS METALLIC


PARTS
A00 RM-211 For Class I Vessels
Metallic parts for Class I vessels shall comply with
the design, fabrication, quality control, and inspection

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PART RD — DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Fig. RD-1175.2

FIG. RD-1175.2 HEAD/SHELL OR SHELL/SHELL OVERLAY DIMENSIONS A99

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RD-1175.2 1998 SECTION X RD-1176.1

RD-1175.2 Head-to-Shell Joint Overlay Subject to RD-1176 Design of Flanges


Internal Pressure (See Fig. RD-1175.2)
RD-1176.1 Nomenclature. The following symbols A00
(a) Thickness of Overlay. The thickness of the overlay
are used in the formulas for the design of flat nozzle
to shall be sufficient to withstand the circumferential
flanges employing a full-face gasket:
stress imposed on the shell due to internal pressure
Ap outside diameter of flange, in.
and specified hydrostatic loading.
ABp total cross-sectional area of bolts at root diame-
ter of thread or section of least diameter under
P (R + t ) stress, in.
to p
0.001E2 Amp total required cross-sectional area of bolts, the
greater of Wm1 /Sb or Wm2 /Sa, sq in.
Bp inside diameter of flange, in.
where bp effective gasket width or joint-contact-surface
E2p effective tensile modulus of secondary laminate seating width, in.
in circumferential direction Cp diameter of bolt circle, in.
Rp radius of shell dp shape factor for integral type flanges
tp thickness of shell p (U /V ) ho g 20
top thickness of overlay d1p bolt hole diameter
(b) Length of Overlay. The length of the secondary ep shape factor
overlay Lo shall be at least that given below. The total p F /ho
length of the overlay extending on both sides of the Fp shape factor (Fig. RD-1176.3)
joint shall be at least 2Lo . The overlay shall terminate fp hub stress correction factor (Fig. RD-1176.4)
as a taper over an additional distance at least four p 1 for calculated values less than 1
times the thickness of the pad. Gp diameter of gasket load reaction
Sufficient secondary shear bond strength to resist g0p thickness of hub at small end
internal and hydrostatic pressure is given by: g1p thickness of hub at back of flange
Hp hydrostatic end force
PR HDp hydrostatic end force on area inside of flange
Lo p HGp difference between bolt load and hydrostatic
2Ss /F
end force
HGyp bolt load for gasket yielding
where p b␲Gy
Fp design factor p 10 ′ p compression load required to seat gasket outside
HGy
Lop length of overlay on each side of joint G diameter
Pp internal pressure at joint Hpp total joint-contact-surface compression load
Rp radius of vessel at joint p 2b␲Gmp
Ssp secondary bond strength in shear Hp′p total adjusted joint-contact-surface compression
p 1000 psi max. for full-face gasketed flange, lb

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RD-1176.1 1998 SECTION X RD-1176.3

p (hG /hG′ ) Hp RD-1176.3 Calculation Procedure (See Figs. RD-


HTp difference between total hydrostatic end force 1176.1 through RD-1176.5)
and the hydrostatic end force area inside of (a) Determine design conditions, material properties,
flange and dimensions of flange, bolts, and gasket.
p H − HD (b) Determine the lever arms of the inner and outer
hp length of hub, in. parts of the gasket.
hDp radial distance from bolt circle to circle on
which HD acts
(C − B ) (2B + C )
hGp radial distance from bolt circle to circle on hG p
6 (B + C )
which HG acts
hG′ p radial distance from bolt circle to gasket load
reaction (A − C ) (2A + C )
h″Gp flange lever arm hG′ p
6 (C + A )
hTp radial distance from bolt circle to circle on
which HT acts
Kp ratio of inside flange diameter to outside flange (c) Determine the gasket dimensions
diameter
Mp unit load, operating, lb
p Mmax /B
Map moment under bolt-up conditions G p C − 2hG
MDp component of moment due to HD
MGp component of moment due to HG b p (C − B ) /4
Mop total moment
MTp component of moment due to HT
mp gasket factor y p (seating load)
Np number of bolts
pp design pressure m p (gasket factor)
Sap allowable bolt stress at ambient temperature
Sbp allowable bolt stress at design temperature
(d) Determine loads
SFap allowable flange stress at ambient temperature
SFop allowable flange stress at design temperature
SHp longitudinal hub stress H p G2␲p /4
SRp radial flange stress
SRADp radial stress at bolt circle
STp tangential flange stress Hp p 2b␲Gmp
Tp shape factor (Fig. RD-1176.5)
tp flange thickness Hp′ p (hG /hp′ ) Hp
Up shape factor (Fig. RD-1176.5)
Vp shape factor (Fig. RD-1176.2)
Wap flange design bolt load Wm1 p Hp + H + Hp′
Wm1p minimum bolt loading for design conditions
Wm2p minimum bolt loading for bolt-up conditions HGy p b␲Gy
Yp shape factor (Fig. RD-1176.5)
yp gasket unit seating load
Zp shape factor (Fig. RD-1176.5) ′ p (hG /h′G ) HGy
HGy

RD-1176.2 Allowable Flange Stress. The flange



Wm2 p HGy + HGy
thickness shall be designed such that the allowable
stress does not exceed 0.001 times the modulus of the
laminate used to fabricate the flange. The design modu-
(e) Determine the bolting requirements
lus shall be the lower of the longitudinal and transverse
moduli of the flange laminate as determined by Article
RT-7. A1 p Wm1 /Sb

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ARTICLE RQ-1
SCOPE

RQ-100 RESPONSIBILITY FOR RQ-110 MAINTENANCE OF PROCEDURE


QUALIFICATION SPECIFICATION AND
QUALIFICATION RECORDS
Each Fabricator shall be responsible for qualifying
the designs and the Procedure Specifications used in The Fabricator shall maintain records of the proce-
fabricating fiber-reinforced plastic pressure vessels and dures he employs in fabricating vessels and vessel parts
parts of vessels. and in bonding vessel parts together. For Class I vessels
he shall also maintain records of the tests and their
results by which his Procedure Specifications were
RQ-101 Fabrication Processes qualified for use in fabrication. For Class II vessels
he shall maintain the records of Design Calculations,
The fabrication processes which may be used under coupon tests from which elastic and strength constants
this Section shall be restricted to bag molding,1 centrifu- were obtained, the Procedure Specifications that detail
gal casting, contact molding, and filament winding for the materials used and the laminate ply sequence and ply
Class I vessels, and contact molding and filament orientation, fabrication procedures and quality control
winding for Class II vessels. records, and the test results per Article RT-6. Such
records shall be dated and shall be certified by the
Fabricator and verified by the Inspector (see RI-110).
RQ-102 Production Work Without The Fabricator shall keep these records on file for at
Qualifications least 5 years and in the case of mass-produced Class
I vessels for at least 5 years after the production of
No fabrication shall be undertaken on vessels to be
such vessels has ceased.
Code stamped until a written Procedure Specification
has been prepared and qualified by the Fabricator. For
Class I vessels the Procedure Specification shall be
qualified by the test of one or more prototype vessels
in accordance with RD-160.
RQ-120 PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION
For Class II vessels the Procedure Specification shall
QUALIFICATION FORMS
be qualified in accordance with RF-110(c) and by
subjecting each vessel design to the mandatory stress Recommended forms showing the information re-
analysis required by Article RD-11. Both Design Calcu- quired for qualifying the design and the Procedure
lations and the fabrication of the specific vessel shall Specification are provided as follows:
be for the specific materials, ply sequence, and ply (a) Form Q-106 for fabrication by bag molding and
orientation detailed in the Procedure Specification (Form centrifugal casting — Class I vessels;
Q-120). (b) Form Q-107 for fabrication by filament wind-
Furthermore, no Code fabrication shall be undertaken ing — Class I vessels;
until the Fabricator has obtained a Certificate of Authori- (c) Form Q-108 for fabrication by contact molding —
zation from the Society. Class I vessels;
(d) Form Q-115 for fabrication by adhesive bond-
1 Matched-die-method parts are acceptable under this Section as being
ing — Class I vessels;
equivalent to bag-molded parts when using the same type of fiber (e) Form Q-120 for fabrication and assembly proce-
reinforcement and the same resin system. dure — Class II vessels.

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RQ-130 1998 SECTION X RQ-141

RQ-130 MEANS TO BE USED IN (d) hydrostatic qualification pressure test, by which


QUALIFYING CLASS I DESIGNS the design pressure is determined [one-sixth of qualifi-
AND FABRICATING PROCEDURES cation pressure for all vessel types, except one-fifth
for filament-wound vessels with uncut filaments (RG-
In qualifying Class I vessel designs and fabrication
404.2)];
procedures, the qualification checks listed in RQ-131
(e) suitable tests, utilizing loads simulating the ex-
and the Qualification Tests listed in RQ-132 shall
pected loadings of vessels subject to bending and
be used.
shearing caused by any expected combination of load-
ings listed in RD-120.
A00 RQ-131 Qualification Checks2
The following checks (see Articles RQ-2, RQ-3, and
RQ-4 for special requirements) shall be applied to the RQ-140 MEANS FOR QUALIFYING CLASS
prototype vessels. II VESSEL DESIGN AND
(a) The vessel shall be visually checked for imperfec- FABRICATION
tions in the laminate.
In qualifying Class II vessel designs and fabrication
(1) The structural laminates shall conform to the
procedures utilized, the qualification checks listed in
visual acceptance criteria given in Table 6-100.1.
RQ-141 and the Acceptance Test listed in RQ-142
(2) The criterion for inspection of the liner, if
shall be used.
used, shall be established by mutual agreement between
the Fabricator and the User.
(b) The thickness of the vessels at a minimum of
12 points shall be checked by mechanical gages and /or RQ-141 Qualification Checks A00

ultrasonic equipment (see RT-340). The following checks shall be applied to each vessel
(c) The percent of fiber and resin by weight, constitut- designed in accordance with the mandatory design rules
ing the laminate, shall be determined (see RT-212). of Article RD-11.
(d) The weight (mass) of the whole vessel shall be (a) Visual Checks. The vessel shall be visually
determined and shall not be less than 95% of that checked for imperfections in the laminate.
stated in the Procedure Specification. (1) The structural laminates shall conform to the
visual acceptance criteria given in Table 6-100.2.
(2) The criterion for inspection of the liner, if
RQ-132 Qualification Tests2 used, shall be established by mutual agreement between
The following tests shall be applied to the prototype the Fabricator and the User.
vessel or vessels or parts thereof: (b) Thickness and Dimensional Checks. All stressed
(a) Barcol hardness test (see RT-221), to verify that and load bearing members shall be thickness checked
the laminate has been cured in accordance with the in at least 12 places to assure conformance with Design
Procedure Specification; Calculations and Drawings. Thickness measurement
(b) volumetric expansion test, to verify that the lami- shall be consistent with the fiber–resin ratio and number
nate used has a modulus of elasticity within the range and thickness of individual lamina specified in the
specified by the designer; Procedure Specification.
Diameters, length, nozzle size and orientation, and
NOTE: In lieu of measuring the volumetric change of the vessel other physical dimensions shall be checked for compli-
by determining the difference in volumes of fluid it will contain at
the design pressure and at atmospheric pressure, it is permissible to
ance with the drawings as listed in the Design Report.
check the circumference of the vessel at a minimum of three points (c) Barcol Hardness Test. Barcol hardness tests shall
evenly spaced along its length. The distance between such reference be taken on each separately fabricated laminate part
points shall not exceed 5 ft. The measurement shall be made at
both atmospheric pressure and design pressure and shall show no
to assure proper cure. Tests shall be in accordance
permanent distortion. with ASTM D 2583. Results must be within the toler-
ance specified by the resin manufacturer as listed in
(c) cyclic pressure plus hydrostatic qualification pres- the Procedure Specification. Both the results and the
sure test (see RT-223); tolerance must be recorded in the Procedure Specifi-
cation.
2 SeeArticle RT-2 for detailed requirements governing the conducting (d) Thermoplastic Liner Integrity. If a thermoplastic
of these checks and tests. liner is used:

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RT-211 PART RT — RULES GOVERNING TESTING RT-222

RT-211 Vessel Thickness RT-221 Barcol Hardness Tests


The thickness of each prototype vessel and vessel (a) Each prototype vessel and vessel part shall have
part shall be determined at a minimum of three points at least three Barcol hardness determinations made
along its length on each of its four quadrants. When along its length on each of its four quadrants. When
vessels are longer than 5 ft (1.5 m), one additional vessels are longer than 5 ft (1.5 m), one additional set
determination shall be made for each additional 5 ft of determinations shall be made for each additional 5
(1.5 m) or portion thereof. The thickness determinations ft (1.5 m) or portion thereof. A series of readings shall
shall be made with mechanical gages, ultrasonic gages, be taken at each quadrant on smooth surfaces, properly
or other devices having an accuracy of ⫾2% of true oriented, in accordance with ASTM D 2583.
thickness. (b) The Barcol hardness values thus determined shall
Where visual indication of deviation from design be recorded in the Qualification Test Report and on
thickness exists at points other than those at which the applicable Form Q-106, Q-107, or Q-108, and shall
measurements are required, thickness determinations in be used as reference values in subsequent Production
sufficient number to properly locate and define the Tests (see RT-440).
deviant area shall be made.

RT-212 Weight of Resin and Fiber RT-222 Volumetric Expansion Tests


The percentage by weight of resin and fiber in each (a) Each prototype vessel shall be subjected to a
prototype vessel or part shall be determined by means volumetric expansion test using water or other appro-
of an ignition test per ASTM D 2584-68(1985) or priate liquid, and the results recorded on the applicable
matrix digestion per ASTM D 3171 of a sample taken Form Q-106, Q-107, or Q-108.
from an undamaged portion of the vessel used for the (b) The volume of liquid used to fill the vessel at
pressure qualification test. atmospheric pressure and temperature shall be compared
with that required to fill it at the design pressure and
RT-213 Vessel Weight at the same temperature.1 Care shall be taken to elimi-
nate air pockets to ensure accuracy. The volume of
Each prototype vessel shall be weighed within an liquid used in each instance shall be determined by
accuracy of ⫾1%. The weight shall be recorded on any appropriate means, such as a weigh tank which
the applicable Form Q-106, Q-107, or Q-108. has been calibrated to an accuracy of ⫾0.2%. The
results of this test shall be documented as part of the
Qualification Test Report, recorded on the applicable
A00 RT-214 Visual Examination of Vessels
Form Q-106, Q-107, or Q-108, and subsequently used
The vessel shall be visually checked for imperfections in the quality control volumetric expansion test.
in the laminate. Classification and acceptance level of (c) Alternatively, the volumetric expansion may be
imperfections shall be according to Table 6-100.1. determined by measuring the overall length of the
Fiberglass laminates exposed to corrosive process fluids vessel and its circumference at 5 ft (1.5 m) intervals
shall conform to Table 6-100.1 for the pressure side, along its length, with a minimum of three such determi-
while structural laminates shall conform to Table 6- nations being made; all measurements shall be made
100.1 for the nonpressure side. with instruments that have been calibrated to an accuracy
of ⫾0.05%. These measurements shall be taken with
the vessel filled with liquid at atmospheric pressure
RT-215 Tensile Strength and at design pressure, both at the same temperature.
Tensile strength of the qualification vessel shall be The measurements thus made shall be documented as
measured and meet the minimum requirements as speci- part of the Qualification Test Report, recorded on
fied in RM-131. the applicable Form Q-106, Q-107, or Q-108, and
subsequently used in the quality control volumetric
expansion test.
RT-220 QUALIFICATION TESTS
1 The water jacket method described in pamphlet C-1, published by
Qualification tests shall be performed as required by the Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway,
RT-221 through RT-223. Arlington, VA 22202, may be used.

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RT-223 1998 SECTION X RT-223.4

RT-223 Cyclic Pressure and Hydrostatic may test at least two more vessels which have been
Pressure Qualification Tests subjected to cyclic pressure tests in accordance with
(a), (b), and (c) above. The average of the qualification
A99 RT-223.1 Vessels Intended for Internal Pressure
pressures of these additional vessels, including that of
Only. (See RT-223.5 for filament-wound vessels with
the first vessel, shall be at least six times the design
uncut filaments.) At least one prototype vessel, intended
pressure, and no others than the first shall have a
for internal pressure service only, shall be subjected
qualification pressure of less than six times the design
to a cyclic pressure test followed by a hydrostatic
pressure.
pressure qualification test,2 as follows.
(a) The test fluid shall be water or other appropriate RT-223.2 Vessels Intended for Both Internal and
liquid. External Pressure. At least one prototype vessel in-
(b) The temperature of the test fluid shall be at least tended for both internal and external pressure service
150°F (66°C) or at the design temperature of the vessel, shall be subjected to the following tests.
whichever is higher. (a) A cyclic pressure test shall be performed in
(c) For vessels without liners, the pressure shall be accordance with the requirements of RT-223.1, except
cycled from atmospheric pressure to the design pressure that the pressure shall be cycled from the external
and back 100,000 times (except for vessels per RG- design pressure to the internal design pressure and back
404, see RT-223.5). 100,000 times. During the cyclic testing no leakage shall
(d) For vessels with a liner, whether integral or not, occur. At the Fabricator’s option, the cyclic pressure test
the pressure shall be cycled for 10,000 cycles at the may be carried out in two steps, as follows:
minimum design temperature and for 90,000 cycles at (1) the pressure shall be cycled from the external
the maximum design temperature. During the cyclic design pressure to atmospheric pressure and back
testing no leakage shall occur. 100,000 times without leakage;
(e) For potable water usage, as described in RG- (2) the pressure shall be cycled from atmospheric
113 (Section IV application), the pressure shall be pressure to the internal design pressure and back 100,000
cycled 10,000 cycles at the minimum design temperature times without leakage.
and 80,000 cycles at the maximum design temperature (b) The prototype vessel with any internal liner in-
followed by a final 10,000 cycles during which the stalled shall be subjected to an external hydrostatic
vessel is thermally shocked by flushing 80°F or less pressure test, as follows:
water so that the vessel reaches at least 90°F at the (1) the test fluid shall be water or other appropriate
completion of the 10,000 cycles. During the cyclic liquid;
testing no leakage shall occur. (2) the temperature of the test fluid shall be 150°F
(f) The qualification pressure of the vessel shall (66°C), minimum;
then be determined in accordance with the following (3) the external hydrostatic test pressure shall be
procedures. twice the external design pressure;
(1) The test fluid shall be water or other appropriate (4) the prototype vessel shall show no evidence
liquid, at a temperature of at least 150°F (66°C) or of buckling.
the design temperature, whichever is higher. (c) The prototype vessel, after being subjected to
(2) The test pressure shall be applied at a uniform the external hydrostatic pressure test required in (b)
rate so that six times the design pressure is reached above and to the cyclic pressure test required in (a)
in not less than 1 min. above, shall then be subjected to a hydrostatic qualifica-
(3) The maximum pressure reached during the test tion pressure test in accordance with the requirements
is called the qualification pressure. The qualification of RT-223.1(d).
pressure shall be at least six times the design pressure.
The use of a flexible bladder to enable attainment of RT-223.3 Vessels Intended for External Pressure
the qualification pressure is permissible. However, if Only. At least one prototype vessel intended for external
the first vessel tested fails to reach six times the design pressure service only shall be tested in accordance with
pressure, but does reach 90% of this value, the Fabricator RT-223.2, except that the internal design pressure shall
be not less than 15 psig.
2 In the case of vessel designs which have not been previously RT-223.4 Vessels Having Bending and Shear
qualified, it is recommended that a preliminary hydrostatic qualifica- Stresses Inherent in Their Design. At least one proto-
tion pressure test in accordance with RT-223.1(d) be carried out
before the cyclic pressure and qualification pressure test of a prototype type vessel of types having bending and shear stresses
vessel is conducted. inherent in their design shall be subjected to a cyclic

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ARTICLE RT-4
PRODUCTION TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR CLASS I
VESSELS

RT-400 GENERAL molded-in inserts shall be clean, smooth, and free of


nicks, tears, or other damage. There shall be no laminate
Each vessel shall be subjected to the inspections,
material or flash on the threads. Molded-in threads or
examinations, and tests stipulated in this Article and
cored holes shall be free of visible defects such as
shall conform to the specified requirements, with results
chips, cracks, shorts, etc.
recorded in Production Test Reports. The hydrostatic
tests shall not be conducted until other tests stipulated RT-411.5 Repairable Imperfections. Imperfections
in this Article have been conducted. which can be repaired without affecting the serviceabil-
ity of the vessel may be repaired unless prohibited by
the Fabricator’s Design Report.
RT-410 VISUAL EXAMINATION
Each vessel shall be visually examined, using a RT-412 Repairs of Imperfections
suitable light source, to determine whether there are RT-412.1 Bag-Molded Vessels and Centrifugally
any imperfections of the type specified in Section V, Cast Vessels. The Inspector shall first verify that all
Article 28, SD-2563. This examination shall be carried requirements of Article RI-2 or RI-3, as applicable,
out both before and after the hydrostatic leakage test are met before permitting repair of imperfections.
required by RT-450. (a) When required by the Fabricator’s Design Report,
all cut edges shall be coated with catalyzed resin and
RT-411 Acceptance Standards cured so that no fibers are exposed and all voids
are filled.
RT-411.1 Design Dimensions. Vessels shall be in- (b) When required by the Fabricator’s Design Report,
spected for conformance with dimensions and tolerances crevices between joined pieces shall be filled with
shown on the Design Drawings. Any dimension falling catalyzed resin or thixotropic catalyzed resin paste and
outside the specified limits shall be cause for rejection. cured, leaving a relatively smooth surface.
A00 RT-411.2 Classification of Imperfections. Classifi- (c) If leaks or weeps are detected during the hydro-
cation of visual imperfections in critical areas of fiber- static leakage test (see RT-450 and RT-451), the vessel
glass laminates shall be made in accordance with Table shall be dried completely before repairing. Catalyzed
6-100.1 for the pressure side. resin or catalyzed thixotropic resin paste shall be applied
on the surface of the vessel over the area which leaked
A00 RT-411.3 Imperfections in Noncritical Areas. Im- and forced into the microvoids by air at pressure no
perfections in noncritical areas which by nature, content, more than the working pressure of the vessel. Initial
or frequency do not affect the serviceability of the repair shall be followed as soon as practicable1 by
vessel shall not exceed the levels for the nonpressure complete curing. A retest shall be made for leakage.
side in Table 6-100.1. (d) Superficial damage to exterior of vessels subse-
quent to testing may be repaired by patching with
RT-411.4 Inserts, Nuts, Studs, and Lugs. Inserts,
nuts, studs, and lugs shall not be damaged in any way 1 If
polyester is being used, the surface of the repaired area may be
nor be coated with laminate material in such a way covered with cellophane or other suitable nonpermeable film to retard
as to impair function or mechanical fit. Threads in evaporation of monomer.

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RT-412.1 1998 SECTION X RT-452

reinforced resin, which shall be adequate to restore the translucency and surface finish comparable to the re-
original strength. The surface layer of resin shall be mainder of the vessel.
ground to a dull finish over the entire area to be
repaired and extending a minimum of 2 in. (51 mm)
beyond the imperfection. Fiber reinforcement may be RT-420 THICKNESS CHECK
in the form of chopped strand mat, woven fiber cloth,
or woven roving. Where more than one layer of fiber Each vessel shall be subjected to a thickness check
cloth or woven roving is to be used, a layer of chopped in accordance with the requirements of RT-340.
strand mat shall be placed as alternate layers. The
repaired area shall be cured to the Barcol hardness
established in the Fabricator’s Design Report (see RT- RT-430 VESSEL WEIGHT
221 and RT-440). Each vessel shall be weighed in accordance with the
The repaired vessel shall be tested as per RT-450 weight requirements of RT-213. The weight of each
or RT-461, as applicable, and a record of the repair vessel shall be at least 95% of the weight specified
shall be included in the Fabricator’s Design Report, and recorded in the Fabricator’s Qualification Test
and in the Fabricator’s Data Report under remarks. Report for the prototype vessels, after subtracting the
RT-412.2 Filament-Wound Vessels (1500 psi Maxi- weights associated with those nozzles, or openings, or
mum Operating Pressure; See RT-412.3) both as described in RT-202.
(a) When required by the Fabricator’s Design Report,
all cut edges shall be coated with catalyzed resin and
cured so that no fibers are exposed and all voids RT-440 BARCOL HARDNESS TEST
are filled. Each vessel shall be subjected to a Barcol hardness
(b) When required by the Fabricator’s Design Report, test in accordance with the requirements of RT-221.
crevices between joined pieces shall be filled with The Barcol hardness value shall be within the range
catalyzed resin or thixotropic catalyzed resin paste and specified by the resin manufacturer and recorded in
cured, leaving a relatively smooth surface. the Qualification Test Report and the Procedure Specifi-
cation.
RT-412.3 Filament-Wound Vessels (For Both Gen-
eral Vessels and Vessels With Polar Boss Openings
Only). The Inspector shall first verify that all require-
ments of Article RI-4 are met before accepting repair RT-450 HYDROSTATIC LEAKAGE TEST A00
of imperfections. Repair of imperfections shall be done Each completed vessel including production heads
in accordance with RT-412.1(c) and /or (d), as applica- shall be subjected to a hydrostatic leakage test, using
ble, with the provision that after the repair is cured, water or other suitable liquid as the test fluid. The test
the vessel shall be pressurized to 1.5 times the design pressure at ambient temperature shall be 1.5 times the
pressure and the repaired area examined for any evi- design pressure, whether internal or external, and shall
dence of crazing or delamination. be maintained for at least 1 min. The vessel shall then
be carefully examined for leakage, at design pressure.
RT-412.4 Contact-Molded Vessels. The Inspector
Vessels that leak shall be rejected unless they can be
shall first verify that all requirements of Article RI-5
repaired in accordance with RT-412 and provided they
are met before permitting repair of imperfections. Repair
then pass the stipulated hydrostatic test without leakage.
of imperfections shall be done in accordance with RT-
412.1(c) and /or (d), as applicable, with the provision
that after the repair is cured, the vessel shall be RT-451 Vessels With Liners
pressurized to 1.5 times the design pressure and the
repaired area examined for any evidence of leakage, Vessels having liners shall be tested with liners
crazing, or delamination. in place.

RT-452 Excessive Hydrostatic Leakage Test


RT-413 Visual Examination of Repaired Areas Pressure
Each repaired area shall be examined visually without When pressurizing vessels during hydrostatic tests,
the aid of magnification. The repaired area shall have the pressure shall not exceed 1.5 times the design

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APPENDICES A99
A00

Appendix 1 Mandatory
Quality Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Appendix 2 Mandatory
Capacity Conversions for Safety Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Appendix 3 Mandatory
Preparation of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Appendix 4 Mandatory
Glossary of Terms Related to Fiber-Reinforced Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Appendix 5 Mandatory
Specific Gravity of Liquid Resins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Appendix 6 Mandatory
Structural Laminate Visual Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150.1

Appendix AA Nonmandatory
Suggested Methods of Preliminary Design for Class I Vessels . . . . . . . . . 151

Appendix AB Nonmandatory
Installation and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Appendix AC Nonmandatory
Discontinuity Stresses for Class II Method B Vessels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Appendix AD Nonmandatory
Laminate Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Appendix AE Nonmandatory
Fabrication of Flat Filament-Wound Specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Appendix AF Nonmandatory
Examples for Design Rules for Class II Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210.1
Appendix AG Nonmandatory
Guide to Information Appearing on Certificate of Authorization. . . . . . . . 210.5

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APPENDIX 6 — MANDATORY A00

STRUCTURAL LAMINATE VISUAL ACCEPTANCE


CRITERIA

6-100 STRUCTURAL LAMINATE VISUAL


ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
For Class 1 pressure vessels, see Table 6-100.1. For
Class 2 pressure vessels, see Table 6-100.2.

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Table 6-100.1 1998 SECTION X

TABLE 6-100.1
STRUCTURAL LAMINATE VISUAL ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR CLASS 1 PRESSURE VESSELS
Maximum Size and Cumulative
Sum of Imperfections
Allowable (After Repair)
Imperfection Name Definition of Imperfection [Notes (1), (2), (3)]

Air bubble (void) Air entrapment within and between the plies of 1⁄ in. max. dia., max. density
8
reinforcement, usually spherical in shape 4/sq in.; 1⁄16 in. max. dia.,
max. density 10/sq in.

Blister Rounded elevation of the surface of the laminate Pressure side: none; nonpressure
with boundaries that may be more or less sharply side: 1⁄8 in. max. dia., max.
defined, somewhat resembling in shape a blister density 1/sq ft, none less than
on the human skin 2 in. apart

Burned areas from excessive Showing evidence of thermal decomposition through None
exotherm discoloration or heavy distortion

Chips Small pieces broken off an edge of the laminate that *1⁄16 in. dia. or 1⁄4 in. length by
includes fiber breakage 1⁄
16 in. deep max.

Cracks Actual ruptures or debond of portions of the None: pressure or nonpressure


laminate side

Crazing Fine cracks at the surface of the laminate Max. 1 in. long by 1⁄64 in. deep,
max. density 5 in any square
foot

Delamination (internal) Separation of the layers in a laminate None

Delamination (edge) Separation of the layers of material at the edge of Max. dimension 1⁄8 in. and must
laminate not contact the process fluid

Dry spot Area of incomplete surface film where the None


reinforcement has not been wetted with resin

Edge exposure Exposure of multiple layers of the reinforcing None


matrix to the environment, usually as a result of
shaping or cutting a section of laminate

Foreign inclusion Particles included in a laminate which are foreign to *Max. 1⁄8 in. dia., never to
its composition (not a minute speck of dust) penetrate lamination to
lamination; must be fully
resin encapsulated

Fish-eye Small globular mass which has not blended *Pressure side: none;
completely into the surrounding material and is nonpressure side: 1⁄8 in. dia.
particularly evident in a transparent or max.
translucent material

Pimples (nonpressure side) Small, sharp, conical elevations on the surface of a No limit; must be fully resin
laminate filled and wetted

Pit Small crater in the surface of a laminate *1⁄8 in. dia. max. by 1⁄16 in. deep
max.; no exposed fibers

Porosity Presence of numerous visible tiny pits (pinhole), None to fully penetrate the
approximate dimension 0.010 in. surface; no more than 15/sq
in.; no exposed fibers

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APPENDIX 6 — MANDATORY Table 6-100.1

TABLE 6-100.1 (CONT’D)


STRUCTURAL LAMINATE VISUAL ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR CLASS 1 PRESSURE VESSELS
Maximum Size and Cumulative
Sum of Imperfections
Allowable (After Repair)
Imperfection Name Definition of Imperfection [Notes (1), (2), (3)]

Scratches Shallow marks, grooves, furrows, or channels *Pressure side: none;


caused by improper handling nonpressure side: none more
than 6 in. long; no exposed
fibers

Wrinkles and creases Generally linear, abrupt changes in surface plane Filament wound: none; others:
caused by laps of reinforcing layers, irregular max. deviation 20% of wall
mold shape, or polyester film overlap or 1⁄8 in., whichever is less

Band width gap (filament winding) The space between successive winding fiber bands None
which are intended to lay next to each other

Band width overlap (filament An area where the edge of a fiber band has laid on 2 strands max.
winding) top of a previous fiber band, although intended to
lay next to each other

Band width splaying (filament An unintended space between individual fibers in a None
winding) fiber band that results in a gap between fibers

Strand drop out (filament When one or more strands of a fiber band ceases to None
winding) be applied to the vessel shell being wound due to
breakage or inadequate supply

Allowable cumulative sum of Maximum allowable in any square foot 5


imperfections denoted by an Maximum allowable in any square yard 30
asterisk (*)

Maximum percent repairs The maximum allowable area of repairs made in 3% to structural
order to pass visual inspection

GENERAL NOTE: Unless specifically called out, acceptance criteria applies to pressure and nonpressure sides.
NOTES:
(1) Above acceptance criteria apply to condition of laminate after repair and hydrotest.
(2) Noncatalyzed resin is not permissible to any extent in any area of the laminate.
(3) Imperfections subject to cumulative sum limitation are highlighted with an asterisk (*).

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Table 6-100.2 1998 SECTION X

TABLE 6-100.2
STRUCTURAL LAMINATE VISUAL ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR CLASS 2 PRESSURE VESSELS
Maximum Size and Cumulative
Sum of Imperfections
Allowable (After Repair)
Imperfection Name Definition of Imperfection [Notes (1), (2), (3)]

Air bubble (void) Air entrapment within and between the plies of 1⁄ in. max. dia., max. density
8
reinforcement, usually spherical in shape 4/sq in.; 1⁄16 in. max. dia.,
max. density 10/sq in.

Blister (nonpressure side) Rounded elevation of the surface of the laminate 1⁄ in. max. dia. by 1⁄8 in. high
4
with boundaries that may be more or less sharply max., max. density 1/sq ft,
defined, somewhat resembling in shape a blister none less than 2 in. apart
on the human skin

Burned areas from excessive Showing evidence of thermal decomposition through None
exotherm discoloration or heavy distortion

Chips Small pieces broken off an edge of the laminate that *1⁄4 in. dia. or 1⁄2 in. length by
includes fiber breakage 1⁄
16 in. deep max.

Cracks Actual ruptures or debond of portions of the None


laminate

Crazing (nonpressure side) Fine cracks at the surface of the laminate Max. 1 in. long by 1⁄64 in. deep,
max. density 5 in any square
foot

Delamination (internal) Separation of the layers in a laminate None

Delamination (edge) Separation of the layers of material at the edge of Max. dimension 1⁄8 in. and must
laminate not contact the process fluid

Dry spot Area of incomplete surface film where the None


reinforcement has not been wetted with resin

Edge Exposure Exposure of multiple layers of the reinforcing None


matrix to the environment, usually as a result of
shaping or cutting a section of laminate

Foreign inclusion Particles included in a laminate which are foreign to *Max. 3⁄8 in. dia., never to
its composition (not a minute speck of dusk) penetrate lamination to
lamination; must be fully
resin encapsulated

Fish-eye Small globular mass which has not blended *1⁄8 in. dia. max.
completely into the surrounding material and is
particularly evident in a transparent or
translucent material

Pimples (nonpressure side) Small, sharp, conical elevations on the surface of a No limit; must be fully resin
laminate filled and wetted

Pit (nonpressure side) Small crater in the surface of a laminate *1⁄4 in. dia. max. by 1⁄16 in. deep
max.; no exposed fibers

Porosity (nonpressure side) Presence of numerous visible tiny pits (pinhole), None to fully penetrate the
approximate dimension 0.010 in. surface; no more than 15 per
sq in.; no exposed fibers

Scratches (nonpressure side) Shallow marks, grooves, furrows, or channels *None more than 6 in. long; no
caused by improper handling exposed fibers

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APPENDIX 6 — MANDATORY Table 6-100.2

TABLE 6-100.2 (CONT’D)


STRUCTURAL LAMINATE VISUAL ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR CLASS 2 PRESSURE VESSELS
Maximum Size and Cumulative
Sum of Imperfections
Allowable (After Repair)
Imperfection Name Definition of Imperfection [Notes (1), (2), (3)]

Wrinkles and creases Generally linear, abrupt changes in surface plane Filament wound: none; others:
caused by laps of reinforcing layers, irregular max. deviation 20% of wall
mold shape, or polyester film overlap or 1⁄8 in., whichever is less

Band width gap (filament winding) The space between successive winding fiber bands None
which are intended to lay next to each other

Band width overlap (filament An area where the edge of a fiber band has laid on 2 strands max.
winding) top of a previous fiber band, although intended to
lay next to each other

Band width splaying (filament An unintended space between individual fibers in a None
winding) fiber band that results in a gap between fibers

Strand drop out (filament When one or more strands of a fiber band ceases to None
winding) be applied to the vessel shell being wound due to
breakage or inadequate supply

Allowable cumulative sum of Maximum allowable in any square foot 5


imperfections denoted by an Maximum allowable in any square yard 30
asterisk (*)

Maximum percent repairs The maximum allowable area of repairs made in 3% to structural
order to pass visual inspection

NOTES:
(1) Above acceptance criteria apply to condition of laminate after repair and hydrotest.
(2) Noncatalyzed resin is not permissible to any extent in any area of the laminate.
(3) Imperfections subject to cumulative sum limitation are highlighted with an asterisk (*).

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AD-501 APPENDIX AD — NONMANDATORY AD-501.2

Q11 p Qxx cos4 ␪ + Qyy sin4 ␪ + 2Qxy cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪

+ 4Qss cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪

Q12 p Qxx cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪ + Qyy cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪

+ Qxy (cos4 ␪ + sin4 ␪) − 4Qss cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪

Q16 p Qxx cos3 ␪ sin ␪ + Qyy cos ␪ sin3 ␪

+ Qxy (cos ␪ sin3 ␪ − cos3 ␪ sin ␪)

+ 2Qss (cos ␪ sin3 ␪ − cos3 ␪ sin ␪)

Q21 p Q12
FIG. AD-202 REFERENCE COORDINATES

Q22 p Qxx sin4 ␪ + Qyy cos4 ␪ + 2Qxy cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪

+ 4Qss cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪


orientation, and stacking sequence of the individual
lamina.
Q26 p Qxx cos ␪ sin3 ␪ − Qyy cos3 ␪ sin ␪
AD-501.1 Determine On-Axis Modulus Compo-
nents of the Lamina. From the lamina elastic constants: + Qxy (cos3 ␪ sin ␪ − cos ␪ sin3 ␪)

+ 2Qss (cos3 ␪ sin ␪ − cos ␪ sin3 ␪)


Qxx p Ex /(1 − ␯x␯y) p 5.223 × 106 psi (4)

Q61 p Q16
Qyy p Ey /(1 − ␯x␯y) p 1.561 × 106 psi (5)

Qyx p Ey ␯x /(1 − ␯x␯y) p 0.438 × 106 psi (6) Q62 p Q26

Qxy p Qyx p 0.438 × 106 psi (7) Q66 p Qxx cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪ + Qyy cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪

− 2Qxy cos2 ␪ sin2 ␪


Qss p Es p 0.439 × 106 psi (8)
+ Qss (cos2 ␪ − sin2 ␪)

A00 AD-501.2 Determination of Transformed Modulus


Components. Based on the orientation of each ply, However, by the substitutions of certain trigonometric
calculate the transformed modulus components of each identities, multiple angle functions can be developed
lamina using the transformation equations shown below that offer certain advantages in the calculations. These
and the on-axis modulus components determined in will be used in the illustrative example:
AD-501.1.
The transformed modulus components in terms of
their power functions and on-axis components are shown
below. ␮1 p 1⁄
8 (3Qxx + 3Qyy + 2Qxy + 4Qss) p2.87 × 106 (9)

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AD-501.2 1998 SECTION X AD-501.3

FIG. AD-500

␮2 p 1⁄2 (Qxx − Qyy) p 1.83 × 106 (10) TABLE AD-500


ASSUMED LAMINA ELASTIC AND STRENGTH
PROPERTIES
␮3 p 1⁄8 (Qxx + Qyy − 2Qxy − 4Qss) p 0.518 × 106 (11)
Property Assumed Value

␮4 p 1⁄8 (Qxx + Qyy + 6Qxy − 4Qss) p 0.957 × 106 (12) Ex 5.100 × 106 psi
Ey 1.525 × 106 psi
Es 0.439 × 106 psi
␮5 p 1⁄8 (Qxx + Qyy − 2Qxy + 4Qss) p 0.957 × 106 (13) ␯x 0.281
tk 0.020 in.
X 119,000 psi
The substitution of the trigonometric identities into Y 10,000 psi
the transformation relations yields the following values XC 119,000 psi
YC 10,000 psi
for ply No. 1. S 5,220 psi
Ey ␯x
␯y p 0.084
Ex
Q11 p ␮1 + ␮2 cos 2␪ + ␮3 cos 4␪ p 1.55 × 106 (14)

Q12 p ␮4 − ␮3 cos 4␪ p 0.698 × 106 (15)


Q62 p Q26 p 0.907 × 106 (21)
Q16 p 1⁄
2 ␮2 sin 2␪ + ␮3 sin 4␪ p 0.083 × 106 (16)

Q66 p ␮5 − ␮3 cos 4␪ p 0.698 × 106 (22)


Q21 p Q12 p 0.698 × 106 (17)
The transformed modulus components for all 12 plies
are determined in similar fashion and listed in Table
Q22 p ␮1 − ␮2 cos 2␪ + ␮3 cos 4␪ p 4.72 × 106 (18)
AD-501.
AD-501.3 Determination of In-Plane Modulus
Q26 p 1⁄2 ␮2 sin 2␪ − ␮3 sin 4␪ p 0.907 × 106 (19)
Components. The in-plane modulus components Aij
that couple stress to strain are determined from an
Q61 p Q16 p 0.083 × 106 (20) arithmetic summation of the off-axis modulus of each

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