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Proceedings of the 7th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design

The International Federation of Automatic Control

Aalborg, Denmark, June 20-22, 2012

Design of Accommodation Process Applied to the Thrust Reverser of Aircraft

First O. Bennouna*, Second N. Langlois*

*IRSEEM (Institut de Recherche en Systèmes Electroniques EMbarqués)

Technopôle du Madrillet, Avenue Galilée, BP 10024, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, FRANCE
(Tel: +33232915844; e-mail:

Abstract: This paper concerns the design of adaptive controller for fault-tolerant control (FTC) of
aircraft nacelle and especially the thrust reverser subjected to functional defects. The FTC procedure used
is based on the estimation of the electrical machine parameters, followed by an accommodation process
to maintain acceptable degraded performance. Tests were achieved using a numeric simulator on
Keywords: Adaptive controller, Fault tolerant control, accommodation, aircraft nacelle, thrust reverser.

The aircraft nacelle is a complex system which includes
several components. It contains the engine block of the
aircraft including not only the engine, but also all the
electrical and hydraulic systems, all actuators (cylinders,
pumps, valves...), specific systems such as thrust reversers,
and all nuts and caps. The turbojet is the most important part,
which affects the design of the whole aircraft nacelle. It is no
longer composed of only one floor, but two or even three for
some manufacturers. In the case of a turbojet with double
body, the two stages are described as Low Pressure (LP) and
High pressure (HP).
Fig. 1. Aircraft nacelle exploded view.
The aircraft nacelle should provide multiple functions, that's
why it contains many control systems such as fire protection
The control of the thrust reverser is performed by a hydraulic
or defrost systems. It must also feed the engine with air,
and / or an electric system (Frischemeier, 1997). This study
protect it against lightning, reduce engine noise, ensure good
concerns the electric control system.
aerodynamics in flight (reduce turbulence), landing or taking
off. It must not only protect the engine, but also isolate the Thus, the increasing degree of complexity of such systems
plane of the engine. Figure 1 shows the three major elements needs a rigorous monitoring. This surveillance must be able
of an aircraft nacelle, which are: The inlet cowl, the fan cowl to detect an abnormal system operation, to localize it and to
and the thrust reverser. This study concerns the last element identify it in order to decide an action to undertake: making
(thrust reverser). corrective maintenance, or changing the control strategy by
Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) (Bennouna and Langlois,
The thrust reverser is a break assistance system. Its function
is to redirect the exhaust flow from the reactor (mixture of air
flow and flue gas) to the front by closing the nozzle, causing A fault tolerant system has the ability to maintain the nominal
a thrust reversal. It plays a major role during the landing but targets despite of the fault presence. It ensures the system
also during aborted takeoff. Therefore it must be strong stability and acceptable degraded performance. In some
enough to the air charge during braking. A thrust reverser is circumstances a reduced performance could be accepted as a
never activated in flight, but only during the rolling phase of trade-off (Zhang and Jiang, 2003a). The FTC is generally
the plane. Unintentional opening in flight would cause classified into two distinct approaches (Zhang and Jiang,
substantial damage (loss of control of the aircraft, crash...), 2003a): a passive (PFTC for Passive Fault Tolerant Control)
that's why there is a locking system controlled by the pilot and an active one (AFTC for Active Fault Tolerant Control).
(Carpentier, 2004). Figure 2 gives the different approaches of the FTC.

978-3-902823-03-8/12/$20.00 © 2012 IFAC 547 10.3182/20120620-3-DK-2025.00077

7th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design
Aalborg, Denmark, June 20-22, 2012


x (t ) >i ds i qs Mr @T
u (t ) >u ds u qs @T
The matrices A(t) and B are given as:

ª K º ª 1 º
« - Z » «1 / 0»
« 2
r » « s »
« » « 1 »
Fig. 2. The FTC approaches. A = «- w - Z .» B = « 0 »
« » « 1 / »
« M 1 » « »
An AFTC is characterized by an on-line FDI process and a 0 -
« 2 2 » « 0 0 »
(Fault Detection and Isolation) module, a control
UHFRQ¿JXUDWLRQ PHFKDQLVP LV GHVLJQHG LQ RUGHU WR WDNH LQWR i d s and i q s are respectively the stator currents on the phases d
account the possibility of fault occurrence (Theilliol et al.,
2002). Advanced and sophisticated controllers have been and q.
developed with fault accommodation and tolerance
capabilities (Theilliol et al., 2008), in order to meet pre-fault u ds and u qs are respectively the stator voltages on the phases
reliability and performance requirements as proposed by d and q.
(Gao and Antsaklis, 1991; Jiang, 1994) for model matching 2
approaches or by (Gao and Antsaklis, 1992) to track a R + R 2
s r L 2 L L -M
trajectory, but also with degraded ones as suggested by (Jiang r
M s r
K = 1
and Zhang, 2006). Moreover, the importance of improving 1 / 1 / / L L
s r
s s r
the system behaviour during the fault accommodation delay
has been, recently, considered by (Staroswiecki et al., 2007) Ls , Lr
and M are respectively the stator, rotor and mutual
in order to reduce the loss of performance. inductance.
This article concerns the fault tolerant control of the thrust
Rs , Rr are respectively the stator and rotor resistance.
reverser of aircraft nacelle, subjected to functional faults. The
technique used in this paper is based on the estimation of the
electrical machine parameters, followed by a accommodation Z s and Z are respectively the stator and rotor rotational speed
process to keep the doors of the thrust reverser open. in the reference (d, q).

This article is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the Lr

fault tolerant control procedure including tools used Wr is the rotor time constant.
(Recursive Least squares and Adaptive Control). Tests,
instrumentation and the corresponding results will be In this work, a discrete state-space representation of the
presented in Section 3. A brief summary and the innovative electrical machine will be used:
aspects of this paper are given in the end of the paper.
- xk 1 Ad x k Bd u k
¯ yk C d xk
The Recursive Least squares (RLS) technique is used for the
estimation of the electric machine parameters. Then a The coefficients of the matrices Ad, Bd and Cd depend on the
accommodation process based on a adaptive control is sampling time which is a compromise between stability of
applied to maintain acceptable degraded performance. the discrete model and computation time.
The RLS technique gives the estimation of both vectors:
2.1 Parameters Estimation
TÖd >aÖ 11 aÖ12 aÖ13 bÖ11 bÖ12 @
The Recursive Least squares (RLS) technique is used to
estimate the electrical machine parameters in order to detect
faults presence.
TÖq >aÖ 21 aÖ 22 aÖ 23 bÖ21 bÖ22 @

A state-space representation of the electrical machine could With

be stated as follow:
aÖ ij for i=1,2,3 and j=1,2 is the estimation of the element
- x ( t ) A ( t ) x ( t ) Bu ( t )
® (1) a ij of the matrix Ad . The estimation of the electrical
¯ y ( t ) Cx ( t )

7th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design
Aalborg, Denmark, June 20-22, 2012

parameters ( L s , L r , R s , R r ) of the machine can be done using the FDI procedure given in figure 3:

Fig. 3. The FDI procedure

2.2 Adaptive Vector Control 3. APPLICATION TO THRUST REVERSER

The FTC procedure presented in the previous paragraph was
The AVC consists to change the control law in order to take applied on electrical motor of thrust reverser with the
into account the fault presence in the machine. The methods parameters given in table I. Indeed, many failures can appear
proposed in the literature are often based on real-time on the machine. They can be electric, mechanical or
estimation of the rotor time constant using the extended magnetic.
Kalman filter (Chen Zai et al., 1992; Telford et al., 2003).
However, they do not estimate each parameter of the Table I. Parameters of the electrical machine
machine, unlike the technique used in this paper. The AVC
procedure is shown in figure 4: Parameters Values
Speed 14 000 rpm
Electrical time 0.6 ms
Stator resistance R s 0.65
Rotor resistance R r 0.3

Stator inductance L s 0.38 mH

Rotor inductance L r 0.2 mH

3.1 Tests
Fig. 4. The AVC procedure
First tests were achieved using the numeric simulator
(Matlab/Simulink). A full representation of the EMA was
created, as shown in figure 5.

7th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design
Aalborg, Denmark, June 20-22, 2012

Fig. 5. The EMA representation using Matlab / Simulink

3.2 Results

In this study, the sensitivity of the vector control to change

motor parameters is given on figure 6. The study concerns,
thus, the case of 50% increase in resistance and inductance,
due to a temperature increase.

Fig. 7a. TÖd estimation.

Fig. 6. Influence of parameters variations.

Estimation results obtained from equations (3) and (4) are
given in the following figures:

7th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design
Aalborg, Denmark, June 20-22, 2012

7th IFAC Symposium on Robust Control Design
Aalborg, Denmark, June 20-22, 2012

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