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TUGAS BAHAN KONTRUKSI TEKNIK KIMIA

OLEH:
ERVAN WIBOWO
NIM : 1707113444

KELAS B

JURUSAN TEKNIK KIMIA


FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS RIAU
PEKANBARU
2017
KATA PENGANTAR

Segala puji dan syukur penulis panjatkan kehadirat Allah SWT dengan rahmat dan
hidayahnya, penulis dapat menyelesaikan tugas ini. Selawat serta salam semoga tetap
tercurah kepada Nabi Muhammad SAW.
Dalam tugas “contoh logam logam dalam typical mechanical properties of metals ”
penulis bermaksud menjelaskan secara singkat akan contoh contoh dari logam terseebut.
Adapun tujuan selanjutnya adalah untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat tugas mata kuliah Bahan
Kontruksi Teknik Kimia .
Akhir kata tak ada gading yang tak retak, penulis mengharapkan kritik dan saran yang
membangun untuk perbaikan penulis dalam menyelesaikan tugas ini.

Pekanbaru,6 november 2017

Penulis,
Mechanical Properties of Metals

1. Introduction

Often materials are subject to forces (loads) when they are used. Mechanical
engineers calculate those forces and material scientists how materials deform
(elongate, compress, twist) or break as a function of applied load, time,
temperature, and other conditions.

Materials scientists learn about these mechanical properties by testing


materials. Results from the tests depend on the size and shape of material to be
tested (specimen), how it is held, and the way of performing the test. That is
why we use common procedures, or standards, which are published by the
ASTM.

2. Concepts of Stress and Strain

To compare specimens of different sizes, the load is calculated per unit area,
also called normalization to the area. Force divided by area is called stress. In
tension and compression tests, the relevant area is that perpendicular to the
force. In shear or torsion tests, the area is perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

= F/A0 tensile or compressive stress

= F/A0 shear stress

The unit is the Megapascal = 106 Newtons/m2.

There is a change in dimensions, or deformation elongation, L as a result of a


tensile or compressive stress. To enable comparison with specimens of
different length, the elongation is also normalized, this time to the length L.
This is called strain, .

 = L/L

The change in dimensions is the reason we use A0 to indicate the initial area
since it changes during deformation. One could divide force by the actual area,
this is called true stress (see Sec. 6.7).

For torsional or shear stresses, the deformation is the angle of twist, Fig.
6.1) and the shear strain is given by:

 = tg 
3. Stress—Strain Behavior

Elastic deformation. When the stress is removed, the material returns to the
dimension it had before the load was applied. Valid for small strains (except
the case of rubbers).

Deformation is reversible, non permanent

Plastic deformation. When the stress is removed, the material does not return
to its previous dimension but there is a permanent, irreversible deformation.

In tensile tests, if the deformation is elastic, the stress-strain relationship is


called Hooke's law:

= E 

That is, E is the slope of the stress-strain curve. E is Young's modulus or


modulus of elasticity. In some cases, the relationship is not linear so that E can
be defined alternatively as the local slope:

E = d/d

Shear stresses produce strains according to:

= G 

where G is the shear modulus.

Elastic moduli measure the stiffness of the material. They are related to the
second derivative of the interatomic potential, or the first derivative of the
force vs. internuclear distance (Fig. 6.6). By examining these curves we can
tell which material has a higher modulus. Due to thermal vibrations the elastic
modulus decreases with temperature. E is large for ceramics (stronger ionic
bond) and small for polymers (weak covalent bond). Since the interatomic
distances depend on direction in the crystal, E depends on direction (i.e., it is
anisotropic) for single crystals. For randomly oriented policrystals, E is
isotropic.

4. Anelasticity

Here the behavior is elastic but not the stress-strain curve is not immediately
reversible. It takes a while for the strain to return to zero. The effect is
normally small for metals but can be significant for polymers.

5. Elastic Properties of Materials

Materials subject to tension shrink laterally. Those subject to compression,


bulge. The ratio of lateral and axial strains is called the Poisson's ratio .
=  lateral/ axial

The elastic modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are related by E =
2G(1+)

6. Tensile Properties

Yield point. If the stress is too large, the strain deviates from being
proportional to the stress. The point at which this happens is the yield point
because there the material yields, deforming permanently (plastically).

Yield stress. Hooke's law is not valid beyond the yield point. The stress at the
yield point is called yield stress, and is an important measure of the
mechanical properties of materials. In practice, the yield stress is chosen as
that causing a permanent strain of 0.002 (strain offset, Fig. 6.9.)

The yield stress measures the resistance to plastic deformation.

The reason for plastic deformation, in normal materials, is not that the atomic
bond is stretched beyond repair, but the motion of dislocations, which involves
breaking and reforming bonds.

Plastic deformation is caused by the motion of dislocations.

Tensile strength. When stress continues in the plastic regime, the stress-strain
passes through a maximum, called the tensile strength (TS) , and then falls as
the material starts to develop a neck and it finally breaks at the fracture point
(Fig. 6.10).

Note that it is called strength, not stress, but the units are the same, MPa.

For structural applications, the yield stress is usually a more important


property than the tensile strength, since once the it is passed, the structure has
deformed beyond acceptable limits.

Ductility. The ability to deform before braking. It is the opposite of


brittleness. Ductility can be given either as percent maximum elongation max
or maximum area reduction.

%EL =  max x 100 %

%AR = (A0 - Af)/A0

These are measured after fracture (repositioning the two pieces back together).
Resilience. Capacity to absorb energy elastically. The energy per unit volume
is the

area under the strain-stress curve in the elastic region.

Toughness. Ability to absorb energy up to fracture. The energy per unit


volume is the total area under the strain-stress curve. It is measured by an
impact test (Ch. 8).

7. True Stress and Strain

When one applies a constant tensile force the material will break after
reaching the tensile strength. The material starts necking (the transverse area
decreases) but the stress cannot increase beyond TS. The ratio of the force to
the initial area, what we normally do, is called the engineering stress. If the
ratio is to the actual area (that changes with stress) one obtains the true stress.

8. Elastic Recovery During Plastic Deformation

If a material is taken beyond the yield point (it is deformed plastically) and the
stress is then released, the material ends up with a permanent strain. If the
stress is reapplied, the material again responds elastically at the beginning up
to a new yield point that is higher than the original yield point (strain
hardening, Ch. 7.10). The amount of elastic strain that it will take before
reaching the yield point is called elastic strain recovery (Fig. 6. 16).

9. Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation

Compressive and shear stresses give similar behavior to tensile stresses, but in
the case of compressive stresses there is no maximum in the  curve, since
no necking occurs.

10. Hardness

Hardness is the resistance to plastic deformation (e.g., a local dent or scratch).


Thus, it is a measure of plastic deformation, as is the tensile strength, so they
are well correlated. Historically, it was measured on an empirically scale,
determined by the ability of a material to scratch another, diamond being the
hardest and talc the softer. Now we use standard tests, where a ball, or point is
pressed into a material and the size of the dent is measured. There are a few
different hardness tests: Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers, etc. They are popular
because they are easy and non-destructive (except for the small dent).
11. Variability of Material Properties

Tests do not produce exactly the same result because of variations in the test
equipment, procedures, operator bias, specimen fabrication, etc. But, even if
all those parameters are controlled within strict limits, a variation remains in
the materials, due to uncontrolled variations during fabrication, non
homogenous composition and structure, etc. The measured mechanical
properties will show scatter, which is often distributed in a Gaussian curve
(bell-shaped), that is characterized by the mean value and the standard
deviation (width).

12. Design/Safety Factors

To take into account variability of properties, designers use, instead of an


average value of, say, the tensile strength, the probability that the yield
strength is above the minimum value tolerable. This leads to the use of a
safety factor N > 1 (typ. 1.2 - 4). Thus, a working value for the tensile strength
would be W =TS / N.

Structural steel
hot rolled, non-alloy steels
material Re [MPa] Rm [MPa]
name nr d<16 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 <3 ≤100
S235JR 1.0038 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S235JO 1.0114 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S235J2 1.0117 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S275JR 1.0044 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S275JO 1.0143 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S275J2 1.0145 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S355JR 1.0045 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355J0 1.0553 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355J2 1.0577 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355K2 1.0596 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S450J0 1.0590 450 430 410 390 380 - 550-720
E295 1.0050 295 285 490-660 470-610
E335 1.0060 335 325 590-770 570-710
E360 1.0070 360 355 690-900 670-830
E295...E360: bearing and drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.
Structural steel
hot-rolled, non-alloy, normalized, weldable fine grain
material Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] A
name nr d<16 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 ≤100 %
S275N 1.0490 275 265 255 245 235 370-510 23-24
S275NL 1.0491 275 265 255 245 235 370-510 23-24
S355N 1.0545 355 345 335 325 315 470-630 21-22
S355NL 1.0546 355 345 335 325 315 470-630 21-22
S420N 1.8902 420 400 390 370 360 520-680 18-19
S420NL 1.8912 420 400 390 370 360 520-680 18-19
S460N 1.8901 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 17
S460NL 1.8903 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 17

Structural steel
thermo-mechanically rolled, weldable fine grain
material Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] A
name nr <16 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 %
S275M 1.8818 275 265 255 245 245 370-530 360-520 350-510 350-510 24
S275ML 1.8819 275 265 255 245 245 370-530 360-520 350-510 350-510 24
S355M 1.8823 355 345 335 325 325 470-630 450-610 440-600 440-600 22
S355ML 1.8834 355 345 335 325 325 470-630 450-610 440-600 440-600 22
S420M 1.8825 420 400 390 380 370 520-680 500-660 480-640 470-630 19
S420ML 1.8836 420 400 390 380 370 520-680 500-660 480-640 470-630 19
S460M 1.8827 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 530-710 510-690 500-680 17
S460ML 1.8838 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 530-710 510-690 500-680 17

Free cutting steel


not intended for heath treatment
name nr Diam [mm] Hardness [HB] Rm [MPa]
5≤10 - 380-570
11SMn30 1.0715
10 < d ≤16 - 380-570
11SMNPb30 1.0718
16 < d ≤40 112-169 380-570
11SMn37 1.0736
40 < d ≤63 109-169 370-570
11SMnPb37 1.0737
63 < d ≤100 107-154 360-520
Free cutting steel
case hardening steel, untreated
name nr Diam [mm] Hardness HB Rm [MPa]
5≤10 - 360-530
10 < d ≤16 - 360-530
10S20 1.0721
16 < d ≤40 107-156 360-530
10SPb20 1.0722
40 < d ≤63 107-156 360-530
6 3 < d ≤100 105-146 350-490
5≤10 - 430-610
10 < d ≤16 - 430-600
15SMn13 1.0725 16 < d ≤40 128-178 430-600
40 < d ≤63 128-172 430-580
6 3 < d ≤100 125-160 420-540

Free cutting steel


direct hardening steel
Untreated Quenched and Tempered
material Diam d Hardness Rm Re Rm A
name nr mm HB [MPa] MPa MPa %min
5 ≤ d ≤10 - 550-720 430 630-780 15
10 < d ≤16 - 550-700 430 630-780 15
35S20 1.0726
16 < d ≤40 154-201 520-680 380 600-750 16
35SPb20 1.0756
40 < d ≤63 154-198 520-670 320 550-700 17
63 < d ≤100 149-193 500-650 320 550-700 17
5≤10 - 580-770 480 700-850 14
10 < d ≤16 - 580-770 460 700-850 14
36SMn14 1.0764
16 < d ≤40 166-222 560-750 420 670-820 15
36SMnPb14 1.0765
40 < d ≤63 166-219 560-740 400 640-790 16
63 < d ≤100 163-219 550-740 360 570-720 17
5≤10 - 580-780 480 700-850 15
10 < d ≤16 - 580-750 460 700-850 15
38SMn28 1.0760
16 < d ≤40 166-216 560-730 420 700-850 15
38SMnPb28 1.0761
40 < d ≤63 166-216 560-730 400 700-850 16
63 < d ≤100 163-207 550-700 380 630-800 16
5≤10 - 630-900 520 700-850 16
10 < d ≤16 - 630-850 480 700-850 16
44SMn28 1.0762
16 < d ≤40 187-242 630-820 420 700-850 16
44SMnPb28 1.0763
40 < d ≤63 184-235 620-790 410 700-850 16
63 < d ≤100 181-231 610-780 400 700-850 16
5≤10 - 590-800 490 700-850 12
10 < d ≤16 - 590-780 490 700-850 12
46S20 1.0727
16 < d ≤40 175-225 590-760 430 650-800 13
46SPb20 1.0757
40 < d ≤63 172-216 580-730 370 630-780 14
63 < d ≤100 166-211 560-710 370 630-780 14
Steels for quenching and tempering (quenched and tempered)
non-alloy quality steel
d <16  16 < d = < 40
t =<8 8 < t = < 20
material Re Rm A Re Rm A
name nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
C35 1.0501 430 630-780 17 380 600-750 19
C40 1.0511 460 650-800 16 400 630-780 18
C45 1.0503 490 700-850 14 430 650-800 16
C55 1.0535 550 800-950 12 490 750-900 14
C60 1.0601 580 850-1000 11 520 800-950 13
Special steels
C22E 1.1151 340 500-650 20 290 470-620 22
C35E 1.1181 430 630-780 17 380 600-750 19
C40E 1.1186 460 650-800 16 400 630-780 18
C45E 1.1191 490 700-850 14 430 650-800 16
C50E 1.1206 520 750-900 13 460 700-850 15
C55E 1.1203 550 800-950 12 490 750-900 14
C60E 1.1221 580 850-1000 11 520 800-950 13
28Mn6 1.1170 590 800-950 13 490 700-850 15
(Source)

Steels for quenching and tempering (Normalized)


non-alloy quality steel
d <16 16 < d = < 100 100 < d = < 250
t =< 16 16 < t = < 100 100 < t = < 250
material Re Rm A Re Rm A Re Rm A
name nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
C35 1.0501 300 550 18 270 520 19 245 500 19
C40 1.0511 320 580 16 290 550 17 260 530 17
C45 1.0503 340 620 14 305 580 16 275 560 16
C55 1.0535 370 680 11 330 640 12 300 620 12
C60 1.0601 380 710 10 340 670 11 310 650 11
Special Steels
C22E 1.1151 240 430 24 210 410 25 - - -
C35E 1.1181 300 550 18 270 520 19 245 500 19
C40E 1.1186 320 580 16 290 550 17 260 530 17
C45E 1.1191 340 620 14 305 580 16 275 560 16
C50E 1.1206 355 650 13 320 610 14 290 590 14
C55E 1.1203 370 680 11 330 640 12 300 620 12
C60E 1.1221 380 710 10 340 670 11 310 650 11
28Mn6 1.1170 345 630 17 310 600 18 290 590 18

Alloy steel (quenched and tempered)


d <16 16 < d = < 40
t =<8 8 < t = < 20
material Re Rm A Re Rm A
name nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
38Cr2 1.7003 550 800-950 14 450 700-850 15
46Cr2 1.7006 650 900-1100 12 550 800-950 14
34Cr4 1.7033 700 900-1100 12 590 800-950 14
34CrS4 1.7037 700 900-1100 12 590 800-950 14
37Cr4 1.7034 750 950-1150 11 630 850-1000 13
37CrS4 1.7038 750 950-1150 11 630 850-1000 13
41Cr4 1.7035 800 1000-1200 11 660 900-1100 12
41CrS4 1.7039 800 1000-1200 11 660 900-1100 12
25CrMo4 1.7218 700 900-1100 12 600 800-950 14
25CrMoS4 1.7213 700 900-1100 12 600 800-950 14
34CrMo4 1.7220 800 1000-1200 11 650 900-1100 12
34CrMoS4 1.7226 800 1000-1200 11 650 900-1100 12
42CrMo4 1.7225 900 1100-1300 10 750 1000-1200 11
42CrMoS4 1.7227 900 1100-1300 10 750 1000-1200 11
50CrMo4 1.7228 900 1100-1300 9 780 1000-1200 10
34CrNiMo6 1.6582 1000 1200-1400 9 900 1100-1300 10
30CrNiMo6 1.6580 1050 1250-1450 9 1050 1250-1450 9
35NiCr6 1.5815 740 880-1080 12 740 880-1080 14
36NICrMo16 1.6773 1050 1250-1450 9 1050 1250-1450 9
39NiCrMo3 1.6510 785 980-1180 11 735 930-1130 11
30NiCrMo16-16 1.6747 880 1080-1230 10 880 1080-1230 10
51CrV4 1.8159 900 1100-1300 9 800 1000-1200 10
20MnB5 1.5530 700 900-1050 14 600 750-900 15
30MnB5 1.5531 800 950-1150 13 650 800-950 13
38MnB5 1.5532 900 1050- 1250 12 700 850-1050 12
27MnCrB5-2 1.7182 800 1000-1250 14 750 900-1150 14
33MnCrB5-2 1.7185 850 1050 1300 13 800 950-1200 13
39MnCrB5-2 1.7189 900 1100-1350 12 850 1050-1250 12
(Source)

Stainless steel (selection)


Material Rm Re A
name nr ANSI MPa MPa %
X10CrNi18-8 1.4310 301 500...740 195...205 35...40
X8CrNiS-18-9 1.4305 303 500...700 190 35
X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 304 540...750 230 45
2CrNi19-11 1.4306 304L 520...660 250 45
2CrNi18-9 1.4307 304L 520...670 220 45
X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 316 540...680 195...205 35...40
X3CrNiMo17-13-3 1.4436 316 550...700 240 40
X2CrNiMo17-13-2 1.4404 316L 520...660 195 40
X2CrNiMo18-14-3 1.4435 316L 500...700 200 45
X6CrNiMoTi1712-2 1.4571 316Ti 540...680 215 40
X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 321 540...680 205 40
X12Cr13 1.4006 410 <600   20
X20Cr13 1.4021 420 <700   15
X30Cr13 1.4028 420 <740   15
X6Cr17 1.4016 430 440...590 255 20
X3CrTi17 1.4510 439 430...630 205 20
X2CrTiNb18 14509 441 430/630 250 20
X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 duplex 640...880 480 25
Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non-magnetic
Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic, not intended for heath treatment
(Source)

Cast iron
Rm Re A E-modulus
name MPa MPa % GPa
EN-GJL-150 150...250 100...165 0.8...0.3 78...103
EN-GJL-200 200...300 130...195 0.8...0.3 88...113
EN-GJL-250 250...350 165...230 0.8...0.3 103...118
EN-GJL-300 300...400 195...260 0.8...0.3 108...137
EN-GJS-350-22-LT 350...400 220...280 30...22 160...185
EN-GJS-400-18-LT 400...450 250...300 27...18 160...185
EN-GJS-400-15 400...550 250...350 27...15 160...185
EN-GJS-450-10 450...600 310...410 20...10 160...185
EN-GJS-500-7 500...650 320...420 18...7 160...185
EN-GJS-600-3 600...750 370...480 8...3 160...185
EN-GJS-700-2 700...850 420...600 6...2 160...185
EN-GJS-800-2 800...1000 480...750 4...2 160...185
GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite - the 250 and 300 are hard wearing. GJS
(old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, for heath treatment, from 500
hard wearing (Source_1 , Source_2).

Spring steel
Material nr Rm [MPa] E [GPa] G [GPa]
Spring steel (Music wire) 1.1200 2220 - 820 log d 206 81.5
Stainless steel (ANSI 301) 1.4310 0.85(2220 - 820 log d) 190 73
The mechanical properties relate to the diameter of the wire. As a rule of thumb Rm=2220 -
820 log d, according EN 10270-1-SH for steel nr. 1.1200. For stainless steel 1.4310 the
tensile strength is 15% less, according EN 10270-3-NS. The max bending stress is taken
0.7Rm, the max torsional stress 0.4Rm, when statically loaded. Statically loaded is defined
for up to 20 to 50 thousand load cycles. The max stress is taken 40% less when loaded for
more than 10 million load cycles.

Bearing steels
material Untreated Quenched and tempered
name nr Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] Re [MPa]
100Cr2 1.3501
100Cr6 1.3505
100CrMn6 1.3520
16CrNoMo6 1.3531
19MnCr5 1.3523
44Cr2 1.3561

Bearing bronze
Bronze EN Re Rm HB oil lubricated
CuSn7ZnPb 2.1090 120 270 >70 general bearing bronze
Cu Sn12 2.1052 140 280 >90 tin bronze for high load
CuSn12Pb 2.1061 140 280 >85 lead bronze, improved slide ability
CuSn12Ni 2.1060 170 300 >90 with nickel, for worm gears
CuPb15Sn 2.1182 110 220 >65 soft, suitable for water lubrication
Shaft-hardness >HB165, shaft material E335, roughness Ra<1µm, pmax<10MPa (<0.2m/s)

Un-alloyed carbon steel


Grade   UTS [MPa] 0.2% YS [MPa]
EN e3)  ≤16 e3) > 16 e3) < 3 e3)  ≥3
S235JR 1.0037 235 225 360 - 510 360 - 510
S235J0 1.0114 235 225 360 - 510 360 - 510
S235J2  1.0116 235 225 360 - 510 340 - 470
S275JR 1.0044 275 265 430 - 580 410 - 560
S275J0 1.0143 275 265 430 - 580 410 - 560
S275J2 1.0144 275 265 430 - 580 410 - 560
S355JR 1.0045 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
S355J0 1.0553 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
S355J2  1.0570 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
S355K2  1.0595 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
E295 1.0050 295 285 490 - 660 470 - 610
E335 1.0060 335 325 590 - 770 570 - 710
E360 1.0070 360 355 690 - 900 670 - 830
S235...S355: structural parts, good weld ability and cutting.
E295...E360: drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.

Stainless steel (RVS)


Grade UTS 0.2% YS
DIN EN   MPa MPa %
X10CrNi18-8 1.4310 301 500...740 195...205 35...40
X8CrNiS-18-9 1.4305 303 500...700 190 35
X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 304 540...750 230 45
2CrNi19-11 1.4306 304L 520...660 250 45
2CrNi18-9 1.4307 304L 520...670 220 45
X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 316 540...680 195...205 35...40
X3CrNiMo17-13-3 1.4436 316 550...700 240 40
X2CrNiMo17-13-2 1.4404 316L 520...660 195 40
X2CrNiMo18-14-3 1.4435 316L 500...700 200 45
X6CrNiMoTi1712-2 1.4571 316Ti 540...680 215 40
X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 321 540...680 205 40
X12Cr13 1.4006 410 <600   20
X20Cr13 1.4021 420 <700   15
X30Cr13 1.4028 420 <740   15
X6Cr17 1.4016 430 440...590 255 20
X3CrTi17 1.4510 439 430...630 205 20
X2CrTiNb18 14509 441 430/630 250 20
X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 duplex 640...880 480 25
Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non magnetic
Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic, suitable for heath treatment (Source)

Cast iron
Grade Rm 0.2% YS E-modulus
  MPa MPa % GPa
EN-GJL-150 150...250 100...165 0.8...0.3 78...103
EN-GJL-200 200...300 130...195 0.8...0.3 88...113
EN-GJL-250 250...350 165...230 0.8...0.3 103...118
EN-GJL-300 300...400 195...260 0.8...0.3 108...137
EN-GJS-350-22-LT 350...400 220...280 30...22 160...185
EN-GJS-400-18-LT 400...450 250...300 27...18 160...185
EN-GJS-400-15 400...550 250...350 27...15 160...185
EN-GJS-450-10 450...600 310...410 20...10 160...185
EN-GJS-500-7 500...650 320...420 18...7 160...185
EN-GJS-600-3 600...750 370...480 8...3 160...185
EN-GJS-700-2 700...850 420...600 6...2 160...185
EN-GJS-800-2 800...1000 480...750 4...2 160...185
GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite - the 250 and 300 have very good wear
resistance. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, suitable for
heat treatment, from 500 hard wearing, gears (Source_1 , Source_2).

Material properties and identification of fasteners


Material Rm [MPa]
Austenitic RVS 500 - soft
A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 700 - work hardened
800 - work hardened

Martensitic RVS 500 - soft


C1 700 -
1100

CU1 240
CU2 440
CU3 440
CU4 470
CU5 590
CU6 440
CU7 640
(Source)

Relationships between Shear strength and tensile strength


Material Shearing Yielding
Wrought Steel & alloy steel UST ≈ 0,75 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,58 x YS
Ductile iron UST ≈ 0,90 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,75 x YS
Malleable iron -Pearlitic UST ≈ 1,0 x UTS -
Wrought iron UST ≈ 0,83 x UTS -
Cast iron UST ≈ 1,3 x UTS -
Copper & alloys UST ≈ 0,65 x UTS -
Aluminium & alloys UST ≈ 0,65 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,55 x YS

UTS Ultimate tensile stress


UST Ultimate shear stress
SSY Shear stress yield
YS Tensile yield stress

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://www.tribology-
abc.com/calculators/uts.htm
http://www.virginia.edu/bohr/
mse209/chapter6.htm