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# Analysis of Quality Factor for Electrically Small Antenna

## (Qchu and QmcLean)

Submitted By
Sharon Babu
SC16M041
M.Tech(II Sem)
RF & Microwave Engg
IIST

The small antenna is one whose maximum dimension is less than the "radian length." The radian length is 1/2П times
wavelength. This relation is often expressed as:
ka < 1
λ=free space wavelength (meters)
a=radius of sphere enclosing the maximum dimension of the antenna (meters)

## Illustration 1: Electrically Small Antenna

Size versus bandwidth capability of an antenna first introduced by Harold Wheeler and L. J. Chu. In 1946, Wheeler
introduced the concept of the “radian sphere” and the volume relation to the maximum power factor achievable by
the antenna. The power factor, it is reasoned, is proportional to the antenna volume and also a shape factor. The
nominal bandwidth is given as the power factor p multiplied by the resonance frequency f0.

Df
V µ p µ
fo

In 1948, Chu 2 extended Wheeler’s analysis and expressed the fields for an omni-
directional antenna in terms of spherical wave functions and found limits for the minimum antenna quality factor
(Q), the maximum gain (Gm) and the ratio Gm/Q.
He used a partial fraction expansion of the wave impedance of spherical modes that exist outside the smallest
circumscribing sphere surrounding the antenna to obtain an equivalent ladder network from which the Q could be
found by conventional circuit analysis. The Q thus found is

1 + 2 (ka )
2

Q =
(ka ) [1 + ( k a )
chu 3 2
]
In an antenna, the Quality Factor should be low. For that,the power radiated must be high. So,we need to find a limit
for the maximum Q possible for an antenna.
In general,for an antenna,
ì 2wW e ü
ï P ;W e > W m ï
Q rad = í ý ........(1 )
ï 2 wW m ;W > W ï
ïî P r a d m e
ïþ
Mode Considered: TM01 spherical mode with even symmetry around θ=0.
The magnetic vector potential is:
- jk r j
Ar = - cosqe (1 - ) ......( 2 )
kr
The field components are:
j 1
H f = s i n q e - jk r ( 2 - ) . . . . . . . . ( 3 )
kr r
1 1 jk j
Eq = s i n q e - jk r ( - 2 - + 3 ) ......( 4 )
jw e r r kr
1 1 j
Er = 2 c o s q e - jk r ( 3 + 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . ( 5 )
we kr r
The Electric Energy Density is given by
1 *
W e = e E .E
2

1 2
= e E
2
1 é 2 2
ù .......( 6 )
= e Eq + E
2 ëê ûú
r

1 é 1 - jk r 1 jk j 1 1 jk j 1 - jk r 1 j 1 1 j ù
W = e sin q e (- - + 3 ). s in q e jk r
(- + - 3)+ 2 cosqe ( + 2 ). 2 cosqe jk r
( - 2 )ú
2 êë j w e
e
r 2
r kr - jw e r 2
r kr we kr 3
r we kr 3
r û

1 é 1 æ æ 1 æ jk j ö ö ö öù
2
æ 1 j j 1
= e ê 2 2 ç s in 2 q ç 4 - ç - 3 ÷ ÷+ 4 cos2q ç 2 6 - + 5 + 4 ÷ ÷÷ ú
2 êw e è ç ç ÷ 5
ë èr è r kr ø ø èk r kr kr r ø ø úû

1 w me 1 é 2 æ 1 k2 2 1 ö æ 1 1 öù
= ê s i n q ç 4 + - 4 + 2 6 ÷+ 4 cos2q ç + ÷ú
2 k w e ë
2
è r r 2
r k r ø èk
2
r 6
r 4 øû

h é 2 æ 1 k 1 ö æ 1 1 öù
= ês in q ç k 3 r 6 + r 2 - k r 4 ÷ + 4 c o s q ç k 3 r 6 + k r 4 ÷ ú ..........( 7 )
2
W e
2w ë è ø è øû
1 *
W m = m H .H
2
1 2
= m H f ........(8 )
2

1 j 1 - j 1
W m s in 2 q ( 2 - )( 2 - )
m =
2 kr r kr r
1 ææ -1 ö æ j ö ö
2 2

= m s in 2 q ç ç -
2 ç è r ÷ø çè k r 2 ÷ø ÷÷
è ø
1 æ 1 1 ö
W m = m s in 2 q ç 2 + 2 4 ÷ ............( 9 )
2 èr k r ø
Now,considering only the radiating terms in Eθ and HΦ, that is, only 1/r term,
1 - jk r
H f
= - s in q e
........(1 0 )
r
1
E qr a d = - h s i n q e - j k r . . . . . . ( 1 1 )
r
Propagating Energy Density,
h2 1 2
W e
ra d
2
s i n 2 q . ..... (1 2 )
= e E q
ra d
=
r 2
Non-propagating Electric Energy Density,
W e' = W e - W era d
é 2 æ 1 1 ö h æ 1 1 öù
\W ê s i n q ç k 3 r 6 - k r 4 ÷ + 4 c o s q ç k 3 r 6 + k r 4 ÷ ú ..........(1 3 )
=
' 2
e
ë è ø 2w è øû
Total non-propagating energy,
p 2p ¥
= ò ò ò W e'r 2 s i n q d q d f d r
'
W e
q =0 f =0 r =a
p 2p ¥
h é 2 æ 1 1 ö æ 1 1 öù 2
= ò ò ò ês in q ç k 3 r 6 - k r 4 ÷ + 4 c o s q ç k 3 r 6 + k r 4 ÷ úr s in q d q d f d r
2

q =0 f =0 r =a
2w ë è ø è øû
p ¥
2ph é 3 æ 1 1 ö æ 1 1 öù
= ò ò ês in q ç k 3 r 4 - k r 2 ÷ + 4 c o s q s in q ç k 3 r 4 + k r 2 ÷ úd q d r
2

2w q =0 r =0 ë è ø è øû
p p p
1 1 é c o s 3q ù 4
ò s in q d q = ò (3 s in q - s in 3q ) d q = êë - 3 c o s q + =
3

4 4 3 û0 ú 3
0 0

p 1
éu 3 ù 2
1

ò c o s q s in q d q = ò u d u = ê ú =
2 2

0 -1 ë 3 û -1 3
¥
ph é 4 æ -1 1 ö 2 æ -1 1 öù
\W e
'
= ê ç 3 3 + ÷+ 4. ç 3 3 - ÷ú
w ë3 è3k r kr ø 3 è3r k kr øûa
¥
ph é 4 -1 41 8 1 81 ù
= ê + - -
w ë9 k r3 3
3kr 9 r k 3 3
3 k r úû a
4ph é 1 1 ù
= ê + . . . . . . . . . . (1 4 )
3w ëk a
3 3
k a úû
p
= 2 p ò -h s i n 3 q d q
0

4 8ph
= 2p. h = .........(1 5 )
3 3

2p p
P rad = ò òR e(E
0 0
´ H * ).( r d q )( r s in q d f )

2p p - jk r jk r
e .e
= òò
0 0
-h s i n 2 q
r 2
.( r d q ) ( r s in q d f )

Q = = 2w ê +
k a úû 8 p h