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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.

61

5.2. Process Operation and Control


Refer to control system graphic pages at end of this 5.2

5.2.1. Preparing for initial startup


This section covers activities required to bring unit to "ready for startup" condition. Precommissioning
activities are conducted by precommissioning team in close coordination with construction personnel.

Precommissioning guidelines with main rules are given here.

A. Plant inspection
Plant is carefully checked to ensure it is constructed according to governing plans, drawings, and
specifications. Checkout against P&IDs is done for piping, equipment and instrumentation. A punch list
of missing, incomplete, or incorrect items is prepared for correction.

This check is carried out before end of construction work to check that unit is satisfactory from an
operational standpoint.

Typically, this check (called preliminary conformity to PIDs check) is useful once construction progress
is 70% and above.

 Vessels

GENERAL INSPECTION
A general inspection of vessels is made against design drawings soon after erection. This check includes:
 Verification of temperature/pressure and vacuum rating on nameplate
 Verification of lining condition (if applicable)
 Nozzles location, size, flanges face
 Thermowell location and length of immersion
 Cleanliness

Vessel sliding supports


In general thermal growth of horizontal vessels is guided and controlled by anchoring one end firmly
and permitting other end to slide.

Inspection:
 Check there is no foreign matter lodged in elongated slots. Any object firmly wedged between slot
and bolt can prevent sliding
 Check that all bolts in slots are loose and located at correct ambient position. Even if bolt is at
correct end of slot, there should be some allowance for thermal contraction caused by atmospheric
conditions different from those on day of inspection
 Get approximate thermal growth (approximate thermal expansion mm/m of metals versus
temperature °C) and establish that sliding plate can travel at least this distance and that slotted holes
are large enough to permit growth
 Check that sliding plate is free to slide and will not be obstructed in its travel
 Check that sliding plate and base plate are not bonded by rust or other

Exchanger sliding supports


Above comments on vessels also apply to exchangers. Additionally all expansion joints are checked to
ascertain that any restraints installed for shipping purposes have been removed (especially on air cooled
exchangers). For air coolers, ensure that transport locking device is released to allow expansion (usually
a bolted anchor on both sides).

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.62

Equipment and structures


 Check that relevant lines and expansion joints are free to move in all directions. Ensure shipping
stops are removed on expansion joints if any
 Check that platforms and other structures will not interfere with free expansion of equipment in any
direction
 Check that instrument piping, electrical conduit and other equipment is in no danger of binding

INTERNAL INSPECTION
Drums and vessels are inspected internally by observation with light source.

Bottom manhole is left open in case tools or other materials are accidentally dropped.

Check that no scaffolding or trash remains in vessel.

Vessels and tower internals are inspected carefully and checked against design documents to ensure
installation was properly carried out. This check includes:
 Trays: number, location, type, spacing, levelness, weir height, downcomers, valve number and
operation, support bolting (tightness testing is usual for chimneys trays)
Check that all valves on valve type tray are clean and free to move
Check that weep holes, where provided, are not plugged
 Distributors: location, alignment, size and number of openings
 Vortex breakers: type, size and orientation
 Demisters : size, material, support
 Check that baffles at bottom of columns are correctly fitted, type, orientation and levelness
 Check that instrument nozzles are clear. Those which are accessible from inside vessel can be
checked by turning on aeration air

Reactors
 Inlet distributors, quench distributors: metallurgy, type, size, opening sizes, freedom to expand
 Vapor/liquid collection and distribution trays: tightness, vertical positioning, liquid tightness of
bubble caps and risers, metallurgy, dimensions, packing, supports, welding, levelness, cleanliness
 Catalyst support grids: metallurgy, grid type and dimensions, screen type and size, supports,
welding
 Catalyst unloading nozzles: metallurgy, orientation, length
 Thermowells: orientation, length, and metallurgy
 Check that sufficient quantities of bolts, washers and hold downs of proper size and metallurgy are
available to reassemble any disassembled portions of reactor internals

CLEANING
All vessels, columns, drums, tanks, etc are inspected and cleaned if required, before final closure and
boxing-up.

Vessel cleaning is normally done in different ways according to equipment materials.

Equipment internal materials generally are:


 Carbon steel
 Stainless steel
 Carbon steel lined with various coating materials

Following procedure applies:

Carbon steel equipment


Carbon steel equipment is brushed or wiped when required with brush to remove any scale flakes, rust,
protection oil, etc before final closure.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.63

After successful inspection, equipment is closed definitely with final gasket.

Note:
Storage tanks must be clean of any corrosion scales or rust flakes and dust. Depending on initial
condition of tanks, cleaning by means of sandblasting may be required. Afterwards these tanks are put
under nitrogen atmosphere to prevent corrosion (or dry air if nitrogen is unavailable).

Stainless steel equipment


Stainless steel equipment is cleaned by using cloth rag before final check (wire brush is not used). After
successful inspection, equipment is closed definitely with final gasket.

Carbon steel with lining


Such equipment is cleaned by using water spray, to prevent lining damage.

Note:
For equipment on which internals must be installed during precommissioning, final inspection is done
after internals installation.

FINAL INSPECTION
After hydrotest (on a system/test-pack basis), cleaning and dryout as required, final vessel inspection is
conducted. When vessels have been shop-tested, they are not further tested in field but may be included
as part of a piping system test.

Carefully inspect for cleanliness. After final inspection, immediately close after mutual agreement on
final closure/boxing-up document.

A vessel may be required, after inspection for conformity with design and drawings, to be closed
temporarily by precommissioning group until final inspection.

Caution:
UNATTENDED VESSELS MUST NEVER BE ENTERED.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.64

 Pumps

INITIAL CHECKING
Most critical period in life of a pump is during its initial start and several minutes immediately
thereafter. Proper installation and startup is essential for trouble-free performance. Before equipment is
first started it is checked as follows:
 Review carefully manufacturer operating instructions
 Check that overall installation is complete
 Verify that pump and driver are properly aligned
 Verify that cooling water piping is connected and in service when required
 Check gland or seal oil piping. When a pump is furnished with mechanical seals, verify that all
components of flushing system such as strainers, separators, restriction orifices and coolers have
been correctly installed and are clean. It is important that flush system be clean as loss or dirty flush
can cause loss of seal
 Verify that bearings shafts are clean and properly lubricated
 Temporary strainers are provided for intake of each pump to be installed on pump side of intake
block valves. These strainers are installed after intake lines are flushed
 Pumps are not field hydrostatically tested

RUNNING TESTS
Bear in mind that media other than design fluid are not always allowable. Typical example is LPG
pumps where use of water leads to adverse effects that may damage mechanical seals and introduce
water in system where drastic drying is being conducted before startup.

Due to differences in specific gravity between water and design fluid, care is taken not to overload
motors on motor driven pumps.

Centrifugal pumps
Following steps are followed when test-running a centrifugal pump:
 Operating personnel should be familiar with literature furnished by pump and driver manufacturers
and follow any special instructions therein
 Open up intake valve from source
 Check that seal does not leak (if packed seal, check that packing nuts are not too slack) and that
seal flushing and cooling water connections are correctly made
 Rotate centrifugal pump shaft by hand to test for free rotation but never if starter switch is not
locked
 Confirm that alignment check is made on pump shaft, driver shaft and coupling
 Check that coupling guard is secured over shaft
 Check that grounding clip and wire is secured from motor to grounding point
 Check that discharge pressure gage is installed and functioning
 Check that electrician has tacked pump power supply in substation
 Check that if pump is on closed recirculation loop from a vessel, vessel is vented to atmosphere to
prevent possibility of damage by pulling vacuum
 When a run with water has been planned, loop system is carefully isolated
 Check arrangements to vent pump for priming, if pump is not self-venting. Verify that special
connections such as bleeds and drains are properly installed
 Strainers are installed before aligning pumps
Note: To prevent equipment damage, multistage centrifugal pumps in light product service (specific
gravity less than about 0.8) are not run with water
 All valves in loop are opened except for control valves (manually closed from control room) and
discharge valve of pumps
 If possible do not start motor on a centrifugal pump with discharge valve open as this throws an
excessive load on motor (except if specified to start with fully open valve as auto start cases)

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.65

 When a hot pump is being kept hot by circulation of a stream through it from an adjacent pump,
shaft of motor may be turning slowly in direction opposite to normal rotation. If a pump is running
in this manner and is started up, excessive load is thrown on motor
 Discharge valve is then opened gradually so as not to lose suction. From then, operation is
controlled from control room
 Ensure pump is full of liquid after proper casing venting
 Field operator checks for leaks in system, overall pump performance, and pump overload
 Bearings of pumps and drivers are checked for signs of heating
 Pump is run for approximately 1 hr, then shut off to make any adjustments necessary and to check
parts for tightness

Reciprocating pumps/dosing pumps


Following steps are followed when test-running a reciprocating pump:
 Check all previous points for centrifugal pumps except hand rotation
 Check that correct relief valve is installed relieving from discharge line to intake line
 Check that manually adjustable stroke control is lubricated and moving freely
 Check that normal operating level of oil shows in sightglass
 Fully open discharge valve
 Switch reciprocating pump on and off, observe stroke and listen for any loud rubbing noises
 Watch all pumps closely during preliminary circulation and particularly when first started
 Never run reciprocating pump with closed discharge

 Electrical motors

 Open all circuit breakers and switches


 Check all bus bars to see they are free of foreign material
 Check that all electrical equipment vessels and structures are connected to equipment grounding
system in accordance with drawings/specs
 Check that cables are correctly installed on tray supports and electrical equipment properly
connected
 Check grounding systems for continuity and resistance
 Check piping systems with electrical bonding at flanges for continuity and resistance
 Close both main transfer primary disconnect switches
 Close switch gear main circuit breakers
 Check voltmeter on switch gear for proper voltage
 Check all thermal overload heaters
 Close first switchgear feeder circuit breakers, then second, etc
 Close first motor control center main circuit breaker, then close each motor starter circuit breaker
and repeat for each motor control center
 Check each motor for proper lubrication
 Check rotation of each motor making sure motor driven equipment (ie pump, compressor, etc) is
either disconnected or free to turn

When a motor has been started by pressing starter button, NEVER (except in emergency) push stop
button until motor has attained full speed and amperage has fallen back to normal running value.

 Compressors and turbine drivers


Detailed operating instructions for compressor and turbine driver are furnished by manufacturer. Initial
starting and breaking in of machine is under supervision of manufacturer representative (only first
startup).

 Check compressor driver alignment


 Check for proper base grouting and equipment support

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.66

 Remove flushing oils from bearings and seals


 Check all seal bearing clearances (done previously when fitting)
 Check intake and discharge piping for proper vibrational support
 Flush of lube oil, seal and hydraulic oil network
 Adjust centrifugal compressor seal oil system for smooth operation, including alarms and functional
test of trips (witnessed by precommissioning team)
 Install orifices in sour oil trap and oil receiver purge lines
 Run in main and auxiliary lube and seal oil pumps
 Establish normal oil levels in all lube and seal oil systems

Manufacturer recommendations are consulted for more thorough discussion of any items mentioned
here.

 Air cooler/condenser fans


After motors have been run uncoupled, static check is implemented prior to running fan.

Confirm that electrical specialist has test-run motors uncoupled prior to asking for operational
acceptance. Then make following checks:
 Check electrical report for motor amperage
 Check protection grease is removed and replaced by correct grease
 Check belts are all on pulley
 Check all debris has been removed from air cooler area
 Check there is no loose or live electrical wiring
 Check all air fan platform grating is in place and secured
 Check all stop and start switches are fully installed
 Check correct motor oil is in and storage protection (light) oil removed if any
 Check fan motor for proper rotation and grounding (never when motor is energized)
 Set fan blade pitch as per manufacturer spec. Once fan is in operation, if motor amperage is too
high or too low, pitch readjustment may be required
 Set vibration shutdown switches to give permitted safe vibration level
 If fan is belt-driven, adjust drive belts for proper tension and check belt condition
 Confirm that fan safety shields are in place
 Remove protection plywood which may have been laid over tubes
 Check operation of louvers (if any)

When all above checks have been made, proceed to a four hour test run (unless otherwise agreed) and
check following:
 Check amperage of motors is in normal range
 Check for any noise from bearings or other
 Check for any screeching or abnormal noises from pulleys (belts may be too tight, which affects
bearings)
 Check all belts remain on pulleys (belts that constantly come off could indicate offset pulley)
 Check air fan blades are not making abnormal noise
 Check air fans on same cell are all turning at approximately same speed

Stop air fans one by one and stand underneath to observe and check following:
 Check no abnormal noise occurs on rundown
 Check air fans slowly come to a stop in smooth manner
 Check by hand that motor has not overheated (inform electrical specialist if it has)

Complete run-in before using air cooler condenser for heat transfer duty.

 Fired heaters

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.67

Inspection and checking of following main points is carried out before refractory drying.

INSTRUMENTATION
 Controllers, regulators, recorders for flows, pressures and temperatures: correct zero adjustment or
designed values, normal position, connections
 Thermocouples : length, location, correct connection of cables
 Connections for controls (pressures, temperatures) and sampling

When not in use, connections are closed off with threaded plugs or blind flanges.
 Carry out tests on all instruments which are part of safety control system. Ensure necessary
checking of burners control system has been performed
 Ensure minimum stop positions are set up on fuel gas and combustion air systems (if any)

STACK DAMPER
Full-open and minimum opening position of damper is checked visually. Movement of damper must be
free and unobstructed.

Check pneumatic actuator controls for proper operation (if any).

TUBULAR COILS
All tubes must be clear and unobstructed. Water remaining in tubes after hydrostatic tests or other
foreign matter that may have accumulated, is removed.

Shipping braces are removed and provisions for expansion of tubular coils checked.

BURNER PIPING
Burner piping must be free of stress on burners. After dismantling piping at burners, blow piping clear
of all debris.

Cleanliness of burner piping helps prevent major problems during startup.

BURNERS
Check each burner for:
 Relative orientation of ignitor, pilot burner and main burner per installation dwgs
 Position of burner in combustion chamber and burner position relative to refractory
 Free operation of burner air registers
 Remove all debris from burner throat

Opening adjustments is same for each identical burner model :


 Check that good spark is obtained
 Ensure that inspection windows are clean and flaps free to move

Cleanliness of various elements - manifold, nipples, gas tip - is very important.

REFRACTORY
Visual refractory examination is carried out and compared with conditions after refractory dryout.

Check bottom of heater for trash.

MISCELLANEOUS
Check:

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.68

 Operation and closure, as well as tightness of all access, observation and explosion doors,
peepholes and tube crossings
 Control positions and displacement of tube supports and guides
 Manual valves, especially on snuffing steam lines

 Piping inspection

Piping sliding supports and anchors


All comments on sliding supports on vessels also apply to piping.

Long straight runs of piping should be checked for bowing when up to temperature. Bowing causes pipe
overstressing and can result in pipe failure. Rule of thumb is that if one visually notices bowing, then it
is excessive.

Spring supports
 Inspection before hydrostatic testing
Check that spring stops are installed. Pipe normally transporting water is not affected as spring is
designed for weight of water; but rather than make them an exception it is simpler to state that all spring
supports have their stops installed.

 Inspection after hydrostatic testing


After draining water and prior to any heating, spring stops are removed. If stops are not removed,
springs will not flex with pipe thermal growth and nozzles will be overstressed resulting in possible
damage.
If spring pointer is not between hot and cold settings, spring may be fully compressed or stretched
before full load is imposed. At this point, spring ceases to function as such, resulting in nozzle
overstressing with possible damage.

 Electrical equipment inspection


To reach mechanical completion step, part of electrical devices has already been precommissioned, as
electrical motors have been initially run (for motor tests and rotational check).

During actual processing phase, following functional tests for electrical systems are performed:
 For motors where they have more than one control and automatic operation, first check manual
operation, then automatic. Test each control operation to be sure control is operating in accordance
with process requirements
 Interlocked control circuits for permissive start and automatic shutdown are checked to ensure
correct relay and control valve action from each alarm function. This is closely linked with
instrumentation loop testing
 Check emergency power supply if installed for correct operation on power failure
 Close lighting transformer primary circuit breaker
 Close lighting distribution panels feeders circuit breaker and emergency lighting
 Check seal fittings to ensure they are filled with sealing compound
 Check all explosion-proof, vapor-tight, dust-tight and weather-tight enclosures to be sure enclosures
are secured and closed properly
 Check all nameplates and lighting panel directories to be sure each circuit breaker controls proper
circuit

Electric motors
Electric motors are used primarily as drivers of moving equipment like pumps, air coolers, etc.
Therefore it is essential that, before attempting to start any electrically driven equipment, both driver
(motor) and pump are ready for operation.
Before switching on any electrical equipment, agreement from an electrical engineer is needed.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.69

 Instrumentation commissioning
Commissioning of instruments is carried out as plant comes on stream. Most attention is directed
towards liquid flow measurements. Controllers are tuned; interface level transmitters are zero checked;
scale, weld slag and trash are removed from sticking control valves; other malfunctions are corrected.
Inspection and commissioning of analyzers includes attention to sample line lengths, analyzer
enclosures, auxiliary equipment, such as carrier gas for chromatography and other items indicated in
analyzer instruction manual for.

Analyzers are inspected, calibrated, and commissioned.

Functional testing of instrument loops is done prior to startup to ensure correct operation of safety
devices, ESD system interlocks, and local/remote action.

Proceed to following checks:


First, before energizing field instrumentation and proceed to energized loop checks, confirm that
following static checks are implemented:
 Clean air before connecting to instruments
 Clean instrument air supply headers by blowing with clean dry air, and check for leak tightness
 Verify that pneumatic tubing is hooked up, that instrument air is available at instrument
 Check piping from instruments to process piping and equipment for leak tightness
 Isolate or remove in-line components like control valves, positive displacement meters and turbine
meters for pressure and leak testing if specified tight shutoff (normally done in workshop)
 Reinstall these items after successful testing of system
 Check orifice plate bore diameters and documents
 Install orifice plates after completion of testing, draining, flushing and cleaning of lines
 Isolate or remove inline components for flushing and cleaning operations. Reinstall and/or reconnect
after completion of cleaning and flushing operations
 Verify correct positions and installation of inline instrumentation (control valve flow direction and
fail position, orifice plate installed in correct relation to flow etc)
 Perform all nonoperating tests that ensure instrument operability: remove shipping stops, check
pointer travel, verify and adjust instrument ability to measure, operate, stroke etc in direction and
manner required by process application (direct or reverse controllers etc)
 Perform functional loop checks and demonstrate correct operation (precommissioning record sheet
with relevant loop diagram)
 Fully pressurize and energize transmitting and control signal systems by opening process
connections at primary sensors and regulators and making control mode settings for automatic
operation of equipment as process unit is charged and brought on stream
 On DCS: check operability of system and interfaces with other subsystems

Thermocouple wiring is inspected for proper polaring at thermocouple head.

 Heating, ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) equipment

 Verify conformity of installation with dwgs, specs, safety rules, supplier instructions
 Verify free rotation of fans and motors
 Verify correct installation of anti-vibration mountings and sealing compound of any fire dampers
 Verify leakage and blades of dampers run freely
 Verify damper actuators are in good working order
 Verify air flow direction in preheater is correct
 Perform ductwork leak tests
 Start unit test sequences, interlocks, vibrations
 Start air flow and make balancing test (air distribution adjustment)

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.70

 Adjust room temperature and pressurization

 Telecommunications
Inspection of all telecommunication equipments is performed to ensure compliance with specifications,
drawings, codes of practice, regulations and manufacturer requirements.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.71

B. Cleaning of piping and equipment

 General
Line and equipment cleaning is performed to eliminate weld rods and slag, abrasive dust, oxides and in
general other substances which can impede normal unit operation or damage equipment (valves, pumps,
compressors, turbines, etc).

Cleaning is usually carried out by hand on large equipment and lines having diameter greater than (or
equal to) 24", by water flushing, air blowing, chemical cleaning or other cleaning method described
hereafter.

This is not always possible, as some lines between exchangers cannot be disconnected without complete
removal of line.

Flush pump intake lines through strainer door/flange.

As an example and for reference, following table gives flowrates (m3/h) corresponding to velocity
versus various pipe diameters.

VELOCITY
1 m/s 2 m/s 3 m/s 5 m/s
LINE SIZE
2" 7 15 22 37
3" 16 33 50 82
4" 29 58 88 150
6" 66 131 200 330
8" 117 235 350 585
10" 182 365 550 910
20" 730 1460 2200 3650

Cleaning of lines and associated equipment, which constitute various systems to be mechanically
completed then ready for startup, will be treated during construction and precommissioning phases in
two steps:
1. During construction phase, preliminary checking is implemented to prevent pipe from retaining
construction materials until actual cleaning takes place later, when feasibly and applicable with
required efficiency
2. To reach readiness for startup, cleaning is implemented for each system/subsystem. This cleaning
uses efficient methods which can be implemented only after part of plant is available

To facilitate understanding of sequence of events, cleaning sequence is following:


 Pipe installation after prefabricated spools have been transferred to site is checked for removal (by
gravity) of any foreign material like tools, gloves, etc. (they are placed vertically before installation)
 For big lines, inspection is carried out by construction group after each spool is welded, and a
manual rubbing/wiping is performed if necessary
 After hydrotest, hydrotesting medium (mainly water) is drained through drain valves or one open
flange (if water is dirty, network is rinsed until clean)
 Relevant pipes are air swept to remove free water
 Above step is period when plant is actually cleaned and is followed by final reinstatement and
conformity to P&ID checks, air tightness test, etc

 Water flushing

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.72

Water flushing, when applicable, is performed using clean water. When possible, main and spare pumps
are also run at same time and used to circulate water to remove dirt and scale via pump intake strainers.

Following guidelines are observed for flushing:


 It is stressed that brackish or salt water not be used for flushing of systems containing stainless steel
parts. Demineralized water or condensate is used for stainless steel pipes
 As many lines as possible are used during flushing operation to facilitate complete system cleanout
(main headers first, then subheaders)
 Temporary strainers are installed on intake lines of all pumps before any liquid is allowed to pass
through them from newly constructed lines. If this is not done, scale, weld metal or slag, stones etc,
may damage centrifugal pump impellers. Screens serve to trap such dirt in a place where it can be
conveniently removed
 When practical, lines are always flushed away from a vessel rather than into a vessel. Any vessel
that has been flushed or blown into should be opened and manually cleaned following flushing
 Flushing is performed preferentially from highest to lowest elevation. This constraint is not
compulsory for blowing
 Vessels and systems are vented when filling or emptying to prevent vacuum pulling
 During flushing, maximum volume and velocity is used to ensure thorough cleaning; rate of
flushing medium is regulated at source
 Control valves are rolled out of piping system during flushing to prevent damage, except some
butterfly valves which remain installed if wide open
 Orifice plates are installed after cleaning is completed
 Instruments (ie pressure gages and transmitters, differential flow meter transmitters, moisture and
other in-line analyzers, etc.) are positively isolated from system during cleaning
 All drains are flushed through to check for blockage
 Where possible, open-end lines are flushed through. This is the case of process units provided with
end flanges for all utilities lines which make easier either flushing/air blowing/steam blowing. Flow
is not restricted drastically
 Pump intake and discharge lines are flushed while protecting pump casing (by flushing through
open strainer or metal plate at pump flange)
 Lines are flushed in following sequences, where possible:
- First main header
- Then each sub-header
- Lastly, each branch line
 Always flush through a bypass when present, to an open end before flushing through equipment
 Lines are not flushed into exchangers without flushing at inlet first. Only when inlet is checked
clean, and when exchanger is not equipped with bypass, flushing is allowed to pass through
exchangers if required to proceed further
 Flushing continues in each line or piece of equipment until water is reasonably clean (or as clear as
makeup water)
 Unit P&IDs are used as cleaning checkoff record to ensure lines are flushed cleaned including lines
to and from tankage. Marked-up P&ID set is referred as Cleaning Master PID Set

 Air blowing
Cleaning of circuits is carried out by air blowing for lines and pieces of equipment which must be kept
free from water and for some big piping (reasons: unacceptable weight, or excess quantity of water
required, or water flushing not efficient).

Air blowing is carried out with compressed air. Air blowing of a circuit is performed by using
temporary connection with compressed air network, in continuous manner for small lines or by using
vessels (drum, column, etc) as holdup/buffer capacity to get quick air release.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.73

In some very large systems, it is sometimes not possible to use valves to blow lines. In this case, a
bursting disc (cardboard or aluminium sheet) can be used to proceed to sudden depressurization (ensure
no equipment will be damaged).

 Steam blowing
Cleaning by steam blowing is carried out essentially on steam circuits.

Steam blowing is done as follows:


Before putting steam into system, control valves, turbines meters, instruments, vacuum ejector, and
strainers are removed or blinded from system. Steam headers are slowly warmed up, one header at a
time, while expansion of line is observed. Special attention is given to pipe support shoes. Condensate is
drained manually to prevent steam hammering. Headers are now blown using low pressure, high-
velocity sweep.

When headers are warm, drain valves are opened and blown vigorously for a few seconds before
reclosing. Temporary movable silencer may be used to avoid exceeding noise level limitations during
steam blowing operation, if necessary.

Completion and effectiveness of steam blowing is determined as follows:

Steam piping at inlet of turbine, desuperheater and outlet of boiler


An aluminium target located at vent point is observed.

Blowing of this piping system is considered complete and cleaned when on two consecutive targets,
collected after blowing carried out as above described, are present less than two pits per square cm with
a maximum diameter of 0.3 mm.

Targets made from aluminium sheet are inserted, on temporary vent only after that three-four blowings
(depending on experience on site) are carried out and steam appears clean.

Other steam piping and steam piping to turbine (less than 4")
Piping system blowing is considered completed when steam at exit of vent point appears clean (steam
not to be orange dust color).

 Chemical cleaning
Some piping must be cleaned by chemicals when either product can react with oil left inside piping, or
in case it can lead to adverse effect to leave even very small parts of debris inside piping.

Solution preparation, handling, use


All solutions are prepared, handled and used in strict accordance with manufacturer instructions and
these guidelines.
Detergent cleaning
Oil, grease, soil, drawing compounds and foreign matter other than rust, scale, and oxides are removed
by detergent cleaning as follows:

Detergent cleaning includes removal of oil, grease, soil, drawing compounds, and foreign matter other
than rust and scale. Detergent solution is circulated through pipe at temperature, concentration, and
flow rate recommended by detergent manufacturer.

When detergent flow rate is not recommended by manufacturer, flow rate is 1.5 meter/second.

Acid cleaning
All rust, scale and oxides are removed (to leave bare metal) by citric acid cleaning as follows:

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.74

Citric acid solution is circulated at temperature, concentration and flow rate recommended by
manufacturer.

Solution temperature is maintained between 80°C and 95°C throughout system during operation by
injecting steam into acid solution.

Concentration of citric acid in cleaning solution is monitored and replenished in accordance with
manufacturer instructions.

When chemical tests indicate constant ferric and ferrous ion concentration, used citric acid solution is
displaced by rinse water containing 0.05 percent to 0.10 percent citric acid solution to ensure all traces
of soluble ion are removed. This method of displacing spent cleaning solution with rinse water is used in
lieu of draining spent acid solution and refilling with rinse water. Circulation of rinse water is
maintained at least 10 minutes.

Immediately following rinse water circulation, 1.0 percent soda ash solution is circulated at 80°C for at
least 10 minutes to neutralize cleaned surfaces. pH of used soda ash solution is at least 9.5, in order to
stop circulation.

After surfaces are clean and dry, pipe is filled with nitrogen and sealed. Nitrogen pressure is 0.1 to 0.2
barg.

Chemical solution and rinse disposal


All spent chemical solutions and rinses are disposed of in sewer, using water for dilution.

Inspection of cleaned surfaces


Cleaned surfaces are visually examined. Visual examination is supplemented with borescopes, mirrors,
and other aids, as necessary, to properly examine inaccessible or difficult-to-see surfaces. Lights are
positioned to prevent glare on surfaces being examined.

Inspection of other surfaces


Internal surfaces of all piping systems are visually inspected to verify all surfaces are entirely free of
weld slag, flux, soil, debris, grease, oil and any foreign matter.

Identification of cleaned pipe (typical)


Cleaned pipe is metal tagged to avoid subsequent contamination. Tag to read "KEEP SEALED UNTIL
USE. INTERNALLY CLEANED (AND PRESSURIZED) ON (Date) ."

Pipe is not marked with paint or ink, in lieu of metal tagging, unless pipe is finish painted or insulated.

 Storage or installation of chemically cleaned pipework


Such chemical cleaning is usually implemented just before installation.

Piping is preferably installed immediately, but if this is impracticable then immediate steps must be
taken to prevent rusting.

Unless piping is going to be installed immediately, suitable closures are placed on ends and all openings
to prevent entrance of moisture or dirt.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.75

Before installation, check that no dirt or foreign matter has entered piping and that rusting has not
occurred. If in good condition, pull through a swab saturated with carbon tetrachloride. Piping is not
bolted up until inspected for cleanliness.

 Safety
All chemical cleaning activities are supervised by qualified staff in order to assure attainment of
required pickling effect and to prevent damage to materials and/or to health.

Acids are always stirred carefully in a thin stream of water, never the reverse.

 Lubrication system flushing


Necessary instructions for cleaning lubricant and seal oil piping systems are given in manufacturer data
books. They are strictly followed to proceed with cleaning of such piping systems.

 Preliminary air blowing


Piping system is blown with air to remove all dirt and debris. Blowing is accomplished with hammering
of piping to remove mill scale.

 Chemical cleaning
Factory-installed oil lines are flushed and sealed before shipment; they do not require additional
chemical cleaning before final oil flushing.

Two typical chemical cleaning procedures for site-prefabricated oil circuits are given below.

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.76

CLEANING (OR DEGREASING) PROCEDURE

Procedure for carbon steel


Immerse piping in caustic bath at temperature of about 80/90°C for at least 30 minutes, depending on
condition of material, to remove all grease, dirt, oil or paint.
Piping and/or solution is agitated to ensure flow of solution through piping.
Batch may be a solution of 6% wt sodium hydroxide in water with detergent.
Remove piping from caustic bath and immediately rinse with cold water.

Procedure for stainless steel


Mechanically clean all welds as required and suitably rinse with clean demineralized water to remove
dirt.

PICKLING PROCEDURE
Pickling procedure is not required for stainless steel piping.

Procedure for carbon steel


Immerse piping in an acid pickling bath containing 10% wt solution of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid in
water.
Bath temperature is between 60 and 70°C and time of immersion required to remove all scale and rust
depends on strength of solution and condition of pipe. Normally, 12 to 14 hours are required and 6
hours taken as a minimum.

Remove piping from acid bath, drain and immediately wash with cold water to remove all traces of acid.

 Neutralizing procedure
Without allowing piping to dry, immerse in hot neutral solution of 0.75 to 1.5 % wt of soda ash in water
maintained at a pH value of 9 or above. Temperature of bath is about 70/80 °C.
pH paper may be used to check wet surface of piping to determine that an acidic condition does not
exist. If check shows acidity, then neutralizing treatment is repeated.

Rinse piping with cold water, drain thoroughly and blow out with service air until dry.

 Flushing with lubricant oil


Whole lubrication system for machinery is assembled per design.
Bearing house, seal, etc is bypassed by temporary connections (ie rubber hoses) between inlet and outlet
piping.
Screen mesh is installed on all flanges between lines (100 mesh screen is used). Lubricant oil is
circulated into system by using own lube oil pump and heated to 60-70°C, by means of console heater
or by temporary steam connection to oil coolers.

 Blinds list
A blinds list of permanent spectacle blinds and temporary blinds on pipework and/or equipment is
always current during precommissioning and commissioning.

A marked-up set of P&IDs clearly identifies blinds position when initially commissioning units.

Until unit to be started up is inerted, following lines remain positively isolated from rest of plant:
 Flare lines at battery limit are blinded and internal headers open to atmosphere, until nitrogen
introduction for inerting to prevent header overpressure
 Closed drain system and fuel gas are blinded at battery limits
 All process lines in and out are blinded at battery limits

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.77

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.78

C. Tightness testing

 General procedure
After hydrostatic pressure testing and flushing, tightness test is conducted to check all flanges and
fittings for leaks, especially those opened during hydrostatic tests and flushing.

Unit are isolated with blinds from every part containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen or steam.

 Pressure test
Tightness test for process units is carried out with air (or nitrogen when applicable and when air is
prohibited) at maximum allowable pressure which does not exceed design pressure of equipment (check
design data). Soap solution is prepared for tightness checking and all flanged connections checked with
soap. Bubbling indicates tightening is required.

This pressure followup gives an indication of tightness of system. It does not substitute leak test on each
flange with soap.

 Use soap solution check for any sign of soap bubbles being formed
 Pressure system with air (or nitrogen) at highest possible pressure compatible with IA/PA supply,
without exceeding normal operating pressure
 Check pressure over length of time. If test is not satisfactory, every flange and connection is
inspected with soap solution. After leak repair, test is repeated until satisfactory

 Leak repair/tightening
In most cases, leaks are eliminated by tightening flanges in correct manner to ensure that compression
on flange gasket is uniform. If this is not sufficient, equipment is isolated, depressurized, and gasket
replaced.

Note: Control valve packings are not tightened when dry until actual product is passing through.

 Vacuum test

 Drawbacks
Difficult to locate small leaks. Results not always conclusive.
 Benefits
No structural stresses (eg weight) when test is carried out on equipment designed for it.

Vacuum test is usually carried out at 0.2 bar abs. Test is deemed satisfactory when pressure increase
does not exceed 25 mm Hg per hour. Otherwise, test is repeated after leak repair.

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.79

D. Heaters 01 H 01 and 01 H 51: dry out procedure


Refractory of a new furnace or a furnace idle for a long period is dried out slowly to permit
accumulated water vapors to escape from refractory.

In new furnaces, drying out can be started two days after refractory lining has finished.

Considering particular arrangement of heaters H 01 and H 51 (common stack), it is suggested to


perform dry out of heaters at same time.

Dry out procedure is same for both heaters.

During dry-out operation steam is circulated through heater coils as cooling medium. Decoking facilities
are used for this purpose.

Entire dry-out procedure takes at least 5 days.

Dry-out procedure is as follows (temperatures are meant as bridgewall temperatures, to be read by


bridgewall TI 054/058 on H 01 and TI 121/122 on H 51):
 Follow dry-out of refractory immediately after initial lighting of burners; this includes an initial
holding period of least 36 hours at 120°C
 Increase rate of temperature increase by 10°C/h
 Provide sufficient ventilation by opening air registers of burners not in operation
 Keep damper open as required
 Increase flue gas temperature to 250°C at rate of 15°C/hr and hold for 36 hrs
 Increase flue gas temperature to 450°C at rate of 15°C/hr
 Check coil outlet temperature hourly and regulate steam flow so that coil outlet temperature never
exceeds coil design temperature:
 488°C for H 01
 572°C for H 51
 Hold at 450°C for 24 hrs
 Check coil outlet temperature hourly
 Check for hot spots or localized overheating on external casing surface
 Check frequently that tubes do not glow red during dryout operation
 When drying is completed, reduce bridgewall temperature by 15/20°C/hr. As temperature reaches
150°C shut off burners and stop flow through coils
 During drying procedure, check progress of refractory drying by checking furnace casing
temperature. When burners are started in a new furnace, moisture at outer surface of lining
evaporates readily into combustion gases
However, much moisture is held deeper in brickwork and by insulation next to casing.
In starting period of drying operation, furnace casing remains cold.
If operator maintains progressive account of casing temperature, he may note rise and fall of casing
temperature during dry-out process. When casing temperature has decreased to about 70°C, furnace
insulation is dried and furnace is ready for operation.
When startup operation does not following immediately dry-out procedure, it is recommended to
keep furnace in hot conditions at about 250°C, otherwise lining will absorb humidity again.
 If furnace is shut down after dryout procedure, when reheating it for startup temperature limit
increase to 50°C/hr
 Keep fuel pressure at minimum until all burners are lit
 Thereafter increase fuel pressure. Changing of excess air is an alternative for fine regulation of
temperature
 Never use a hard flame (very oxygen rich) at any stage of dryout
 During refractory dryout regularly check skin temperature of refractory casing. If hot spots occur,
this is sign of accumulation of moisture, and additional holding time should be allowed

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.80

 Take care for adequate ventilation and pay special care to prevent evaporated water condensing in
cooler areas of furnace
 During dryout operation, make intermittent checks on damper to ensure it operates properly in hot
condition

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.81

DRY OUT CURVE


HEATERS H 01 AND H 51

500
450°C for 24 h
450

400

350 15°C/h

300
250°C for 36h
250
20°C/h
200
15°C/h
150
120°C for 36 h
100

50 10°C/h

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.82

5.2.2. Process startup and initial operation


A. Startup procedure
A logic diagram overleaf summarizes different steps of initial startup. A table shows expected startup
sequence.

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.83

LOGIC DIAGRAM FOR UNIT STARTUP SEQUENCE

PURGE AIR FROM UNIT

PRESSURIZE WITH FUEL GAS

CONDUCT COLD CIRCULATION

WARM UP

ESTABLISH NORMAL OPERATING


CONDITIONS

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.84

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.85

 Prestartup checklist
Following steps are completed before charging oil to unit:
1. Unnecessary blinds are removed (blinds list to be compiled on site by commmissioning team)
2. Relief valves are tested and installed
3. Flare header is purged and in service
4. Sewers are in service
5. Instruments and control systems are ready for service
6. Utilities are in service
7. Control valves and bypasses are blocked in
8. Compressors are blocked in
9. Heat tracing is in service
10. Heater dryed out and ready for firing
11. Fire fighting facilities ready for service
12. All safety equipment available
13. Entire unit purged, free of oxygen

Following additional precautions are also considered:


 Operators on service are notified of impending startup
 Under no circumstances is hydrocarbon gas or liquid be charged to any process line or vessel until it
has been ascertained that all air has been purged from system
 At no time is hot stream introduced where there is possibility of water present. Explosive conversion
of water into steam on contact with hydrocarbons must be prevented by slow warm-up and
continuous draining of water from low points in system
 Other units which may feel effects of startup and subsequent unit operation such as boiler house,
utilities generation units, product receiving etc, are notified of impending startup

 Air purge from unit


To remove air from unit, N2 or steam may be used. This procedure assumes that steam is used except
CDU overhead vapour compressor K 01 A/B to be isolated and purged with nitrogen.

During steam out operations, following precautions are taken:


 Collapse due to vacuum: some equipment is not designed for vacuum. Vessel, exchangers are
vented since condensation of steam will develop a vacuum
 Flange and gasket leaks: thermal expansion and stress during warmup of equipment can cause
leaks. Any observed leak is fixed
 Water hammering: care is taken to prevent water hammering which can damage equipment
 Block in cooling water to all coolers; open drains and vents
 Open vents and drains on vessels to be steamed out
 Isolate vacuum column from atmospheric column circuit then start vacuum system PK 51 and pull
vacuum to operating level
 Introduce steam in unit using provided facilities as follows:
 Strip steam lines on column and strippers using in opposite direction of flow low pressure steam
line through control valve PV 009 A
 Medium pressure steam line for crude oil feed at unit BL
 Medium pressure steam line for E 11 A/B/C/D crude outlet side
 Medium pressure steam line for P 10 A/B discharge
 Utility connection for steam out on V04, V07, V09, V08, V10, V05 and T05
 Utility connection for steam out on fuel gas K.O. drum V11 and flare
 Introduce steam to vessels and lines
 Close steam as soon as cold circulation starts on vacuum section
 Fuel gas introduction
 Commission fuel gas network
 Commission flare system

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.86

 Introduce fuel gas in process system using provided facilities as follows:


 Line FUG 10600 – 1 ½” on T04 overhead line
 Line FUG 29530 – 2” on V04
 Cut off steam and pressurize unit with fuel gas to max 1.5 barg; confirm as follows:
 Overhead product accumulator V04 PIC 077
 Compressor discharge drum V10 PIC 084
 Debutanizer overhead accumulator V05 PIC 097
 On vacuum column, continue pulling and maintaining vacuum in presence of steam
 Close steam as soon as cold circulation starts on vacuum section

 Cold circulation
Next step is to clear vacuum column and all equipment and lines, of any free water standing in it.

Reason is that when vacuum column is up to full temperature and at normal vacuum, if only a small
amount of free water standing in a dead line is pumped into vacuum column, it flashes into a large
volume of steam and can damage column trays. Procedure adopted introduces a source of oil for
purpose of clearing water.

Light diesel previously charged in flushing oil tank 51 TK 18, is used to commission flushing oil
network providing oil to free vacuum column circuit of water and to satisfy need of flushing oil for
pump mechanical seal cooling during first startup.

During normal operation, flushing oil tank makeup is carried out using light diesel product from
atmospheric column.

 Close steam to vacuum column and reduce vacuum to minimum


 Line up circuit as follows:
 Line FLO 01600-4” (upstream FV 001)  Flushing oil supply network  P 53 A/B  E 02
A/B  E 54 by pass  T 51

With diesel oil is pumped on vacuum column through upper PA return line, a level accumulates on
LVGO chimney tray. Top side-cut pumps P-53 A/B can be started and all lines flushed out to storage
(slops) and back to column.

As LVGO chimney tray is allowed to overflow, a level will appear on HVGO chimney tray at which
time middle side-cut pumps P-54 A/B can be started and lined up as follows:
 T 51  P 54 A/B  E 17  E 10 A through D  E 08 A through D  T 51

As HVGO chimney tray overflows, a level will develop on wash oil chimney tray. P-55 A/B should then
be started and recirculate to T-51.

 Flush bypass of all control valves, vessels and exchangers


 Put instrumentation in service, and run all spare equipment
 Clean pump intake strainers as required
 Stop light diesel oil circulation

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.87

 Bring in crude oil from storage and start circulation as follows:


 E 01 A/B  E 02 A/B  E 03 A through D (TV 015 A close, TV 015 B open)  E 04  E 05
 V 01 A/B  P 01 A/B  E 06  E 07 A/B  E 08 A through D  E 09 A through D  E
10 A through D  E 11 A through D  H 01  T 01
 Make up level in T 01
 Start P 10 A/B and continue circulation as follows:
 P 10 A/B  H 51  T 51  P 56 A/B  E 11 A through D  E 57 A through D  E 58 A/B
 E 01 A/B through startup circulation bypass between vacuum residue and crude oil lines
 Line up circulation flow rate to 400 m3/hr
 Keep in mind following:
 P 01 A/B min. flow 320 m3/hr
 P 10 A/B min. flow 140 m3/hr
 P 56 A/B norm flow 240 m3/hr
 To establish steady operation, divert 160 m³/hr of crude oil through startup line 8”-RES-09080
located on P 10 A/B discharge
 Stop importing crude oil once circulation is established
 Flush bypass of all control valves, vessels and exchangers
 Put in service instrumentation and run all spare equipment
 Clean pump intake strainers as required
 Drain water from all low point drains
 Start importing crude oil again from storage and switch circulation back to storage through vacuum
residue off spec. line to heavy slop.
A bypass is provided in interconnecting, to circulate back to crude storage tank without involving
high flash dry slop tank 51 TK 07.

 Warm up and establish normal operating conditions


 Ignite crude and vacuum heaters according to procedure described here
 Heat up furnace outlet at rate of max. 30°C per hour
 Increase heater outlet temperature to 200°C. Continue circulation as follows:
 Storage  E 01 A/B  E 02 A/B  E 03 A through D (TV 015 close, TV 015 B open)  E 04
 E 05  V 01 A/B  P 01 A/B  E 06  E 07 A/B  E 08 A through D  E 09 A through
D  E 10 A through D  E 11 A through D  H 01  T 01  P 10 A/B  H 51  T 51  P
56 A/B E 11 A through D  E 57 A through D  E 58 A/B  heavy slop  storage
 As crude heater flue gas temperature approaches 120°C (TI-056), start feeding steam to convection
section steam superheating coils and vent to atmosphere through steam vent Z-02
 Monitor crude oil flow rate through heater passes. Adjust firing to keep outlet temperature of each
pass in range to prevent coil overheating and coke function
 Start hot bolting and repair any leaks
 Line up atmospheric column overhead circuit as follows:
 T 01  E 03 A through D  V 03  E 12  E 13  V 04
 Adjust PIC 076 set point to 0.7 barg
 Increase heater outlet temperature to 300°C at rate of max 30°C per hour
 When material is available, line up heavy diesel circuit as follows:
 T 01  T 04  P 09 A/B  E 19  E 20  E 21 slop
During operation with 100% Arabian light, heavy diesel production is not considered. This
circulation is performed to test and free circuit of water.
 When material is available, line up light diesel circuit as follows:
 T 01  P 08 A/B  E 09 A through D  T 01

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.88

 When material is available, line up kerosene circuit as follows:


 T 01  P 06 A/B  E 06  E 05  T 01
 When level is available on overhead reflux accumulator V 03, prime atmospheric tower reflux
pump P 02 A/B and start reflux
 When level is available on overhead product accumulator V 04, prime SR naphtha to debutanizer
pump P 03 A/B and line up circuit as follows:
 P 03 A/B  E 22 A/B start by pass  E 27  slop
 On vacuum column, pull vacuum to operating level (45 mmHg on vacuum column flash zone)
 As atmospheric column bottom material flow rate decreases, reduce diverted flow through startup
bypass and finally cut off
 Start warming up stripping steam circuit and commission split range PIC 009 (set 6.5 barg) closing
line to steam vent Z 02
 Commission desuperheater DS 01 and TIC 069 (set 340°C)
 On steam drum V 06, continue venting steam to atmosphere
 When material is available, line up heavy diesel circuit as follows:
 T 01  T 04  P 09 A/B  E 19  E 20  E 21  slop
During operation with 100% Arabian Light, heavy diesel production is not considered.
 Make up level in light diesel stripper T 03, prime light diesel product pump P 07 A/B, and line up
light diesel product circuit as follows:
 T 03  P 07 A/B  E 07 A/B  E 16  E 01 A/B  E 18 A/B  slop
 Make up level in kerosene stripper T 02 prime kerosene product pump P 05 A/B, and line up
kerosene product circuit as follows:
 T 02  P 05 A/B  E 04  E 14  E 15  slop
 Start stripping steam injection on kerosene and light diesel strippers
 Keep a value of 14 Kg steam/m3 product on FI 051 and FIC 052
 Increase heater outlet temperature to normal operating conditions:
 H 01 365°C TIC 067
 H 51 391°C TIC 136
 When atmospheric column T 01 overhead temperature approaches 168°C on TI 081, start stripping
steam injection on flash zone.
 Keep a value of 20 Kg steam/m3 reduced crude on FIC 040
 When vacuum column top temperature reaches 70°C (TI 142), start stripping steam flow to
vacuum heater coils and vacuum column bottom. Keep total value of 50 kg steam/m³ vacuum
residue
 Start vacuum overflash pump P 55 A/B
 Line up HVGO circuit as follows:
 T 51  P 54 A/B  T 51
 Line up LVGO circuit as follows:
 T 51  P 53 A/B  E 02 A/B  E 54  T 51
 Extend HVGO circuit as follows:
 P 54 A/B  E 17 by pass  E 10 A÷D  E 08 A÷D  T 51
 Commission vacuum column light slop pump P 52 A/B
 Commission vacuum column sour water pump P 51 A/B
 Commission in auto mode vacuum residue temperature control TIC 146 (set 345°C)
 When material is available, extend HVGO circuit as follows:
 E 55  E 56 A/B  slop
 When material is available, start sending LVGO to slop
 Divert on spec products to storage
 Adjust operating conditions to normal value
 Switch instruments to auto mode
 Commission desalters V 01 A/B
 Start chemical injection to max rate as follows:

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.89

 Corrosion inhibitor to T 01 overhead line


 Corrosion inhibitor to T 51 overhead line
 Neutralizing amines to T 01 overhead line
 Neutralizing amines to V 03 overhead line
 Neutralizing amines to T 51 overhead line
 Filming amines to V 03 overhead line
 Demulsifier to desalter feed line
 Caustic solution to crude feed line
 Phosphate to BFW circuit
 Start CDU overhead vapor compressor K 01 A/B
 Start recontacting naphtha to debutanizer pump P 14 A/B
 Make up level on debutanizer T 05 and cut in light diesel flow to debutanizer reboiler E 24
 Commission PIC 097 (set 10 barg)
 When level is available in debutanizer overhead accumulator V 05, prime debutanizer overhead
pump P 13 A/B and recirculate to T 05
 Commission LDIC 083
 When debutanizer circuit pressure approaches operating valve of 10 barg, line up naphtha feed to
debutanizer
 Send debutanizer bottom to slop
 Send off spec LPG to flare using line provided downstream FV 163
 Route on spec stabilized naphtha to storage
 Route on spec LPG to LPG recovery unit

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.90

5.2.3. Process normal operation


A. Desalter
A good treating temperature is essential to obtain efficient separation (130°C).

Too low temperature increases viscosity and induces following problems:


 Defective contact between wash water and chlorides in crude oil
 Stabilisation of emulsion
 Increasing size of droplets (by coalescence) becoming more difficult because interfacial film
becomes harder

Quantity of injected water directly affects salt dilution in crude oil and thus salt content at unit outlet.

Below 2.5%, population of droplets becomes more tenuous and distance from one to another becomes
too great for a good coalescence.

Total wash water flow rate at each stage measured in % of crude flow rate is:
 2.5% min
 6% norm
 12% max

Residence time of water in treating vessel is approximately five times to one of crude oil.

Delta P on mixing valve is maintained between 0.5 to 2 bar maximum.

Mixing pressure drop is increased by increments of 0.2 bar starting from mixing valve wide open;
enough time is given (about 2 hours) to system prior to withdrawing a sample. Average value for mixing
pressure drop is 0.8 bar.

Too low delta P increases salts as contact is not sufficient; too high delta P may give:
 Dirty effluent water
 High electric current consumption
 High BS&W carryover.

Exact position of crude/water interface is not really critical for process. It must be only maintained
within gap where too high interface will short-circuit electrode while too low interface will cause dirty
effluent water bleed. Purpose of tri-cocks sample lines is to visually check height and consistency of
emulsion cushion at interface. Compact crude at upper line and fairly clear water on lower line are
indicators of optimum operating conditions.

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.91

B. Heaters
 Check flame condition of burner frequently
 Totally avoid flame impingement on tubes
 Check frequently condition of burner tips and burner tiles; burners are adjusted so that no flame
impingement on tubes is observed at any time
 Operate heater with 20% excess air
 At low excess air levels pay attention to possibility of carbon monoxide formation
Generally, low excess air operation is recommended only if heat load on unit is very constant

For optimum flame patterns and efficiency, it is important that air enters heater through burner.
Consequently, devices such as sight doors and access doors are properly closed during normal
operation.

If combustion air flow is insufficient to a point where carbon monoxide is present in flue gas, a radical
decrease in furnace outlet temperature is noticed. Under automatic control, burners then fire harder,
generating even more carbon monoxide for a given quantity of combustion air.

Under these circumstances, immediate steps are taken to rectify situation. Recommended sequence is:
 Place fuel controller on manual operation
 Cut back fuel firing rate (very slowly) under manual control
 Raise combustion air flow (very slowly) to proper level
 Gradually increase firing rate to attain proper outlet temperature again

Heater is designed to have a slight negative pressure (-2.5 mm WC) at arch when operating under all
conditions.

 Regularly check operation of induced draft fan


 Maintain adequate process flow to furnace at all times, and particularly adequate flow to each pass
of multi-pass heaters
 If discrepancies in individual pass temperatures are noted during operation and if it is established
that equal flow is not maintained to each pass, then shut down heater is for inspection
 Convection section: to avoid local external fouling due to ash formation from combustion of fuel oil,
provide heater with sootblower system (retractable type) in sequential operation with local control
panel
 Sequence of cleaning can be started also when furnace is in operation

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.92

C. Design operating conditions


General notes : Liquid volume flowrates are given at 15°C

 Material balance

CASE CASE
TAG N° UNIT A B
INLET STREAM
CRUDE FROM STORAGE 01-FI-004 m3/hr 667 667,0
WILD NAPHTHA FROM UNIT 07 07-FIC-016 m3/hr 11 12,7

OUTLET STREAM
LIGHT DIESEL 01-FIC-001 m3/hr 138 126
KEROSENE 01-FIC-002 m3/hr 69 62
HEAVY DIESEL 01-FIC-049 m3/hr NNF NNF

LVGO TO STORAGE 01-FI-108 m3/hr


LVGO TO HYDROCRACKER 01-FIC-107 m3/hr
LVGO TOTAL m3/hr 41 38

HVGO TO STORAGE 01-FI-127 m3/hr


HVGO TO HYDROCRACKER 01-FIC-126 m3/hr
HVGO TOTAL m3/hr 139 129

STAB. NAPHTHA TO STORAGE 01-FI-155 m3/hr


STAB. NAPHTHA TO UNIT 02 01-FIC-156 m3/hr
STAB. NAPHTHA TOTAL m3/hr 167 151

VACUUM RESIDUE TO STORAGE 01-FI-129 m3/hr


VACUUM RESIDUE TO COKER 01-FI-130 m3/hr
VACUUM RESIDUE TOTAL m3/hr 105 150

LPG 01-FIC-163 m3/hr 12,5 17

OFF GAS FROM 01-V-10 01-FI-150 Nm3/hr 103 263


OFF GAS FROM 01-V-05 01-FI-164 Nm3/hr 103 165

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.93

 Atmospheric section

CASE CASE
TAG N° UNIT A B

H-01 OUTLET TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-067 °C 365 365


T-01 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-087 °C 360 360
LIGHT DIESEL TEMPERATURE 01-TI-084 °C 277 277
KEROSENE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-083 °C 209 206
T-01 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-081 °C 171 168
T-01 OVERHEAD PRESSURE 01-PI-017 barg 1,3 1,3
T-01 FLASH ZONE PRESSURE 01-PI-018 barg 1,8 1,8
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-01 01-FIC-040 Kg/hr 7000 8000
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-03 01-FIC-052 Kg/hr 2000 1500

 Vacuum section

CASE CASE
TAG N° UNIT A B

H-51 OUTLET TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-136 °C 404 400


T-51 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-145 °C 363 376
T-51 BOTTOM TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-146 °C 345 345
T-51 MID SIDE CUT TEMPERATURE 01-TI-149 °C 276 272
T-51 TOP SIDE CUT TEMPERATURE 01-TI-154 °C 157 155
T-51 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-142 °C 75 75
T-51 PRESSURE 01-PIC-070 mmHg 30 30
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-51 01-FIC-100 Kg/hr 6000 7300
T-51 FLASH ZONE PRESSURE 01-PI-059 mmHg 45 45

 Debutanizer section

CASE CASE
TAG N° UNIT A B

T-05 BOTTOM TEMPERATURE 01-TI-020 °C 195 195


T-05 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-030 °C 67 67
T-05 PRESSURE 01-PIC-097 barg 10 10
T-05 TRAY 7 TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-108 °C 75 75

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.94

D. Specific routine operations

 Heater decoking procedure


Steam-air decoking is less expensive and more efficient than mechanical decoking.

This lends itself to night operation since glow of tube or presence of hot spots can be observed more
easily during coke burning operation.

Use of optical pyrometer is recommended.

Coke burns at temperature between 565°C and 730°C.

Time required for completion of decoking operation varies from 12 hours to 3 days, depending on
thickness of coke deposits and detailed procedure to be followed.

Steam-air decoking should not be used where tube deposits contain large proportions of salt or lime.

Steam (10 bar) and air (3 bar) are manifolded to permit simultaneous and/or alternate injection into hot
tubes.

Steam and air are used to accelerate coke spalling and burning.

Each pass of furnace is steam-air decoked separately while steam is admitted through remaining passes
to prevent overheating of tubes.

Pressure drop increased through tubes during operation up to allowable pressure drop in fouled
condition is a general indication that decoking may be required.

Sequential operations
1. Piping connections for steam, air and decoking off gas are connected to passes of tubes
2. Feed to heaters is shut off and isolated by blinds. Burners are extinguished
3. Steam is introduced to tubes to purge lines of residual oil and oil vapors. Steam purge is a
precautionary measure to prevent ignition of an explosive mixture of air and oil vapors
4. Steam is introduced into all tubes (even tubes not being decoked) to prevent overheating
5. Every other burner is ignited to provide even distribution of heat
6. Increase flue gas temperatures leaving radiant section at rate of 150°C/h until it reaches 730°C
Hold this flue gas temperature through spalling period or until air is introduced
7. Furnace temperature is increased at rate of 150°C/h per hour with close check on tube metal
temperature
Metal temperature not to exceed 650°C
Steam injection is used to regulate metal temperatures of tubes during controlled heating period in
heater
Skin thermocouples on tubes and flue gas outlet thermocouples are used to verify and control tube
and gas temperature during decoking operations
Excessive use of steam causes severe erosion in tubes and fittings during spalling since coke is very
abrasive
Steam velocity is as low as possible while still removing coke from tubes
8. When flue gas outlet radiant temperature reaches 550°C, increase steam injection to 5900 kg/hr
9. Quench water is sampled for indications of spalled coke, and if after 5 to 10 minutes spalling has
not started, following methods are used to start spalling:
a) Alternately reduce and increase steam flow rate through tubes
b) Lower flue gas temperature 50°C to 100°C
c) Add small quantity of air to steam for few minutes, then shut off air

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.95

10. Sample connection are observed constantly for evidence and extent to spalling
Degree of spalling is indicated by colour of water flowing from sample connection to sewer and
number of coke particles settled in standard sample container
Colour and condition of effluent streams vary during various stages as follows:
a) Discharge is milky with a slight grey colour before and after decoking has started and has been
completed
b) A light gray colour is seen in effluent to sewer when fine soot has been removed
c) As spalling increases, large particles of coke are removed. This condition is indicated by dark
grey to black colour in effluent to sewer
d) Discharge of burned coke appears as rust or a reddish brown in colour
11. When heavy spalling starts, steam flow is reduced to prevent erosion. There is no strict measure to
amount of steam required, and operator must depend on pressure control and visual observation of
discharge at bleeder
Maintain pressure and flow at lowest point but maintain spalling
This reduces abrasive action of coke particles being removed
12. When sampler outlet shows fine coke dust, reduce inlet pressure for minimum 10 minutes to see if
any grainy coke appears
If fine coke dust continues, reduce pressure further to be sure dust is not produced by high velocities
13. After all spalling has stopped and cannot be restored by method indicated at Point 9, reduce flue gas
to 700°C and set steam flow to approx 3000 kg/hr
Gradually add air to approximately 1/10 of steam quantities (kg/kg)
14. It is important that operator is in position to observe, through observation port, coke burning in tube
Coke burning indicated by slight glow on tube surface, approximately 1 foot in length, starts at inlet
end of tubes and progresses at rate of 1 to 1½ feet per minute
Metal surfaces should not be permitted to glow cherry red since this indicates temperature in excess
of 650°C allowable
If metal does glow cherry red, reduce air input or shut off air altogether
15. Air-steam mixture requires adjustment increasing air or reducing steam quantities, if there are
indications (tube glow) that burning has stopped or is slowing down
As an added means for restarting burning, flue gas outlet temperature can be increased 50°C
16. Should burning proceed at too rapid a rate, causing excessive heating of tubes, air quantity should
be reduced or steam increased
Should adjustment of air-steam mixture fail to slow-down burning rate, flue gas temperature should
be lowered in steps of 50°C until desired burning rate has been achieved
17. Completion of coke burning can be checked by colour of effluent as outlined at point 10 and should
be confirmed by results obtained in a gas analysis
This gas analysis should indicate about 1% CO2 when burning has been completed
Increase in air without a similar increase in CO2 confirms that burning has been completed
18. Upon completion of decoking operation, air injection into tubes has to be stopped and steam flow
rate increased for removal of residual ash giving effluent a milky white colour

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.96

E. Off-spec product handling

 LPG
LPG is normally sent to LPG recovery unit (Unit 12). Off-spec LPG is diverted to off gas from
debutanizer overhead accumulator V-05 or to flare.

Connections to flare are provided as follows:


 Downstream PV 097 B (off gas from V 05)
 Downstream FV 163 (LPG product)
 Downstream FV 162 (LPG recycle to T 05)

Stabilized naphtha
Stabilized naphtha is normally sent to storage 51 TK 09 or to HDT unit (Unit 02). Off-spec naphtha is
diverted to light slops tank 51 TK 06.
Connection to light slop is provided as follows:
 Downstream LV 032 B (s. naphtha to storage).

Kerosene
Kerosene is normally sent to kerosene Merox unit (Unit 06). Off-spec kerosene is diverted to light slops
tank 51 TK 06. Connection to light slop is provided downstream of FV 002.

Light diesel
Light diesel is normally sent to storage 51 TK 10 or to DHT unit (Unit 07). Off-spec light diesel is
diverted to light slops tank 51 TK 06. Connection to light slop is:
 Downstream FV 001 (l. diesel to storage)

Heavy diesel
Heavy diesel is normally sent to storage in HDT feed tank or hydrocracker feed tank 51 TK 11/40. Off-
spec heavy diesel is diverted to light slops tank 51 TK 06. Connection to light slop is provided
downstream of FV 049.

Light vacuum gasoil


LVGO is normally sent to hydrocracker unit (Unit 08) or to storage 51 TK 11/40. Off-spec LVGO is
diverted to heavy slops tank 51 TK 07. Connection to heavy slop is provided downstream of LV 035 A
(LVGO to storage).

Heavy vacuum gasoil


HVGO is normally sent to hydrocracker unit (Unit 08) or to storage 51 TK 11/40. Off-spec HVGO is
diverted to heavy slops tank 51 TK 07. Connection to heavy slop is provided downstream of LV 036 B
(HVGO to storage).

Vacuum residue
Vacuum residue is normally sent to storage 51 TK 05/39 or to delayed coker unit (Unit 11). Off-spec
vacuum residue is diverted to heavy slops tank 51 TK 07. Connection to heavy slop is provided
downstream of LV 038 A (v. residue to storage).

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.97

F. Data collecting & quality control


Following table summarizes main parameters (flows, temperatures, pressures) required for good
monitoring of operation.

This table, to be used as a logsheet, indicates for each parameter:


 Measurement tag number
 Description
 Normal (100 % feedstock rate) and turndown (60% feedstock rate) expected values

Purpose is to identify quickly correct or incorrect operation of whole unit, by just selecting key
parameters in each section of unit.

 Suggested parameters for monitoring normal operation

 Material balance
DESIGN VALUE FOR CASE A
TAG N° UNIT 100% 60%
INLET STREAM
CRUDE FROM STORAGE 01-FI-004 m3/hr 667 400
WILD NAPHTHA FROM UNIT 07 07-FIC-016 m3/hr 11 6,6

OUTLET STREAM
LIGHT DIESEL 01-FIC-001 m3/hr 138 82,8
KEROSENE 01-FIC-002 m3/hr 69 41,4
HEAVY DIESEL 01-FIC-049 m3/hr NNF NNF

LVGO TO STORAGE 01-FI-108 m3/hr


LVGO TO HYDROCRACKER 01-FIC-107 m3/hr
LVGO TOTAL m3/hr 41 24,6

HVGO TO STORAGE 01-FI-127 m3/hr


HVGO TO HYDROCRACKER 01-FIC-126 m3/hr
HVGO TOTAL m3/hr 139 83,4

STAB. NAPHTHA TO STORAGE 01-FI-155 m3/hr


STAB. NAPHTHA TO UNIT 02 01-FIC-156 m3/hr
STAB. NAPHTHA TOTAL m3/hr 167 100

VACUUM RESIDUE TO STORAGE 01-FI-129 m3/hr


VACUUM RESIDUE TO COKER 01-FI-130 m3/hr
VACUUM RESIDUE TOTAL m3/hr 105 63

LPG 01-FIC-163 m3/hr 12,5 7,5

OFF GAS FROM 01-V-10 01-FI-150 Nm3/hr 103 61,8


OFF GAS FROM 01-V-05 01-FI-164 Nm3/hr 103 61,8

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.98

 Atmospheric section

DESIGN VALUE FOR CASE A


TAG N° UNIT 100% 60%

H-01 OUTLET TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-067 °C 365 365


T-01 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-087 °C 360 360
LIGHT DIESEL TEMPERATURE 01-TI-084 °C 277 277
KEROSENE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-083 °C 209 209
T-01 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-081 °C 171 171
T-01 OVERHEAD PRESSURE 01-PI-017 barg 1,3 1,3
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-01 01-FIC-040 Kg/hr 7000 4200
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-03 01-FIC-052 Kg/hr 2000 1200
T-01 FLASH ZONE PRESSURE 01-PI-018 barg 1,8 1,8

 Vacuum section

DESIGN VALUE FOR CASE A


TAG N° UNIT 100% 60%

H-51 OUTLET TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-136 °C 391 391


T-51 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-145 °C 363 363
T-51 BOTTOM TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-146 °C 345 345
T-51 MID SIDE CUT TEMPERATURE 01-TI-149 °C 276 276
T-51 TOP SIDE CUT TEMPERATURE 01-TI-154 °C 157 157
T-51 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-142 °C 75 75
T-51 PRESSURE 01-PIC-070 mmHg 30 30
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-51 01-FIC-100 Kg/hr 6000 3600
T-51 FLASH ZONE PRESSURE 01-PI-059 mmHg 45 45

 Debutanizer section

DESIGN VALUE FOR CASE A


TAG N° UNIT 100% 60%

T-05 BOTTOM TEMPERATURE 01-TI-020 °C 195 195


T-05 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-030 °C 67 67
T-05 PRESSURE 01-PIC-097 barg 10 10
T-05 TRAY 7 TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-108 °C 75 75

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.99

 Typical example of logsheet for data collecting & quality control

 Material balance

Date Date
TAG N° UNIT
INLET STREAM

CRUDE FROM STORAGE 01-FI-004 m3/hr


WILD NAPHTHA FROM UNIT 07 07-FIC-016 m3/hr

OUTLET STREAM

LIGHT DIESEL 01-FIC-001 m3/hr


KEROSENE 01-FIC-002 m3/hr
HEAVY DIESEL 01-FIC-049 m3/hr
LVGO TO STORAGE 01-FI-108 m3/hr
LVGO TO HYDROCRACKER 01-FIC-107 m3/hr
HVGO TO STORAGE 01-FI-127 m3/hr
HVGO TO HYDROCRACKER 01-FIC-126 m3/hr
STAB. NAPHTHA TO STORAGE 01-FI-155 m3/hr
STAB. NAPHTHA TO UNIT 02 01-FIC-156 m3/hr
VACUUM RESIDUE TO STORAGE 01-FI-129 m3/hr
VACUUM RESIDUE TO COKER 01-FI-130 m3/hr
LPG 01-FIC-163 m3/hr
OFF GAS FROM 01-V-10 01-FI-150 Nm3/hr
OFF GAS FROM 01-V-05 01-FI-164 Nm3/hr

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.100

 Parameters for unit monitoring

Date Date
TAG N° UNIT
ATMOSPHERIC SECTION
H-01 OUTLET TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-067 °C
T-01 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-087 °C
LIGHT DIESEL TEMPERATURE 01-TI-084 °C
KEROSENE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-083 °C
T-01 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-081 °C
T-01 OVERHEAD PRESSURE 01-PI-017 barg
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-01 01-FIC-040 Kg/hr
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-03 01-FIC-052 Kg/hr
T-01 FLASH ZONE PRESSURE 01-PI-018 barg

Date Date
TAG N° UNIT
VACUUM SECTION
H-51 OUTLET TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-136 °C
T-51 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE 01-TI-145 °C
T-51 BOTTOM TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-146 °C
T-51 MID SIDE CUT TEMPERATURE 01-TI-149 °C
T-51 TOP SIDE CUT TEMPERATURE 01-TI-154 °C
T-51 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-142 °C
T-51 PRESSURE 01-PIC-070 mmHg
STRIPPING STEAM TO T-51 01-FIC-100 Kg/hr
T-51 FLASH ZONE PRESSURE 01-PI-059 mmHg

Date Date
TAG N° UNIT
DEBUTANIZER SECTION
T-05 BOTTOM TEMPERATURE 01-TI-020 °C
T-05 OVERHEAD TEMPERATURE 01-TI-030 °C
T-05 PRESSURE 01-PIC-097 barg
T-05 TRAY 7 TEMPERATURE 01-TIC-108 °C

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.101

5.2.4. Process normal shutdown


A. Normal shutdown procedures
 First step is to reduce unit throughput in a controlled manner from 668 to 400 m3/hr in 33 m3/hr
steps. Maintain temperatures and pressures and in general decrease flows in proportion to crude rate
to maintain product specifications
 As gas production drops off, stop gas compressor K 01 A/B. At this time atmospheric column gas is
put through PV-076 to relief header. Compressor and associated piping and knockout pot are isolated
and may be purged with nitrogen independently of steaming out procedure
 Route noncondensables from vacuum unit to relief header and block off from burners of
atmospheric heater H-01
 Line up all products to go to appropriate slop tank rather than to product tanks
 Reduce heater outlet temperature to 260°C in 50°C/hr steps
 Cut off HVGO to kero stripper reboiler E-17
 Cut off stripping steam to heavy diesel stripper T 04 and light diesel stripper T 03
 Block in side cut feed to strippers and stop following pumps:
 P 09 A/B heavy diesel product pumps
 P 07 A/B light diesel product pumps
 P 05 A/B kerosene product pumps

 Stop chemical injection


 Cut off power supply and wash water injection to desalters
 Cut off stripping steam to atmospheric column T 01, vacuum heater H 51 and vacuum column T 51
 Divert superheated steam through steam vent Z 02
 Stop atmospheric tower reflux pumps P 02 A/B as overhead reflux accumulator V 03 reaches low
level operation (LAL 029)
 Continue kero circulation as follows:
 T 01  P 06 A/B  E 06  E 05  T 01
 Stop kero circulation pumps P 06 A/B when pump loses suction
 Continue light diesel circulation as follows:
 T 01  P 08 A/B  E 09 A÷D  T 01
 Stop light diesel circulation pumps P 08 A/B when pump loses suction
 Continue LVGO circulation as follows:
 T 51  P 53 A/B  E 02 A/B  E 54  T 51
 Stop vacuum column top side cut pumps P 53 A/B when pump loses suction
 Continue HVGO circulation as follows:
 T 51  P 54 A/B  E 17 by pass  E 10 A÷D  E 08 A÷D  T 51
 Stop vacuum column mid side cut pumps P 54 A/B when pump loses suction
 Stop vacuum overflash pumps P 55 A/B
 Shut off fire on heaters H 01 and H 51
 Continue feed circulation to cool down unit to 120°C
 Shut down vacuum ejectors

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.102

5.2.5. Process emergency shutdown


A. Process failures

 Loss of feed
Feed failure may occur due to failure of pumps, delay in switching storage tanks, failure of
instrumentation, etc.

Feed rate below minimum flow rate required for heater operation is detected by FT-026÷033 for crude
heater and FT-080 through 082 for vacuum heater activating logic for heater shutdown.
 Accelerate heater cool down operating at maximum combustion air and flue gas dampers
 Close side stripper feed control valves
 Continue pumparound circulation

Preventing cracking activity made possible by residual heat still available in radiant section of heaters
must be immediately faced.

In case process flow cannot be quickly resumed, medium pressure steam must be injected through
heater coils to displace material.

Medium pressure steam injection facilities provided are:


 H-01 Line 3”-06520 downstream E-11 A through D
 H-51 3” connections downstream FV-080 through 083

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.103

B. Utility failure

 Instrument air failure


In event of instrument air failure, status of unit is as follows:
 Crude oil feed continues through first train crude preheating  desalters  second train crude
preheating  crude heater  atmospheric column  vacuum heater  vacuum column 
 Heaters shut down
 Stripping steam control valves close
 Side stripper feed control valves close
 Product control valves close
 Reflux control valves open
 CDU overhead vapor compressor goes on total recycle (no load)
 Debutanizer feed control valves close
 Light diesel to debutanizer reboiler control valves close
 Vacuum system PK 51 continues operation to maximum vacuum value (PV 070 close)
 HVGO to kero stripper reboiler bypass control valve opens
 Divert superheated steam to steam vent Z 02
 Divert vacuum residue to slop
 Stop following pumps as soon as possible to prevent damage due to shutoff operations:
 P 12 A/B Desalter recycle pumps
 P 09 A/B Heavy diesel product pumps
 P 07 A/B Light diesel product pumps
 P 05 A/B Kerosene product pumps
 P 11 A/B Desalter water pumps
 P 51 A/B Vacuum column sour water pumps
 P 04 A/B Atmospheric column overhead – Sour water pumps
 P 03 A/B SR naphtha to debutanizer pumps
 P 14 A/B Recontacting naphtha to debutanizer pumps
 Continue column cooldown by operating circulation pumps as follows:
 Light diesel circulation pump P 08 A/B  E 09 A through D  T 01
 Kero circulation pumps P 06 A/B  E 06  E 05  T 01
 Atmospheric tower reflux pumps P 02 A/B  T 01
 Vacuum overflash pumps P 55 A/B  T 01
 Vacuum column mid side cut pumps P 54 A/B  T 51
 Vacuum column top side cut pumps P 53 A/B  T 51
 Stop circulation pumps as levels drop
 Continue crude oil feed circulation and cool down unit

 Cooling water failure


Cooling water failure is consequence of electrical power failure in utility unit.

Cooling water circulation to users goes on because steam turbine driven pumps automatically start;
cooling tower fans shut down and cooling of circulating cooling water is by natural draft only.

If cooling water unit normal operation is not immediately restored, proceed to CDU/VDU unit shut-
down as follows:
 Shut down crude and vacuum heaters and operate at maximum combustion air and flue gas
dampers to accelerate heater cool down
 Continue feed flow through unit to allow circulation through heater coils
 Divert vacuum residue to slop
 Increase as much as possible cooling of atmospheric column T 01 by atmospheric tower reflux
pump P 02 A/B

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.104

 Increase as much as possible cooling of vacuum column T 51 by vacuum column mid side cut
pump P 54 A/B; close FV 103 to divert all material on HVGO chimney tray
 Stop stripping steam to columns and strippers and divert superheated steam to steam vent Z 02

 Steam failure
In a steam failure following occurs:
 No steam to vacuum system ejectors causes pressure increase in vacuum column and off spec
products
 Interruption of steam supply to vacuum heater causes reduced mass velocity in coils and coke
formation by cracking activity
 Interruption of stripping steam causes contamination of product by lighter material
 Failure of steam turbine driven pumps
 Failure of atomizing steam

Proceed to shut down unit as follows:


 Shut down crude and vacuum heaters and operate at maximum combustion air and flue gas
dampers to accelerate heater cooldown
 Continue feed flow through unit to allow circulation through heater coils
 Divert vacuum residue to slop
 Increase pumparound to maximum flow rate
 Close stripping steam control valves and divert superheated steam to steam vent Z 02

 Electrical power failure


 Shut down electrical-driven pumps, compressors, fans and aircoolers

Following pumps only continue to operate as they are steam turbine driven:
 P 01 A Crude charge pump
 P 02 B Atmospheric tower reflux pump
 P 10 B Atmospheric reduced crude pump
 P 15 B BFW circulation pump
 P 54 A Vacuum column mid side cut pump
 P 56 B Vacuum residue pump

Availability of above equipment allows a safety shutdown of unit thus preventing cracking activity made
possible by residual heat still available in radiant section of heaters and relief valves actuating under
excessive pressure.

 Shut down crude and vacuum heaters and operate at maximum combustion air and flue gas
dampers to accelerate heater cooldown
 Continue feed flow through unit to allow circulation through heater coils
 Divert vacuum residue to slop
 Increase as much as possible cooling of atmospheric column T 01 by atmospheric tower reflux
pump P 02 B
 Increase as much as possible cooling of vacuum column T 51 by vacuum column mid side cut
pump P 54 A; close FV 103 to divert all material on HVGO chimney tray
 Increase steam flow through vacuum heater coils
 Stop stripping steam to columns and strippers, and divert superheated steam to steam vent Z 02

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.105

C. Major upsets

 Heater tube rupture


In this case a fire within heater will probably develop; immediate shutdown is necessary:
 Cut off main and pilot fuel supply
 Cut off feed
 Stop air fan and flue gas fan
 Open duct dumper
 Put snuffing steam in firebox
 Pump out towers and strippers
 Leave stripping steam flow in service
 Break vacuum on vacuum column
 Allow oil to burn out in heater, controlling size of flame with damper and keeping temperature down
with snuffing steam. Do not try to steam out heater coils until fire is extinguished and heater
cooldown id completed

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.106

5.2.6. Process troubleshooting


A. Desalter

Before making adjustments in plant, check that operating conditions are in conformity with required
specifications.

FAULT PRIMARY CAUSE SECONDARY CAUSE REMEDY


1 High salt content A Insufficient a. Pressure drop too low Increase pressure drop
in desalted crude contact between
process water and b. Insufficient amount of Increase amount of
crude oil process water used process water used
c. Operating temperature Increase operating
too low temperature
d. Crude oil charge rate in Reduce crude oil charge
excess of design capacity rate
2 Water content of A Crude oil/water a. Pressure drop too high Reduce pressure drop
desalted crude too emulsion over-
high emulsified b. Poor quality of process Maintain pH of process
water water between 6 and 8 or
use fresh water added
c. Process water injection Reduce amount of
rate too high process water added
d. Operating temperature Increase operating
too low temperature
B Interface too low a. Float, water level Correct faulty apparatus
controller or water draw-
off valve faulty
b. Change in specific Adjust water level
gravity of crude controller
3 Dirty effluent A Over- a. Pressure drop too high Reduce pressure drop
water bleed emulsification of
process water b. Poor quality of process Maintain pH of process
with crude oil water water between 6 and 8 or
use fresh water
c. Process water injection Reduce rate of process
rate too high water added
d. Operating temperature Increase operating
too low temperature
B Interface too low a. Water level controller or Correct faulty apparatus
water draw-off valve
faulty

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.107

FAULT PRIMARY CAUSE SECONDARY CAUSE REMEDY


4 Appreciable A Formation of gas Gas formation due to Correct the plant presure
continuous pressure loss
variations in
voltmeter
B Over- Refer to items 2a through
emulsification of 2d
process water
with crude oil
C Interface too high Opposite of situations
outlined in 2B
5 Voltage A Short circuit due a. Low operating Stop injection of process
continuously too to stable emulsion temperature water. Wait and see if
low and weak in electrode area electrode area clears
burning of pilot itself of emulsified
lights or material
completely out
b. Over emulsion If volts are normal, start
injection of process water
without pressure drop
across mixing valve.
Then increase pressure
drop until desired
desalting efficiency is
reached.
B Short circuit due a. HV entrance bushing Replace failed bushing
to electrical failure with new one.
failure
b. Insulator failure Replace failed insulator
with new. Replacement
of insulator requires
entering vessel.
c. Electrode grounded Unground electrode.
d. Transformer failure Determine part that
failed and repair same.

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0


UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.108

5.2.7. Analytical requirements


A. Introduction
Feed must be analyzed to determine that it conforms to quality of feed used for design. Products must be
analyzed to ensure that unit is producing on spec materials.

B. Sampling schedules/Approved test methods


Refer to enclosed Laboratory Analytical Schedule for Process and Utility Units – Unit 01 Crude &
Vacuum.

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.109

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.110

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.111

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.112

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UNIT 01: CRUDE & VACUUM 5.113

C. PI&D for detail of sample connections


See PI&D 1920-GG-BS-0020-07 for detail of sample connections.

1920/MIDOR REFINERY/TRAINING MANUAL 5/ML 0050.05/REV. 0