Anda di halaman 1dari 9

Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322

Voltage control with on-load tap changers in medium voltage


feeders in presence of distributed generation
Ferry A. Viawan a,∗ , Ambra Sannino b , Jaap Daalder a
a Division of Electric Power Engineering, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
b ABB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden

Received 15 July 2005; received in revised form 19 June 2006; accepted 28 September 2006
Available online 13 November 2006

Abstract
This paper discusses voltage regulation on medium-voltage feeders with distributed generation (DG) using on-load tap changer (LTC) and line
drop compensation (LDC). The analysis shows that LTC is robust against DG, whereas DG can affect the effectiveness of the voltage regulation
provided by LDC. However, with proper coordination between DG and LDC, it is possible to ensure voltage regulation without unnecessarily
restricting the integration of DG. It is shown that, while lowering the LTC setting can increase the DG integration limit, even higher increase can be
obtained by activating the LDC feature, which is present in most LTCs, but often not used. LDC regulation is also compared with other alternatives
such as using a DG unit with voltage control capability and installing a line voltage regulator.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Distributed generation; On-load tap changer; Line drop compensation; Voltage regulation; Voltage control

1. Introduction ampacity or rating of substation transformer are reached. The


reduction or reversal of active power flow due to DG will increase
Voltage control of MV distribution feeders is achieved by the voltage along the feeder. DG coordination with switched
using on-load tap changers (LTCs) and capacitor banks. The LTC capacitor banks is also required to ensure that the capacitors
keeps the voltage at the substation busbar constant. Normally, will not cause overvoltages [4].
a LTC is also provided with line drop compensation (LDC) to Maximum DG integration limit on multiple feeders with LDC
keep the voltage constant at a remote load center (LC) [1–3]. without changing LTC tap position is presented in [5]. The
LTCs are widespread in distribution networks and are likely to change in voltage profile can be minimized with this method.
remain in service for many years to come [3]. However, the integration limit obtained by preventing LTC from
Distributed generation (DG) causes reduction or possibly changing its position will be very marginal. More DG power
reversal of real power flows, which may impart significant power can be introduced without violating permissible voltage lim-
factor (PF) changes detected by a HV/MV transformer. These its when the LTC tap position is allowed to change. In [6,7],
changes may affect the effectiveness of the voltage regulation the installation of a line voltage regulator (VR) is presented to
provided by LDC. Therefore, DG should be coordinated with solve unacceptable voltage variations. With this method, a large
LDC to ensure that the distribution network will not loose the amount of DG can be connected to the feeder. However, VR
function of proper voltage regulation. Proper coordination is also installation means additional investment costs. The reduction of
necessary in order to ensure that the DG integration will not be the LTC setting in a HV/MV substation to increase wind power
unnecessarily limited. DG integration limit is defined in this production is presented in [8]. Voltage regulation with multiple
paper as the maximum DG power that can be generated before LDCs on multiple feeders with different loading is proposed in
either maximum allowed voltage variation, conductor thermal [9]. This method is based on system wide coordination of volt-
ages using remote control, communication and optimization.
Besides the need of a communication link and the modification
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +46 31 7721661; fax: +46 31 7721633. of the existing LDC control system, the voltage control of the
E-mail address: ferry.viawan@chalmers.se (F.A. Viawan). distribution network is far more complicated when using this

0378-7796/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2006.09.021
F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322 1315

where ULB = Uset − 0.5 bandwidth is the lower boundary volt-


age, UUB = Uset + 0.5 bandwidth is the upper boundary voltage
and Uset is the setpoint voltage.
The voltage on a conventional MV feeder decreases towards
the end. The LTC shall then be set to ensure that the voltage at
the feeder end is higher than the minimum allowed voltage Umin ,
and the sending-end voltage is lower than the maximum allowed
voltage Umax . Since the LTC keeps the sending-end voltage U0
constant, it is possible to operate the feeder with minimum losses
at any load condition.
No load or feeder parameters appear in Eq. (1), so LTC reg-
ulation will not be affected by changes in the PF or reversal of
Fig. 1. Basic LTC arrangement.
active/reactive power. With the sending-end voltage kept con-
stant, multiple-feeders controlled by the same LTC can be treated
method [8], which may be considered undesirable by many dis- individually, as the load on one feeder will not affect the volt-
tribution network operators nowadays. age profile on adjacent feeders, except in a small range of LTC
This paper examines LTC/LDC regulation of a MV feeder, bandwidth.
and how it is affected by DG. The voltage regulation constraints When the feeder is too long, sometimes it is necessary to
with LTC and LDC are reformulated for the case of one or install a VR. This is an autotransformer with automatically
more DG units connected along a feeder in a single- or multi- adjusted taps, which is also provided with a LDC function. Here,
feeder system. Simulation results are presented for different it should be ensured that the voltage is higher than Umin at the
feeder models, which compare the maximum DG integration primary side of the VR and lower than Umax at the secondary
limit obtained in presence of DG with LTC and LDC regula- side.
tion. These regulation methods are also compared with the use Capacitor banks, when present, may overcompensate the line
of a VR and the installation of a DG unit with voltage control and increase the losses when feeder load is low, or even cause
capability. overvoltage. The capacitor then needs to be switched off through
either voltage or current or VAR control. When the load cycle
2. Voltage regulation in conventional MV feeder with on the feeder is predictable throughout a day, time control is also
LTC/LDC appropriate.
Finally, the voltage constraints for a conventional feeder with
The objective function of voltage control in conventional LTC regulation can be simply formulated as:
feeders, i.e., feeders with only loads and no DG connected, can
be either to minimize feeder losses or to operate the feeder closer i. U0,i ≤ Umax , ∀ secondary side of LTC transformer or VRs.
to the nominal voltage. ii. Uend,i max load ≥ Umin , ∀ nodes at feeder-ends or primary
One means of voltage control is the LTC regulator, which is an side of VRs.
autotransformer with automatically adjusted taps. Commonly, 2.2. Voltage control with LDC regulation
a LTC provides a regulation range from −10% to 10% using
32 steps [1,2]. The LTC will keep the voltage constant at the Voltage control with LDC regulation is shown in Fig. 2. The
local busbar, or at a LC, if provided with LDC. In practice, LDC estimates the line voltage drop based on line current I, resis-
many LTCs are operated with the LDC feature disabled, which tance RL and reactance XL , and performs voltage corrections to
is much simpler. In this paper, voltage regulation using both LTC get the voltage at the LC ULC constant within the range.
with LDC disabled (called LTC regulation) and LTC with LDC
activated (called LDC regulation) are analyzed. ULB ≤ ULC ≤ UUB (2)
Another means of voltage control are capacitor banks, which
inject reactive power into the feeder, thus decreasing the line
current and losses and increasing the voltage. Capacitors can
either be fixed or switched by capacitor control. Many capacitor
controls can be used in conventional MV feeders, such as time
control, voltage control, current control and VAR control [1].

2.1. Voltage control with LTC regulation

The basic arrangement of voltage control with LTC regulation


is shown in Fig. 1. The LTC will keep the local busbar voltage,
i.e., the sending-end voltage U0 , constant within the range:

ULB ≤ U0 ≤ UUB (1) Fig. 2. LTC with line drop compensation.


1316 F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322

Properly adjusting RL and XL to the turns ratios of current trans-


former (CT) and potential transformer (PT) yields.

NCT
Rset = RL (3)
NPT
Fig. 4. Feeder with one load at LC and a capacitor located between the LDC
NCT
Xset = XL (4) and LC.
NPT
With this sending-end voltage, the actual voltage at LC is
where Rset and Xset are LDC settings for resistive/reactive com- then:
pensation, NCT the turns ratio of the CT and NPT is the turns
ratio of the PT. ULC = U0 − I(RL cos φ + XL sin φ) (7)
The voltage at the LC during minimum and maximum load
is approximated as: If Rset is properly adjusted, i.e., Rset = RL , the voltage error at
the LC is:
 
ULC = U0,max − Imax (RL cos φ + XL sin φ) Xset XL
ULC − Uset = IRL sin φ − (8)
ULC = U0,min − Imin (RL cos φ + XL sin φ) (5) Rset RL
The error increases with decreasing PF and increasing load, for
where U0,max and U0,min are maximum and minimum sending- instance as shown in Fig. 3(b).
end voltage, respectively, Imax and Imin are maximum and min- If the same feeder has a capacitor located between LDC and
imum line current cos φ is PF at LTC location. LC, see Fig. 4, LDC will adjust the sending-end voltage as:
As LDC regulation employs load and feeder parameters, see
Eq. (5), any changes in the PF or direction of active/reactive U0 = Uset + I2 (RL cos φ2 + XL sin φ2 ) (9)
power will affect the performance of the regulator. One case is
whereas the voltage at the LC with the capacitor on is:
when the X/R ratio of the setting is poorly adjusted.Consider a
feeder with a load at the LC regulated by LDC in Fig. 3(a). LDC ULC = U0 − I2 y(RL cos φ2 + XL sin φ2 )
tries to keep the voltage at the load constant by adjusting the
sending-end voltage as: −I1 (1 − y) (RL cos φ1 + XL sin φ1 ) (10)
where I1 and cos φ1 are current and PF at the LC.
U0 = Uset + I(Rset,HV cos φ + Xset,HV sin φ) (6) I2 and cos φ2 are current and PF sensed by the LDC y is the
distance between the LDC and the capacitor as a fraction of the
where Rset,HV and Xset,HV are Rset and Xset read on primary side distance between the LDC and the LC.
of the CT and PT. The error of the voltage at the LC is then:
ULC − Uset = (1 − y)I2 (RL cos φ2 + XL sin φ2 )
− (1 − y)I1 (RL cos φ1 + XL sin φ1 ) (11)
which, for the same load, increases the bigger the capacitor and
the closer to the sending-end, as shown in Fig. 5. When the
capacitor is connected after the LC, it will affect the performance
of the LDC less, as the current and PF sensed by the LDC are
approximately the same as at the LC.
LDC regulation is more complicated when multiple feeders
controlled by one LTC/LDC are loaded differently. Fig. 6(b)
shows that, when the feeders are loaded uniformly, both LTC
and LDC regulation yield voltage variations within allowable
ranges. But when the feeders are loaded differently, the feeder
with highest load will suffer undervoltage with LDC regulation,
as shown in Fig. 6(c).
Thus it should be noted that, on a feeder with LDC regulation,
not only the maximum load defines the regulation constraint, but
also the load factor difference (LFD) among the feeders. Off-line
simulations and proper commissioning should be performed to
adjust the setting properly so that voltage variation on all feeders
for all possible loadings and LFD will be within allowed limits.
Fig. 3. (a) Feeder with one load at LC regulated by LDC. (b) Voltage at LC as Finally, activating LDC requires readjustment of capacitor
a function of X/R setting at different load power and PF; Uset = 0.98 pu. control setting when the capacitor control is of voltage control
F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322 1317

type. When the feeder is regulated by the LTC, the voltage is


relatively high during low load and the capacitor will be turned
off by its voltage control. But when LDC is activated, voltage
profile during low load decreases, as shown in Fig. 6(b), and
with the same voltage setting of the capacitor control, the turn-
off voltage might never be reached and capacitor will stay on
during low load. Though this condition does not lead to overvolt-
age, it causes overcompensation and therefore increases feeder
losses.
The voltage constraints for a conventional feeder with LDC
regulation can then be formulated as:

i. U0,i max load ≤ Umax , ∀ secondary side of LTC transformers
or VRs.
ii. Uend,i max load ≥ Umin , ∀ nodes at feeder-ends or primary
side of VRs.
iii. Uend,i max LFD ≥ Umin , ∀ nodes at ends of the feeder with
highest loading.

3. Impact of DG on voltage regulation


Fig. 5. LDC regulation on a feeder with loads uniformly distributed at 10 nodes.
LDC regulated point is node-4. QL is the total load reactive power and QC is the 3.1. DG in feeder with LTC regulation
reactive power injected by capacitor.
As explained in Section 2.1, the performance of LTC reg-
ulation is not affected by changes in PF or direction of
active/reactive power, and, for multi-feeder systems, each feeder
can be treated individually. This means that only the voltage rise
at the DG connection point and its impact on the voltage pro-
file of the particular feeder where DG is connected needs to be
considered.
Voltage constraints for LTC regulated feeder with DG can
then be formulated as:

i. U0,i ≤ Umax , ∀ secondary side of LTC transformers or VRs.


ii. Uend,i max load,no DG ≥ Umin , ∀ nodes at feeder-ends or pri-
mary side of VRs.
iii. UDG |min load, max DG ≤ Umax .

Other constraints are conductor ampacity Imax and trans-


former rating STX,max . To obtain safe results, one should take
as reference UUB when the limiting factor is Umax , and ULB
when the limiting factor is Umin , Imax or STX,max .
The linear voltage drop/rise approximation for a simplified
feeder with one load and one DG at LC.
RL (PL − PG ) + XL QL
UDG = U0 − (12)
UDG
indicates that the DG integration limit can be increased by low-
ering the sending-end voltage at LTC terminal U0 . On the other
hand, the current will increase when U0 decreases, which means
that the ampacity constraint could be violated. However, the
effect on the voltage profile is more significant.
One drawback of LTC regulation is that the maximum DG
Fig. 6. (a) Two-feeder system regulated by LTC/LDC; (b) voltage profile with power that can be connected to the feeder is relatively low, espe-
LTC and LDC when both feeders have the same loading; (c) voltage profile
with LTC and LDC when loading is 50% for feeder-1 and 100% for feeder-
cially for DG connection far away from the substation. LTC
2. Uset = 1.0425 pu for LTC, and Uset = 1.0 pu with regulated point 1 km from keeps the sending-end voltage constant, which causes the volt-
substation for LDC. age along the feeder to be high when the feeder is lightly loaded,
1318 F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322

so there is very little margin before the power produced by DG


causes overvoltage.

3.2. DG connection to feeder with LDC regulation

As explained in Section 2.2, LDC is affected by changes in


PF and by power direction reversal, which can occur due to DG
connection.
Eq. (8) is still valid, with I being the net current flow due to
the combined effect of load and DG. Rewriting Eq. (8) using
the net active power (PL − PDG ), it can easily be concluded that
a low value of PDG , less than about twice the load power, will
decrease the net active power flow and thereby reduce the error
due to poorly adjusted X/R of the setting. On the other hand, the
PF also decreases, which counteracts the error reduction. For
higher values of PDG , the error will increase as compared to the
conventional feeder and with increasing DG power. Moreover,
while DG operating at unity PF will have the beneficial effect of
increasing the overall PF, the situation is aggravated if the DG
operates at leading PF, which should be avoided.
Similarly to the case of the capacitor shown above, DG con-
nected between LTC and LC will alter the current and PF seen
at the LTC and thereby introduce an error. This situation can be
more serious than in the case of the capacitor, since the capaci-
tor is normally smaller than the total load, while the DG can in
principle be much larger. The regulated point should in this case
be moved to before the DG connection point.
Fig. 7. System studied models.
DG will also worsen the voltage variations among the feeders
with different loading when it is connected to the feeder with the
lowest load. In this particular case, a solution can be to move the regulated point needs readjustment of Uset anyway. When the
regulated point closer to the source (with appropriate adjustment limiting factor is Imax or STX, max , the maximum allowed DG
of Uset ). power can be increased by increasing Uset , but the increase will
Thus, on feeders with LDC regulation, DG will not only affect not be significant.
the voltage profile on the feeder where it is connected, but will
also cause more voltage drop on adjacent feeders, and decrease 4. Case study
the sending-end voltage U0 .
The voltage constraints for a LDC regulated feeder with DG 4.1. System model
can then be formulated as:
 The method presented in Section 3 is tested on three differ-
i. U0,i max load, no DG ≤ Umax , ∀ secondary side of LTC trans- ent models, as shown in Fig. 7. The simulations presented here
formers or VRs. are mainly performed with DIgSILENT PowerFactory [10]. The
ii. Uend,i max load, no DG ≥ Umin , ∀ nodes at feeder-ends or pri- first model is a simple radial feeder with uniformly distributed
mary side
 of VRs. loads along the feeder. The second model is the IEEE 34 Node
iii. Uend,i max LFD, max DG ≥ Umin , ∀ nodes at feeder-ends with Test Feeder [11]. All feeder and load parameters are as given in
highest loading, with DG located on the feeder with lowest [11], with the addition of a 330 k VA 3-phase capacitor installed
loading. on node-890 to improve the voltage at this node (which, before
iv. UDG|min load, max DG ≤ Umax . and after the installation of the capacitor is 0.92 and 0.97 pu,
v. U0,i min load, max DG ≥ Umin , ∀ secondary side of LTC trans- respectively, with all other conditions as in [11]). The third
formers or VRs. model is a MV network consisting of three feeders with uni-
formly distributed load of power PL at each node. Parameters
Similarly as with LTC regulation, Imax and STX,max will also of system model-1 and model–3 are presented in Table 1. The
be additional constraints. When the limiting factor is constraint power transformer for both model-1 and model-3 has nominal
iii. or vi., the maximum allowed DG power can be increased voltage 33/6.6 kV, short circuit impedance X = 10%, X/R = 10,
by increasing Uset or moving the regulated point closer to the and rating 7.5 and 12 MVA for model-1 and model-3, respec-
source. When the limiting factor is constraint v., it can be tively.
increased by decreasing Uset or moving the regulated point closer Minimum feeder loading is 20% nominal and maximum
to DG (farther from the source). Note however that moving the feeder loading is 100% nominal. Maximum LFD among the
F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322 1319

Table 1
Parameters of the system model-1 and model-3
Model/feeder Feeder length Conductor Load Capacitor

r (m/km) x (m/km) Rating (Å) PL (MW) Power factor QC (MVar) Location (node)

1 5 120 350 610 0.5 0.85 1.2 8


3/Fd-1 6 270 350 360 0.2 0.85 1 11
3/Fd-2 5 270 350 360 0.34 0.85 1 7
3/Fd-3 5 270 350 360 0.4 0.85 1 6

Fig. 8. DG integration limit PDG at different DG connection points for system


model-1 with different regulation methods.

feeders for model-3 is 20%. Maximum and minimum allowed


voltage are Umax = 1.05 pu and Umin = 0.94 pu, respectively. Fig. 9. Voltage profile along system model-1 with both LTC (Uset = 1.04 pu) and
LDC regulation with maximum load and no DG and with minimum load and
4.2. Results and discussion maximum DG at node-15.

The DG integration limit with DG at different connection


points is presented in Fig. 8 for system model-1 and different ting to Uset = 1.03 pu, with bandwidth unchanged, will obviously
regulation methods. Besides LTC and LDC, the other meth- increase the DG integration limit, as shown in Fig. 8. Moreover,
ods considered are LTC with lowered setting, DG with reactive since voltage rise due to DG is a function of PDG multiplied with
power control capability (operating at leading PF) and installa- the line resistance, see Eq. (12), the increase of DG integration
tion of VR. The original LTC setting is assumed to be 1.04 pu limit gets lower when the DG connection point moves farther
with 0.015 pu bandwidth. Voltage profile with this LTC setting away from the source.
for the case of maximum load with no DG and minimum load The use of LDC in this single feeder system proves effective
with maximum DG connected at node-10 is shown in Fig. 9. The to increase the DG integration limit, as shown in Fig. 8. The
voltage profile with minimum load and maximum DG ensures drawback is power loss increase that is, however, not significant,
that, when U0 = UUB = 1.0475 pu, see Eq. (1), UDG is lower than as shown in Table 3. In this particular example, the regulated
Umax . If PDG is increased further by 100 kW, either voltage, cur- point for LDC is chosen such that the voltage profile along the
rent or transformer rating constraint, as explained in Section 3, feeder with maximum load and no DG with LDC regulation
will be violated, which is shown in Table 2. is approximately the same as the voltage profile obtained with
Note in Fig. 9 that Uset can be lowered provided that the LTC regulation with the original setting. The regulated point
voltage at the end of the feeder (node-10) is still higher than is node-2 and the LDC setting is as shown in Table 4. The
Umin when U0 = ULB with maximum load and no DG. Moreover, corresponding voltage profile for the case of maximum load
Table 2 shows that with the original LTC setting, DG integration with no DG and minimum load with maximum DG connected
is limited by the overvoltage constraint. Hence, lowering the set- at node-10 is shown in Fig. 9.

Table 2
Technical constraints that will be violated when DG power is increased 0.1 MW above corresponding PDG in Fig. 8
DG node LTC, Uset = 1.04 LTC, Uset = 1.03 LDC DG at leading pf Install a VR

2 UDG,max UDG,max I2,max I2,max I2,max


3 UDG,max UDG,max I3,max I3,max I3,max
7 UDG,max UDG,max I7,max I7,max I7,max
10 UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max I10,max I10,max
1320 F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322

Table 3
Distribution line losses of system model-1 (kW) with different regulation methods
Without DG With DG and 20% load

Load (%) LTC, Uset = 1.04 LTC, Uset = 1.03 LDC DG LTC, Uset = 1.04 LTC, Uset = 1.03 LDC

Node PDG (MW)

20 7.0 7.2 7.5 2 3.7 24.1 24.5 26.4


50 33.9 34.5 35.8 3 3.2 24.4 24.8 26.8
75 79.1 81.1 82.1 7 2.4 27.8 28.3 30.2
100 157.5 159.2 157.5 10 1.9 25.9 26.4 28.2

Table 4
LDC regulator setting
Model LTC location CT ratio PT ratio Rset () Xset () Uset (V) Band-width (V)

1 Substation 600 32 2.27 6.61 120.6 1.8


2 Substation 100 120 6.46 4.8 121.2 2
2 814-850 100 120 2.7 1.6 122 2
2 852-832 100 120 2.5 1.5 124 2
3 Substation 1000 32 3.4 4.41 121.2 1.8

The DG integration limit when using DG with reactive power The DG integration limits for system model-2 with differ-
control capability shown in Fig. 8 is obtained by operating DG at ent regulation methods are presented in Fig. 11. The constraints
power factor 0.985–0.99 leading, with the original LTC setting. that will be violated when further increasing PDG by 100 kW
The limit increases significantly, at the expense of an additional are presented in Table 5. Compared with system model-1, this
1.0–1.4 MVAr of reactive power, depending on the connection model has lower voltage drop during maximum load. Therefore,
point, flowing from the substation to the DG. This will require the LTC setting can be decreased until 1.02 pu to allow higher
a source somewhere else in the system to provide the required DG integration. For the case of DG with reactive power control
reactive power. capability, the limit is obtained by limiting the minimum power
The DG integration limit is also increased significantly by the factor of the DG to 0.90. The VR is installed at node-808 with
VR installation. The example in Fig. 8 is obtained by installing setting 1.01 pu. After installation of this VR, the regulator set-
the VR at node-6 with the setting Uset = 1.01 pu, and changing tings are 1.00 pu for the LTC and 1.02 for both VRs at 850-814
the LTC setting to Uset = 1.02 pu, with 0.015 pu bandwidth for and at 852-832.
both LTC and VR. The voltage profile with the VR installed is The increase in DG integration limit by operating DG at lead-
shown in Fig. 10. There is a margin to decrease the VR setting ing power factor in this model is shown to be less effective than it
further, but, as the DG integration at either node-7 or node-10 is in system model-1. The main reason is that the line in system
is already limited by current constraints, there is no benefit to model-2 has much higher resistance than in system model-1.
decrease it more. The analysis of the effect of line resistance on the effectiveness
of reactive power control with DG to limit voltage rise due to
DG is given in [12].
Finally, the DG integration limits for system model-3 with
different regulation methods are presented in Fig. 12. The con-
straints that will be violated when DG power is increased further

Fig. 10. Voltage profile along the system model-1 with VR installation at node-6 Fig. 11. DG integration limit PDG at different DG connection points for system
(Uset = 1.02 pu for the LTC and Uset = 1.01 pu for the VR). model-2 with different regulation methods.
F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322 1321

Table 5
Technical constraints that will be violated when DG power is increased 0.1 MW above corresponding PDG in Fig. 11
DG node LTC, Uset = 1.04 LTC, Uset = 1.02 LDC DG at leading PF

808 UDG,max UDG,max STX,max UDG,max


814 UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max
854 UDG,max U814,max U814,max UDG,max
858 U852,max U852,max U852,max U852,max

Table 6
Technical constraints that will be violated when DG power is increased 0.1 MW above corresponding PDG in Fig. 11
DG node LTC, Uset = 1.04 LTC, Uset = 1.03 LDC DG at leading PF Install a VR

2 UDG,max UDG,max I3,max I3,max U2,max


3 UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max
7 UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max
10 UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max UDG,max

simulations on three different feeder models, the effectiveness of


different regulation methods (LTC with reduced setting, LDC,
DG with reactive power control capability and VR installation)
has been analyzed and shown to depend on feeder structure,
parameters and DG connection point.
It has been demonstrated that the use of on-load tap changers
(LTCs) with line drop compensation (LDC) can significantly
increase the maximum size of DG that can be connected to a
given feeder without disrupting voltage regulation. By revis-
ing the LTC settings and activating the LDC feature, which is
present in most LTCs but often not used, connection of DG can
Fig. 12. DG integration limit PDG at different DG connection points for system be allowed without the need for additional equipment to coun-
model-3 with different regulation methods. teract problems such as voltage rise in low load conditions.
The use of LDC to increase the DG integration limit should be
are presented in Table 6. For the case of DG with reactive power explored as an alternative before, e.g., operating DG at leading
control capability, the limit is obtained with minimum power power factor, which implies additional reactive power flowing
factor of the DG equal to 0.90. The VR is installed at node-2 from the substation to the DG, and VR installation, which means
with setting 1.01 pu. The LTC setting could only be decreased additional investment cost. If one of the latter measures must be
down to 1.03 pu. adopted due to unwillingness of the distribution network opera-
Comparing this multi-feeder system with the single-feeder tor (DNO) to change the LTC/LDC settings, it can be argued that
system in model-1 and model-2, one can conclude that the the DNO should then also be responsible for the cost of putting
increase in DG integration limit by activating LDC or by them in place.
installing a VR is less effective in a multi-feeder system than The performance of LDC is affected by changes in power
in a single-feeder system. One reason is that, in a multi-feeder factor and direction of power flow, which can occur with the
system, the voltage profile with LDC regulation will be defined installation of DG. However, with a proper commissioning and
by the average of all feeder voltages at the regulated points. Fur- a set of off-line simulations, it can be ensured that a given size
thermore, when a VR is installed in a multi-feeder system, the of DG can be connected at a given location without violating the
LTC setting cannot be decreased as much as in a single-feeder voltage regulation constraints, for all load conditions. Finally, it
system, as the decrease will affect the voltage profile on other has been shown that power loss increase due to the use of LDC,
feeders. After the VR installation, the LTC setting was changed with and without DG, is not significant.
to 1.03 pu in system model-3, compared to 1.02 and 1.00 pu in
system model-1 and model-2, respectively. Acknowledgement

5. Conclusions The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support


from Göteborg Energi Research Foundation, Sweden.
In this paper, voltage regulation in medium-voltage feeders
with distributed generation (DG) has been treated. The principle References
of operation of on-load tap changers (LTCs) with and without
line drop compensation (LDC) has been reviewed and the effect [1] T.A. Short, Electric Power Distribution Handbook, CRC Press LLC,
of DG on LTC and LDC regulation has been explained. Based on 2004.
1322 F.A. Viawan et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 77 (2007) 1314–1322

[2] T. Gönen, Electric Power Distribution System, McGraw-Hill Book Com- Ferry A. Viawan received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Bandung Institute
pany, 1986. of Technology, Indonesia in 1996, and Chalmers University of Technology,
[3] M. Thomson, Automatic voltage control relays and embedded generation Sweden in 2003, respectively. He worked as a Power System Engineer at PT
I, Power Eng. J. 14 (2000) 71–76. Caltex Pacific Indonesia from 1996 to 2003, where he worked on operation,
[4] P. Brady, C. Dai, Y. Baghzouz, Need to revise switched capacitor controls planning and protection of a transmission and distribution system. Since 2004,
on feeders with distributed generation, in: Proceedings of 2003 IEEE PES he is a Ph.D. student at the Division of Electric Power Engineering, Department
Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, vol. 2, 2003, of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg,
pp. 590–594. Sweden.
[5] T.E. Kim, J.E. Kim, A method for determining the introduction limit of
distributed generation system in distribution system, in: Proceedings of Ambra Sannino received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering
2001 IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, vol. 1, 2001, pp. from the University of Palermo, Italy in April 1997 and February 2001, respec-
456–461. tively. From January 2001–December 2004 she was with the Department of
[6] L.A. Kojovic, The impact of dispersed generation and voltage regulator Electric Power Engineering of Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg,
operations on power quality, in: Proceedings of CIGRE 2005 Athens Sym- Sweden, first as Assistant Professor and since January 2004 as Associate Pro-
posium, 2005. fessor. From Chalmers University she also received the D.Sc. degree (Docent)
[7] C.L. Masters, Voltage rise the big issue when connecting embedded gen- in Power Systems in 2003. Since October 2004 she is with ABB, Corporate
eration to long 11 kV overhead lines, Power Eng. J. 16 (2002) 5–12. Research, Västerås, Sweden. Her interests include applications of power elec-
[8] S. Repo, H. Laaksonen, et al., A case study of voltage rise problem due to a tronics in power systems, distributed generation, wind power and power quality.
large amount of distributed generation on a weak distribution network, in:
Proceedings of. 2003 IEEE Bologna PowerTech Conference, vol. 4, 2003. Jaap Daalder received his D.Sc. degree in Power Engineering from The Eind-
[9] J.H. Choi, J.C. Kim, Advanced voltage regulation method of power distribu- hoven University of Technology, The Netherlands. He was Associate Professor
tion systems interconnected with dispersed storage and generation systems, at the same university until 1984, when he left for Norway to become a Director
IEEE Trans. Power Deliver. 16 (2) (2001) 329–334. of Technology and a Member of the Board of a subsidiary of the ABB Com-
[10] DIgSILENT PowerFactory, http://www.digsilent.de/. pany in Skien. In 1993 he was appointed Full Professor at Chalmers University of
[11] Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee Report, Radial distribution Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. He has been Head of the Department of Elec-
test feeders, 2001 IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, vol. tric Power Engineering and currently leads the Group of Power Systems in the
2, pp. 908–912. Department of Energy and Environment. He is a board member of the Swedish
[12] F. Viawan, A. Sannino, Analysis of voltage profile on LV distribution feed- National Committees of CIGRE and CIRED and of the ELEKTRA program. His
ers with DG and maximization of DG integration limit, in: Proceedings of areas of interest are power systems and environmental issues related to power
CIGRE 2005 Athens Symposium, 2005. engineering.