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Many of us have experienced what is commonly referred to as a Freudian slip.

misstatements are believed to reveal underlying, unconscious thoughts or feelings. Consider
this example:

James has just started a new relationship with a woman he met at school. While talking to her
one afternoon, he accidentally calls her by his ex-girlfriend's name.

If you were in this situation, how would you explain this mistake? Many of us might blame the
slip on distraction or describe it as a simple accident. However, a psychoanalytic theorist might
tell you that this is much more than a random accident. The psychoanalytic view holds that there
are inner forces outside of your awareness that are directing your behavior. For example, a
psychoanalyst might say that James misspoke due to unresolved feelings for his ex or perhaps
because of misgivings about his new relationship.

The founder of psychoanalytic theory was Sigmund Freud. While his theories were considered
shocking at the time and continue to create debate and controversy, his work had a profound
influence on a number of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, literature,
and art.

The term psychoanalysis is used to refer to many aspects of Freud’s work and research,
including Freudian therapy and the research methodology he used to develop his theories.
Freud relied heavily upon his observations and case studies of his patients when he formed his
theory of personality development.

Before we can understand Freud's theory of personality, we must first understand his view of
how the mind is organized.

According to Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts:
1. The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our
mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our
memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time
and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory thepreconscious.

2. The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that
outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are
unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to
Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though
we are unaware of these underlying influences.
Id ego and super ego:

According to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of

three elements. These three elements of personality--known as the id, the ego and the
superego--work together to create complex human behaviors.

The Id

The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality
is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to
Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality.

The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires,
wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or
tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to
eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant's needs are
met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are
However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were
ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of
other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive
and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the
pleasure principle through the primary process,which involves forming a mental image of the
desired object as a way of satisfying the need.
The Ego
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to
Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in
a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both theconscious, preconscious,
and unconscious mind.
The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in
realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an
action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can
be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the
behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.
The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in
which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by
the id's primary process.
The Superego

The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of
personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from
both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for
making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age
five.There are two parts of the superego:
1. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors
include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying
these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.

2. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and
society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences,
punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.

The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable
urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon
realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.

The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego

With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id, ego
and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite
these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these
pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too

According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and
the superego.


Most notably used by Sigmund Freud in his psychoanalytic theory, a defense mechanism is a
tactic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety. Defense mechanisms are thought to
safeguard the mind against feelings and thoughts that are too difficult for the conscious mind to
cope with. In some instances, defense mechanisms are thought to keep inappropriate or
unwanted thoughts and impulses from entering the conscious mind.

For example, if you are faced with a particularly unpleasant task, your mind may choose to
forget your responsibility in order to avoid the dreaded assignment. In addition to forgetting,
other defense mechanisms include rationalization, denial, repression, projection, rejection and
reaction formation.
Ego defense mechanism:

The ego's job was to satisfy the id's impulses, not offend the moralistic character of the superego, while
still taking into consideration the reality of the situation. We also stated that this was not an easy job.
Think of the id as the 'devil on your shoulder' and the superego as the 'angel of your shoulder.' We don't
want either one to get too strong so we talk to both of them, hear their perspective and then make a
decision. This decision is the ego talking, the one looking for that healthy balance.

Before we can talk more about this, we need to understand what drives the id, ego, and superego.
According to Freud, we only have two drives; sex and aggression. In other words, everything we do is
motivated by one of these two drives.

Sex, also called Eros or the Life force, represents our drive to live, prosper, and produce offspring.
Aggression, also called Thanatos or our Death force, represents our need to stay alive and stave off
threats to our existence, our power, and our prosperity.

Now the ego has a difficult time satisfying both the id and the superego, but it doesn't have to do so
without help. The ego has some tools it can use in its job as the mediator, tools that help defend the ego.
These are called Ego Defense Mechanisms or Defenses. When the ego has a difficult time making both
the id and the superego happy, it will employ one or more of these defenses:


denial arguing against an denying that your physician's diagnosis of

anxiety provoking stimuli cancer is correct and seeking a second
by stating it doesn't exist opinion

displacement taking out impulses on a slamming a door instead of hitting as

less threatening target person, yelling at your spouse after an
argument with your boss

intellectualization avoiding unacceptable focusing on the details of a funeral as

emotions by focusing on opposed to the sadness and grief
the intellectual aspects

projection placing unacceptable when losing an argument, you state

impulses in yourself onto "You're just Stupid;" homophobia
someone else

rationalization supplying a logical or stating that you were fired because you
rational reason as didn't kiss up the the boss, when the real
opposed to the real reason was your poor performance
reaction formation taking the opposite belief having a bias against a particular race or
because the true belief culture and then embracing that race or
causes anxiety culture to the extreme

regression returning to a previous sitting in a corner and crying after hearing

stage of development bad news; throwing a temper tantrum
when you don't get your way

repression pulling into the forgetting sexual abuse from your

unconscious childhood due to the trauma and anxiety

sublimation acting out unacceptable sublimating your aggressive impulses

impulses in a socially toward a career as a boxer; becoming a
acceptable way surgeon because of your desire to cut;
lifting weights to release 'pent up' energy

suppression pushing into the trying to forget something that causes you
unconscious anxiety

Ego defenses are not necessarily unhealthy as you can see by the examples above. In face, the lack of
these defenses, or the inability to use them effectively can often lead to problems in life. However, we
sometimes employ the defenses at the wrong time or overuse them, which can be equally destructive.

Ego Defense Mechanisms:

The following is an explanation of each of the ego defense mechanisms:

• Denial: Denial is refusing to acknowledge the presence of the threat or the occurrence of the
unpleasant event. Examples of denial would be refusing to acknowledge the death of a
person, questioning the qualifications of the doctor who diagnosed the disease . The
problem with denial is that it blocks the road to acceptance; you won’t be able to get over
that event until you first accept it.ϑ or going like: “Madness? This is Sparta!!” when
threatened by a very large army
• Displacement: Displacement is transferring or discharging your emotions on a less
threatening object. For example, shouting at your children or having a fight with your
neighbor right after your boss shouts at you means that you are angry at your boss but
taking it out on your kids. If your displacement ego defense mechanism gets fired, try to
control yourself a bit and then work on identifying your real enemy. Don’t attack innocent
people just because someone you can't harm has emotionally hurt you.
• Repression: Repression is the complete memory loss of a painful event. In this case, your
subconscious mind doesn’t want you to remember what happened because it may
negatively affect your mood.
• Projection: Projection is placing blame for the unwanted event upon others. Examples
would be saying that you failed an exam because the teacher is racist.
• Rationalization: Rationalization is the act of rationalizing your wrong actions and creating a
self serving explanation for what you did. Saying “I have the right to cheat on the exam
because the lessons weren’t well explained” is a basic example of rationalization.
• Suppression: Avoid thinking about the unwanted event and burring it deep. Suppressed
emotions can result in mood swings that come out of nowhere and in severe depression. In
my book In my book, The ultimate guide to getting over depression i explained how
ignoring your problems and allowing them to accumulate can be the primary source for
depression. Some people face problems as soon as they encounter them while others bury
them deeply in their subconscious minds or throw them behind their backs. When they do so
their subconscious minds usually responds back with depression.
• Sublimation: Sublimation is satisfying your socially unacceptable needs in a socially
accepted way. So, by becoming a boxer you are able to satisfy your hidden need for
• Regression: Regression is returning to a previous state of development. Crying instead of
taking actions to solve your problems means you have returned to the stage of childhood.
• Identification: By identifying with something or someone else you can increase your
sense of ego and self-worth. Saying that a famous singer is a friend of yours might make you
admired and so cause you to feel better about your other problems.
• Undoing: This means trying to fix your mistake, like sending a SMS to apologize to a friend
you've recently had a fight with.
• Fantasy: It's pretty much self-explanatory. Imagining yourself beating up your boss with a
chair after he's shouted at you is you fantasizing to help make you feel better.
• Reaction Formation: This behavior has you taking actions that are the opposite of your real
desires, like for example greeting one of your enemies warmly just to show that you don’t
hate him.
• Humor: Looking at the funny side of a situation can help you forget about the real problem.
• Compensation: Hiding your weaknesses by acting as a beacon of strength; saying
something like “I'm never scared” after watching a horror movie.
• Affiliation: Affiliation is to seek another’s help in getting over your problem.
• Dissociation: Dissociating yourself from reality and thinking that this is not happening to you
is one of the means of emotional defense.

What Is a Freudian Slip?

A Freudian slip is a verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked to theunconscious

mind. Common examples include an individual calling his or her spouse by an ex's name,
saying the wrong word or even misinterpreting a written or spoken word.
Discovered by Sigmund Freud, he described a variety of different types and examples of
Freudian slips in his 1901 book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. According to Freud,
these errors reveal an unconscious thought, belief or wish.

"Two factors seem to play a part in bringing to consciousness the substitutive names: first, the
effort of attention, and second, and inner determinant which adheres to the psychic material,"
Freud suggested in his book. "Besides the simple forgetting of proper names there is another
forgetting which is motivated by repression," Freud explained (1901). According to Freud,
unacceptable thoughts or beliefs are withheld from conscious awareness, and these slip help
reveal what is hidden in the unconscious.The term is popularly used today in a humorous way
when a person makes a mistake in speech. In these situations, observers often suggest (in a
comic way) that the mistake reveals some type of hidden emotion on the part of the speaker.
Sigmund Freud

Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely
new approach to the understanding of the human personality. He is regarded as one of the
most influential - and controversial - minds of the 20th century.

Sigismund (later changed to Sigmund) Freud was born on 6 May 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia
(now Pribor in the Czech Republic). His father was a merchant. The family moved to Leipzig
and then settled in Vienna, where Freud was educated. Freud's family were Jewish but he was
himself non-practising.

In 1873, Freud began to study medicine at the University of Vienna. After graduating, he worked
at the Vienna General Hospital. He collaborated with Josef Breuer in treating hysteria by the
recall of painful experiences under hypnosis. In 1885, Freud went to Paris as a student of the
neurologist Jean Charcot. On his return to Vienna the following year, Freud set up in private
practice, specialising in nervous and brain disorders. The same year he married Martha
Bernays, with whom he had six children.

Freud developed the theory that humans have an unconscious in which sexual and aggressive
impulses are in perpetual conflict for supremacy with the defences against them. In 1897, he
began an intensive analysis of himself. In 1900, his major work 'The Interpretation of Dreams'
was published in which Freud analysed dreams in terms of unconscious desires and

In 1902, Freud was appointed Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna, a post
he held until 1938. Although the medical establishment disagreed with many of his theories, a
group of pupils and followers began to gather around Freud. In 1910, the International
Psychoanalytic Association was founded with Carl Jung, a close associate of Freud's, as the
president. Jung later broke with Freud and developed his own theories.

After World War One, Freud spent less time in clinical observation and concentrated on the
application of his theories to history, art, literature and anthropology. In 1923, he published 'The
Ego and the Id', which suggested a new structural model of the mind, divided into the 'id, the
'ego' and the 'superego'.

In 1933, the Nazis publicly burnt a number of Freud's books. In 1938, shortly after the Nazis
annexed Austria, Freud left Vienna for London with his wife and daughter Anna.

Freud had been diagnosed with cancer of the jaw in 1923, and underwent more than 30
operations. He died of cancer on 23 September 1939.
Attitude formation
Unlike personality, attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. Tesser (1993) has
argued that hereditary variables may affect attitudes - but believes that they may do so indirectly. For
example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values. The
most famous example of such a theory is Dissonance-reduction theory, associated with Leon Festinger,
although there are others, such as the balance theory.

The Definition of "Psychology"

by Gene Zimmer

The word "psychology" is the combination of two terms - study (ology) and soul (psyche), or
mind. The derivation of the word from Latin gives it this clear and obvious meaning:

The study of the soul or mind.

This meaning has been altered over the years until today, this is not what the word means at all.
The subject of psychology, as studied in colleges and universities, currently has very little to do
with the mind, and absolutely nothing to do with the soul or spirit.

It is important to understand that words and ideas are supposed to refer to something. "The
large tree in the front yard" refers to an actual thing that can be seen, touched and experienced.
"The man walking his little dog last night at sunset" refers to an actual event that can be seen,
observed and experienced. The realm of mind is an actual realm that can be experienced, and
at one time there were words that accurately referred to this realm.

The History of Psychology

For thousands of years psychology existed under the name of philosophy. The
Hindu Vedas contain the oldest record of man's examination of mind and spirit. In India all forms
of Yoga, which are essentially psychology, are described as one of the six systems of
philosophy. Sufi teachings, which again are chiefly psychological, are regarded as partly
religious and partly metaphysical. In more modern times some version of these systems, still
largely following in this same vein, can be found the subjects of Rosicrucianism, New Thought,
Science of Mind, visualization techniques, practical magick, and Scientology.

If you found yourself flinching or reacting negatively to the mention of any of these subjects,
such as Yoga, Rosicrucianism, Scientology, or any of the the many other alternative
approaches to the mind and reality, realize this is not necessarily because there is anything
actually strange or weird about these subjects. It is often largely because modern psychology,
psychiatry and affiliated proponents of modern materialistic "science" have successfully applied
black PR to them to such a large degree. In fact, they have covertly attacked these subjects for
most of this century. An intelligent and objective look into any of these fields, although
sometimes initially confusing largely due to the newness of the subject and difference in
approach to reality will result in a widened understanding of yourself (and Man in general).
Granted, you do need to and in fact you MUST weed out some of the nonsense often added to
these subjects. Once you do take an honest look though it should become very obvious that
modern western psychology has little to do with that incredible universe that exists a few inches
behind your forehead. It must be mentioned that over time most of these subjects and fields (i.e.
Scientology, Rosicrucianism, Transcendental Meditation, etc) have most definitely suffered from
some combination of a) gross alterations introduced by self-appointed leaders following internal
power struggles, b) manipulation of views and information by the more influential members, c)
the sad tendency of some of the not-too-bright members to dictate changes not part of the
original information, and d) the use of the subject and field to exert thought control and
behavioral manipulation on its members. These faults are observably true and easily seen in the
recent history of Scientology, though these faults exist in all to some degree. Lastly though,
don't throw out the baby with the bathwater. While these all have serious flaws, don't use that as
an excuse to dismiss everything about them outright without any serious examination. It takes
careful and serious examination to separate the valuable from the invaluable - and there is often
much of both to be found.

The mind has been examined, studied, drilled and "expanded", at times to the point of
excruciating detail within many fields (i.e. Tibetan Buddhist Yogic practices). This is not to say
that due to language barriers and the passage of time, that the information has not been lost to
minor or major degrees or that these studies weren't without many errors, serious flaws, biases
and differing opinions to start with. The point is not whether any of these are perfect studies
(none are) or whether any of them have completed the task of researching the mind (none
have), but that thepossibility for such a study most surely exists, has been done before in
various ways and to differing degrees, and that modern psychology (and psychiatry)
has nothing to do with this field.

psychology means a theoretical, educational and applied scienceconnecting the scientific study
of mental operations and behavior or performance. Psychology also refers to the application or
usage of understanding, knowledge and skills to a number of areas of human activity, involving
issues concerning with daily activities such as education, events, people and their task,
employment, association, relationship as well as the treatment of mental health difficulties.
Psychology involves various sub-areas of study and applications related with different subject
like human development, sports education, physical condition, business, media as well as the
regulation. It also includes exploration and investigation from the natural sciences, social
sciences and humanities.
The Importance of Psychology
Psychology is important as it is concerned with the study of behavior and mental processes and
at the same time, it is also applied to many different things in human life. Everything we perform
is very much related to or with psychology. Psychology, primarily studies who and what we are,
why we are like that, why we act and think like that and what we could be as a person.

Psychology is important in a lot of different ways, for instance the studies that has been
conducted in various life threatening illnesses. Through the process of utilizing psychology, the
psychologist determined different diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease
and some other Neurological diseases. By making use of psychological research, doctors have
now developed medicines and even able to alleviate different illnesses.

Through studying psychology we are able to understand and determine how the mind and body
of an individual works. With that said, people would no longer make things complicated for
themselves and for their health as well. They are going to avoid things that can cause stress,
they are able to manage time very well, and are more effective with their studies or chosen
As a writer, psychology is important as it helps me in understanding myself better, it helps me to
perceive things positively and it assists me in determining the things that I enjoy doing the most
and the kind of stuff I like to write about. It also contribute a lot of great help in the way I handle
things in life, the way I face challenges and problems that occurs at an unexpected time and
of course the way I make decisions in my everyday living.
Different Subfields of Psychology
• Abnormal Psychology – primarily focused on the study of abnormal behavior. The study
is conducted to determine, describe, predict, explain, illustrate and change abnormal
patterns of performance. It studies the nature of psychopathology and its causes. It is very
applicable in treating the patient with psychological disorders.
• Biological Psychology – scientific study of biological basis of behavior and mental
condition. Since the person’s behavior is controlled by the nervoussystem, biological
psychologist suggested to examine the way the brain operate in order to comprehend the
person’s behavior.
• Cognitive Psychology – studies cognition or the mental processes bring about behavior.
Various subjects included to this field are perception, learning, problem solving, memory
attention, language and emotion. It is associated with a school of thought called
• Personality Psychology – generally refers to the person’s personality. The main focused
of this study are the patterns of person’s behavior, thought and emotions as well.
• Psychology and Law – also known as Legal psychology. Explore the topic regarding jury
decision-making, eye witness memory, scientific evidence and legal policy.
• Quantitative Psychology – involves and usage of mathematical and statistical methods in
psychological research and the development of statistical technique in analyzing and
illustrating a behavioral data.
• School Psychology – the combined principles of educational psychology and clinical
psychology in understanding and treating students with learning difficulties and disabilities.
As well as to encourage intellectual growth to every gifted students.
• Social psychology – focus on how human think about each other and how they relate to
one another. It primarily studies about the human’s social behavior and mental processes.
• Comparative Psychology – the focal point of this studies are the behavior and mental
process of animal compare to human beings.
• Counseling Psychology – it performs personal and interpersonal operations in a person’s
being wherein the main concern are the emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-
related, developmental and organizational areas.
• Industrial/ Organization Psychology – it is more related to optimizing human’s potentiality
in the work place.
• Clinical Psychology – the center of its practice are psychological assessment and
psychotherapy, however it is also engage in making inquiries, teaching, consultation,
forensic testimony and program development and administration.
• Developmental Psychology – concentrating on the growth and development of the
human mind in its entire existence. It also tries to find reasons and to comprehend why
people perceive, understand and act and how these stages alter as they grow.
• Forensic Psychology – deal with a lot of practices basically including clinical evaluations
of defendants, statements to judges and attorneys and courtroom testimony at provided
• Health Psychology – the method of applying psychological theory and studies to health,
disease and health care. It is concerned with health-related behavior involving healthy diet,
the doctor-patient relationship the patient’s comprehension
regarding health information and viewpoint about illness.
• Child Psychology – studies about the child’s growth and development involving the
stages of their social, emotional, mental and physical progress.
• Psychology of Creativity – it mainly involves new discoveries and usually resulted from
different way of thinking.
• Psychology of Beauty – how an individual perceive and appreciates the beauty of other
people and the things around him.
• Animal Psychology – how the animal respond to a stimuli in a trial and error process.
Their responds to this method determines their behavior.
How Psychology Improves a Relationship
You make use of psychology everyday of your life. Are you aware of that? You use it when you
are talking with friends, with your co workers and with every one around you, you use it when
arguing, reasoning and disciplining your child. Since psychology are being made use day by
day, below I have prepared some helpful ways to all of you, my dear readers.

• Psychology Help in Building Relationships – it helps strengthening a relationship and

making everyday lives better through escalating a person’s self-knowledge and
understanding towards another individual.
• Psychology Improves Daily Communication – by understanding psychology, people
learn on how to communicate effectively towards one another. It teaches people to
understand what others are saying and of course in comprehending the person’s actions or
gestures towards a certain condition.
• Psychology Builds Self-Confidence – the more you know, and discover about yourself,
your being, your personality and your weaknesses the more you seek for self-improvement
and when that happens your self-confidence are increasing.
• Psychology Enriches Careers – by knowing better and understanding your co-workers
you are able to get along with them, you know where to stand as you know where they are
coming from and what they are going through. Psychology teaches you how to correctly
and rightfully deal with other people around you. As this condition continues occurring in a
work place, it will positively enrich everyone’s career.
It is very important that a person knows what psychology is all about and how essential it is in
everyday lives. I hope you will be able to make use psychology in every aspects of your life as
well as in making decisions.

Psychology and social work:

Psychology is something extremely important in life, it can make things a lot easier and in social work it
could help understand the situation. For social work you need to be able to tell when a person is lying,
telling the truth, agreeing to a promise and would actually fall through with it and so on. In the case of
something like, seperated parents fighting custody of a child, one parent could claim the other is abusing
their child(as a way to keep the child all for his/herself) and the social worker must be able to tell when
one of the parents is lying, and also, if the child is being guilted to side with one parent or the other.

Also, sometimes the Social Worker really needs to work hard to help deal with the child or teenager. It's
difficult to be a Social worker and at least knowing psychology and being able to understand the person
would make their jobs a lot easier. Some people take up Social Care because they want to help people,
others just do it because they think its a good job so its understandable that a Social worker, in the first
case, should take his/her time to understand the person they are dealing with.


• behavior: the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under

specified circumstances; "the behavior of small particles can be studied in experiments"
• demeanor: (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people
• behavior: (psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made
by an organism in any situation
• behavior: manner of acting or controlling yourself