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CWA 15740:2008 (E)

Table 3 - Example of classification of type of damage vs. prioritized methods of inspection

What type of damage How to look for it Measure of uncertainty/risk for selected/preferred method5

POD for defect size of or size for FCP6;

Identifier and Type of most cost selected
Damage specifics, damage mechanism best POD6 comments,
damage effective method
1 mm 3 mm 90% POD examples

I. Corrosion/erosion/environment related damage, equating or leading to:

I.A Volumetric loss I.A1 General corrosion, oxidation,

of material on erosion, wear solid particle UT, (VT), UT 30÷70% 50÷90% 2 mm
surface (e.g. erosion
I.A2 Localized (pitting, crevice or 8
UT, DiM, ET VT, UT UT 30÷70% 40÷90% 2 mm see
galvanic) corrosion

I.B Cracking (on I.B1 Stress corrosion (chloride, caustic, <5%

MT, PT, ET MT, PT, ET ET max 85% 40÷90% 4±2 mm 9
surface, mainly) etc.)

I.B2 Hydrogen induced damage (incl. UT, MT, PT, MT, PT1°,
blistering and HT hydrogen attack) UT na na na na

I.B3 Corrosion fatigue MT PT, ET, 80÷96%12 50÷99%1214 3±1 mm12,15

VT 86÷98%13 95÷99%,1,4 0.8±0.4 mm,16

I.C Material I.C1 Thermal degradation (microscopy) ~100% POD for cracks > 1 mm, 90% POD
weakening and/or (spheroidization, graphitization, MeT MeT MeT crack ca. 0.05 mm; main "reliability related problems" linked
embrittlement etc. incl. incipient melting) to wrong sampling, wrong preparation and wrong

5 if not mentioned otherwise all based on re-assessment of data [37]

6 see Abbreviations in the main list of abbreviations
7 AE - acoustic emission; PT - penetrant testing; DiM - dimensional measurements; VbM - vibration monitoring; DsM – on-line displacement monitoring; StM - on-line strain monitoring; VT -
visual testing; ET – Eddy current testing; UT- ultrasonic testing; VTE - visual testing by endoscope; MeT - metallography, including RpT (replica technique); MST - material sample testing; na -
not applicable
8 the estimate can be affected significantly by local effects (e. g. small-scale pits can remain completely undetected)
9 ET for non-ferromagnetic materials, sample results in [37]
10 surface, also
11 subsurface
12 crack length
13 crack depth
14 for welds as low as 20%
15 usually more than 5 mm for welds or steels
16 can be more than 5 mm for welds

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