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The Development of ESP

Lecturer : Dwi Agustina


Umar Hendi Prasetiyo

NPM: 0916011571





The Development of ESP

1. The Concept of Special Language: Register Analysis

This is the first stage development of ESP that the English, of, say, Electrical

Engineering constituted a specific register different from registers such Biology or of

General English. The aim of this stage is to identify the grammatical and lexical


So, in this stage or the first development of ESP just analyze grammatical and

vocabulary items. In the other word, in this stage we just study about the basic

language of English.

2. Beyond the Sentence: Rhetorical or Discourse Analysis

In second stage of development ESP become closely involved with the

emerging field of discourse or rhetorical analysis. Unlike register analysis, which

focuses on the singular sentence, discourse analysis focuses instead on the broad and

general use of language within and between particular individual groups of people.

Also, grammarians typically construct the examples they analyze while analysis of

discourse relies on the writings of many others to determine popular usage.

In Register Analysis, focussed on sentence grammar, but in Rhetorical or

Discourse Analysis, the attention and focus is to understanding how sentences were

combined in discourse to produce meaning.

So, in this stage we don’t need to study grammar hard. We just study to make

sentence that can make other people understand. It’s enough for us to deliver the meaning

without using grammatical features.

3. Target Situation Analysis (Need Analysis)

In this stage, Target Situation Analysis also known as Need Analysis. But

according to chambers (1980) term of “Target Situation Analysis” it’s more accurate

description of the process concerned.

The aim of this stage is to take the existing knowledge and set it on a more

scientific basis, by establishing procedures for relating language analysis more closely

to learner’s reasons for learning.

So, in this stage is about what students nee, or to know why they study ESP.

4. Skills and Strategies

The fourth stage of development of ESP has seen an attempt to look below

the surface and to consider not the languange itself but the thinking processes that

underlie languange use. The principal idea behind the skill-centred approach is that

underlying all languange use there are common reasoning and interpreting processes,

which, regardless of the surface forms, enable the students to extract meaning from


The focus should be on underlying interpretive strategies, which enable the

learner to cope with the surface forms, for example guessing the meaning of words

from context, using visual layout to determine the type of text, exploiting cognates

(words which are similar in the mother tongue and the target languange).

So, in this stage we learn to improve our skills in English (Speaking, Writing,

Reading, Listening) and strategies to face new word that we don’t know before.

5. A Learning-Centered Approach

All stages above they are all based on descriptions of language use. Whether

this description is of surface forms, as in the case of register analysis, or of underlying

processes, as in the skills and strategies approach, the concern in each case is with

describing what people do with languange. A trully vaid approach to ESP must be

based on an understanding of the processes of languange learning.

So, in this stage we study in learning process to know better about ESP and

how to apply in the future.


In five stage of development of ESP has own advantages and disadvantages ,and I

think the best stage that student must mastering is skills and strategies, because we must

have skills and strategies to speak foreign language that we want to learn.