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Microwaves and radar system - Electronics (5) To couple two waveguides a choke flange may

Engineering test questions be used

(A) As it is simpler than any other method of joining


(1) Microwave energies propagate the length of the (B) To help the alignment of the waveguides
waveguide by __________ its side walls. (C) To compensate for discontinuities at the joint
(D) T increase the bandwidth of the system
(A) Refraction off
(B) Reflection off ANSWER: To compensate for discontinuities at the
(C) Moving off joint
(D) None of the above
(6) Standard mismatching in microwave circuits
have SWR from
ANSWER: Reflection off
(A) 1 : 0.5 to 2 : 1
(2) TRAPATT diode is preferred over IMPATT diode
(B) 1.2 : 1 to 2 : 1
because of
(C) 0.5 : 1 to 2 : 1
(D) 1.33 : 1 to 2 : 1
(A) High η
(B) Less sensitivity to harmonics ANSWER: 1.2 : 1 to 2 : 1
(C) Lower noise
(D) Ability to operate at higher frequencies (7) The waveguide tuning component, which is not
easily adjustable, is

ANSWER: High η (A) Screw


(B) Iris
(3) Two entities that are combined to form a Magic
(C) Stub
Tee are
(D) Plunger
(A) One H? and two E plane tees
(B) One H? and one E plane tee ANSWER: Iris
(C) Two H? and two plane tees
(D) Two H? and one E plane tee (8) Operating frequency of the reflex klystron is as
high as
View Answer / Hide Answer
(A) 70,000 MHz
ANSWER: Two H? and one E plane tee (B) 50,000 MHz
(C) 20,000 MHz
(4) Which one of the following device behaviour is
(D) 10,000 MHz
governed by bulk effect?

ANSWER: 10,000 MHz


(A) IMPATT diode
(B) Gunn diode (9) Let the peak power = 10,00,000 W and average
(C) Tunnel diode power = 800 W. The duty cycle will be
(D) PIN diode
(A) 0.008 %
(B) 0.8 %
ANSWER: Gunn diode
(C) 0.08 %
(D) 8 % (D) Multi-cavity klystron

ANSWER: 0.08 % ANSWER: BWO

(10) The microwave tube that uses buncher and (15) The microwave tube amplifier that uses an
catcher cavities is axial magnetic field and radial electric field is

(A) Klystron (A) Reflex klystron


(B) Magnetron (B) CFA
(C) Reflex klystron (C) Coaxial magnetron
(D) Travelling-wave tube (D) Travelling wave magnetron

View Answer / Hide Answer View Answer / Hide Answer

ANSWER: Klystron ANSWER: CFA

(12) A frequency at which microwave ovens (16) Which of the following materials are generally
operate is preferred for waveguides?

(A) 50 μHz (A) Cast iron and steel


(B) 2.45 GHz (B) Non metallic solids including plastic
(C) 3.3 GHz (C) High carbon steel and vanadium steel
(D) 4.5 GHz (D) Brass and aluminium

ANSWER: Brass and aluminium


ANSWER: 2.45 GHz
(17) Which of the following statement is false? In
(13) In the repeller space of a reflex klystron, the microwave tubes Transit time will be reduced if
transit time must be n + ¾ cycle to ensure that
(A) The electrodes are brought closer together
(A) It is equal to the period of the cavity (B) Multiple or coaxial leads are used
oscillations (C) The anode voltage is made larger
(B) The repeller is not damaged by striking (D) The anode current is made larger
electrons
(C) Returning electrons has given energy to the gap ANSWER: Multiple or coaxial leads are used
oscillations
(D) Electrons are accelerated by the gap voltage on (18) With a parabolic reflector cassegrain feed is
their return used to

ANSWER: Returning electrons has given energy to (A) Increase the system beam width
the gap oscillations (B) Increase the system gain
(C) Allow the feed to be placed at convenient point
(14) ___________ is unlikely to be used as a pulsed (D) Reduce the main reflector size
device
View Answer / Hide Answer
(A) BWO
(B) TWT
(C) CFA
ANSWER: Allow the feed to be placed at convenient (A) 10
point (B) 8
(C) 4
(D) 1

View Answer / Hide Answer

(19) What is the primary purpose of the helix in a


travelling wave tube?
ANSWER: 1
(A) To reduce noise figure
(B) To prevent the electron beam from spreading in
the long tube
(C) To reduce the axial velocity of the RF field
(D) To ensure broadband operation
(22) Sea clutter returns occur

View Answer / Hide Answer


(A) Due to reflections from land
(B) Due to reflections from rain clouds
(C) At short ranges
ANSWER: To reduce the axial velocity of the RF field (D) None of the above

View Answer / Hide Answer

(20) In a magnetron why does the electrons travel ANSWER: At short ranges
in a cycloidal path?

(A) Strong field is supplied by the permanent


magnet
(B) The cathode is positive
(23) A control voltage is produced in an AFC to
(C) The anode is negative
control the frequency of
(D) The cavities are resonant
(A) Local oscillators
View Answer / Hide Answer
(B) Magnetrons
(C) Wobbulator
(D) PRF generator
ANSWER: Strong field is supplied by the permanent
magnet View Answer / Hide Answer

ANSWER: Local oscillators

(21) In one resolution of the scanner the number of


heading marker lines produced will be
(24) For IFF the one that is used is ANSWER: √A

(A) Ordinary radar


(B) Beacon
(C) CW radar
(D) MTI (27) Let the generator’s transmitting frequency be 3
GHz. A target is moving radially towards generator
View Answer / Hide Answer with a velocity of 360 Km/hour. The frequency of
the target will be

ANSWER: Beacon (A) 1 KHz


(B) 1.5 KHz
(C) 2 KHz
(D) 300 Hz

View Answer / Hide Answer


(25) From the options given below which one is not
a display method?

(A) Computer feeding ANSWER: 2 KHz


(B) PPI
(C) A scope
(D) Monopulse conical scanning

View Answer / Hide Answer (28) Aircraft surveillance radars mostly operate in

(A) C band
ANSWER: Monopulse conical scanning (B) S band
(C) L band
(D) X band

View Answer / Hide Answer

(26) Consider a radar having the capture area of


receiving antenna A. The maximum range will be
proportional to ANSWER: L band

(A) √A
(B) 1 / √A
(C) A
(D) A² (29) On which factor the maximum range of radar
depends?
View Answer / Hide Answer
(A) Pulse duration
(B) Pulse energy
(C) Pulse frequency
(D) None of the above (32) In a radar when the return echo arrives after
the allocated pulse interval, then
View Answer / Hide Answer
(A) The receiver will get overloaded
(B) It may interfere with the operation of the
transmitter
ANSWER: Pulse energy
(C) The target will appear closer than it really is
(D) It will not be received

View Answer / Hide Answer

(30) To track and target the location precisely


retards operate in
ANSWER: The target will appear closer than it really
is
(A) S band
(B) L band
(C) D band
(D) None of the above

View Answer / Hide Answer (33) What is the cause of “second time around”
echoes?

(A) Echoes that arrive after transmission of the next


ANSWER: S band
pulse
(B) Extreme ends of bandwidth
(C) Second time reflection from target
(D) Echoes returning from targets beyond the
cathode ray tube range
(31) In a MTI radar, the quartz delay line is used to
View Answer / Hide Answer
(A) Match the phase of COHO and output oscillator
(B) Match the phase of COHO and STALO
(C) Match the signal with echo
ANSWER: Echoes that arrive after transmission of
(D) Subtract a complete scan from previous scan
the next pulse

View Answer / Hide Answer

ANSWER: Subtract a complete scan from previous


(34) The remedy for the problem of “blind speed “
scan
is

(A) Variation of PRF


(B) Use of monopulse
(C) Use of MTI
(D) Change in Doppler frequency (A) Visually operated radar
(B) Voltage output of regulator
View Answer / Hide Answer (C) VHF omni range
(D) None of the above

View Answer / Hide Answer


ANSWER: Variation of PRF

ANSWER: VHF omni range

(35) Let the cross-section of a target is changing. In


this case tracking is generally done by

(A) Duplex scanning (38) What will be the value of PRT when PRF =1500
(B) Monopulse Hz?
(C) Duplex switching
(D) Any of the above (A) 5000 μsec
(B) 666 μsec
View Answer / Hide Answer (C) 1200 μsec
(D) 60 μsec

View Answer / Hide Answer


ANSWER: Monopulse

ANSWER: 666 μsec

(36) In MTI radar, COHO operates

(A) Pulse repetition frequency


(B) At supply frequency (39) In synchronization with the antenna, the
(C) Station frequency deflection coils must be rotated to ensure correct
(D) At intermediate frequency
(A) Bearing of target displayed
View Answer / Hide Answer (B) Range of target displayed
(C) Frequency of transmission
(D) Amplitude of echoes

ANSWER: At intermediate frequency


View Answer / Hide Answer

ANSWER: Bearing of target displayed


(37) VOR stands for
a) Lumped circuit elements
b) Distributed circuit elements
(40) Let the maximum range of radar be doubled c) Both a) and b)
with all the other factors remaining constant. The d) None of the above
peak power must be increased
Ans: Option b)
(A) 32 fold
(B) 4 fold 5. Short term fading in microwave communication
(C) 16 fold links can be overcome by
(D) 8 fold a) Increasing the transmitted power
b) Changing the antenna
View Answer / Hide Answer c) Changing the modulation scheme
d) Diversity reception and transmission

Ans: Option d)
ANSWER: 16 fold

6. For handling large microwave power, the best


medium is
1. A reflex Klystron fuctions as a) Coaxial line
a) Microwave oscillator b) Rectangular waveguide
b) Microwave amplifier c) Stripline
c) Both as Microwave amplifier and oscillator d) Circular waveguide
d) A high gain cavity
Ans: Option b)
Ans: Option a)
7. A Microwave tube amplifier uses an axial
2. The modes in a reflex Klystron magnetic field and radial electric field. This is the
a) give the same frequency but different transit a) Reflex Klystron
times b) Coaxial Magnetron
b) result from excessive transit time across the c) Travelling wave magnetron
resonator gap d) CFA-Crossed Field Amplifier
c) are caused by spurious frequency modulation
d) are just for theoretical considerations Ans: Option d)

Ans: Option a) 8. A disadvantage of microstrips with respect to


stripline circuit is that the former:
a) Do not let themselves to be printed-circuits
3. Klystron operates on the principle of b) Are more likely to radiate
a) Amplitude Modulation c) Are bulkier
b) Frequency Modulation d) Are more expensive and complex to manufacture
c) Pulse Modulation
d) Velocity Modulation Ans: Option d)

And: Option d) 9. Most of the power measuring microwave devices


measure
4. In Microwave we take the elements as a) Average power
b) Peak power a) For electronic tuning
c) Instantaneous power b) for frequency multiplication
d) None of these c) as an oscillator
d) As a parametric amplifier
Ans: Option a)
Ans: Option c)
10. HEMT used in microwave circuit is a
a) Source 15. The negative resistance in a tunnel diode
b) High power amplifier a) is maximum at the peak point of the
c) Detector characteristic
d) Low noise Amplifier b) is available between the peak and valley points
c) is maximum at valley point
Ans: Option d) d) may be improved by the use of reverse bias

11. Ionospheric preparation is not possible for Ans: Option b)


microwaves because
a) Microwaves will be fully absorbed by the 16. Which one of the following is a transferred
ionospheric layers electron device?
b) There will be an abrupt scattering in all a) BARITT diode
directions b) IMPATT diode
c) Microwave will penetrate through the c) Gunn diode
ionospheric layers d) Step recovery diode
d) There will be dispersion of microwave energy
Ans: Option c)
Ans: Option c)
17. A PIN diode is suitable for use as a
12. A waveguide section in a microwave circuit will a) Microwave switch
act as a b) Microwave mixed diode
a) Low-pass filter c) Microwave detector
b) Band-pass filter d) None of these
c) High-pass filter
d) Band-reject filter Ans: Option a)

Ans: Option c) 18. The semiconductor diode which can be used in


switching circuits at microwave range is
13. The biggest advantage of the TRAPATT diode a) PIN diode
over the IMPATT diode is its b) Tunnel diode
a) Low noise c) Varactor diode
b) Higher efficiency d) Gunn diode
c) Ability to operate at higher frequencies
d) Lesser sensitivity to harmonics Ans: Option a)

Ans: Option b) 19. Microwave antenna aperture efficiency


depends on
14. A varactor diode may not be useful at a) Feed Pattern
microwave frequencies b) Antenna Aperture
c) Surface losses amplification of microwave energy?
d) Low side lobe level a) Travelling wave tube
b) Magnetron
Ans: Option b) c) Reflex Klystron
d) Gunn diode
20. The noise produced in a microwave tube due to
random nature of emission and electron flow is Ans: Option a)
called
a) Partition noise 25. In microwave power measurements using
b) Shot noise bolometer, the principle of working is the variation
c) Johnson noise of
d) Shannon noise a) Inductance with absorption of power
b) Resistance with absorption of power
Ans: Option b) c) Capacitance with absorption of power
d) Cavity dimensions with heat generated by the
21. A duplexer is used power
a) To couple two different antennas to a
transmitter without mutual interference Ans: Option b)
b) To allow one antenna to be used for reception or
transmission without mutual interference 26. In π mode operation of magnetron, the spokes
c) To prevent interference between two antennas due to phase focusing effect rotate at an angular
when they are connected to a receiver velocity corresponding to
d) To increase the speed of the pulses in pulsed a) One pole/cycle
radar b) Two poles/cycle
c) Four poles/cycle
Ans: Option b) d) Six poles/cycle

22. One of the reasons why vacuum tubes Ans: Option b)


eventually fail at microwave frequencies is that
their 27. For Gunn diodes, gallium arsenide is preferred
a) Noise figure increases to silicon because the former
b) Transit time becomes too short a) Has a suitable empty energy band, which silicon
c) Shunt capacitive reactances become too large does not have
d) Series inductive reactances become too small b) Has a higher ion mobility
c) Has a lower noise at the highest frequencies
Ans: Option a) d) Is capable of handling higher power densities

23.A magic-Tee is nothing but Ans: Option a)


a) A modification of E-plane tee
b) A modification of H-plane tee 28. For best low-level noise performance in the X-
c) A combination of E-Plane and H-Plane band an amplifier should use
d) Two E-plane tees connected in parallel a) A bipolar transistor
b) A Gunn diode
Ans: Option c) c) A step recovery diode
d) An IMPATT diode
24. Which of the following can be used for
Ans: Option c) important at microwave frequencies
a) Shot noise
29. Travelling wave parametric amplifiers are used b) Flicker noise
to c) Thermal noise
a) provide a greater gain d) Transit time noise
b) reduce the number of varactor diodes required
c) avoid the need for cooling Ans: Option d)
d) provide a greater bandwidth
35. The phenomenon of microwave signals
Ans: Option d) following the curvature of earth is known as
a) Faraday effect
30. The major advantage of TWT over Klystron b) Ducting
a) higher gain c) Wave tilt
b) higher frequency d) Troposcatter
c) higher output
d) higher bandwidth Ans: Option b)

Ans: Option d) 36. The front end of an amplifier chain in


manufacture of a communication system is kept
31. Microwave frequency range extends from immersed in liquid nitrogen to
a) 3 MHz to 30 MHz a) Dissipate heat generated by amplifier
b) 30 MHz to 300 MHz b) Expand the frequency response
c) 300 MHz to 3000 MHz c) Improve its noise figure
d) 500 MHz to 30000 MHz d) reduce the distortion by the amplifier

Ans: Option d) Ans: Option c)

32. Due to curvature of earth, microwave repeaters 37. In microwave communication links, the rain
are placed at a distance of about drop attenuation experienced is mainly due to
a) 10 Km a) Absorption of microwave energy by water
b) 50 Km vapour
c) 150 Km b) resonance absorption of atomic vibration in
d) 250 Km water molecules
c) scattering of microwaves by collection of water
Ans: Option b) drops
d) refraction of microwaves through liquid-drop
33. At microwave frequencies the size of the lenses formed by rain
antenna becomes
a) Very large Ans: Option a)
b) Large
c) Small
d) Very Small

Ans: Option d)

34. Which of the following noise becomes