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SMALL WONDERS

SR.SEC.SCHOOL
JABALPUR

A CHEMISTRY PROJECT

AIM--
“STUDY OF THE OXALATE ION
CONTENT IN GUAVA FRUIT”

Submitted in the partial Fulfilment of the


requirement for CBSE 2013-2014

Submitted By-
SHUBHANGI JAISWAL
Of Class “XII” B
CONTENTS
# INTRODUCTION

# OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT #

REQUIREMENTS

# THEORY

# CHEMICAL EQUATIONS #

PROCEDURE

# PRECAUTIONS

# OBSERVATIONS

# CALCULATIONS

# CONCLUSION

# BIBLIOGRAPHY
STUDY OF OXALATE ION
CONTENT IN GUAVA FRUIT

INTRODUCTION

Guava is sweet, juicy and light or dark green coloured


fruit. It is cultivated in all parts of India. When ripe it
acquires yellow colour and has penetrating strong scent.
The fruit is rich in vitamin C and minerals. It is a rich
source of oxalate and its content in the fruit varies during
different stages of ripening.
Guava fruit, usually 4 to 12 cm long, are round or oval
depending on the species. The outer skin may be rough,
often with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet. Varying
between species, the skin can be any thickness, is usually
green before maturity, but becomes yellow, maroon, or
green when ripe.
Guava fruit generally have a pronounced and typical
fragrance, similar to lemon rind but less sharp. Guava
pulp may be sweet or sour, off-white ("white" guavas) to
deep pink ("red" guavas), with the seeds in the central
pulp of variable number and hardness, again depending
on specie .
WHAT IS OXALATE?
Oxalate is an organic acid, primarily found in plants,
animals and humans. It is not an essential molecule and
is excreted from our body in an unchanged form. Our
body either produces oxalate on its own or it converts
other molecules like vitamin C to oxalate. External
sources like the foods we eat also contribute to the
accumulation of oxalate in our body. The oxalate present
in the body is excreted in our urine as a waste. Too much
of oxalate in our urine, results in a medical condition
called as hyperoxaluria, commonly referred to as kidney
stones. Diet is looked upon as a preventive measure in
addition to medicines to treat kidney stones. Read more
on what causes kidney stones.
OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT

In this project, we will learn to test for the


presence of oxalate ions in the guava fruit and
how its amount varies during different stages of
ripening.
REQUIREMENTS
MATERIALS REQUIRED

# 100 ml Measuring Flask Pestle and Mortar

# Pestle And Mortar

#Beaker

#Titration Flask
# Funnel
# Burtte

#Pipette

#Weight Box

#Filter Papers

#Guava Fruits
CHEMICALS REQUIRED

--Dilute H2SO4

--N/20 KMnO4 solution


THEORY
Oxalate ions are extracted from the fruit by boiling pulp
with dil. H2SO4. Then oxalate ions are estimated
volumetrically by titrating the solution with standard
KMnO4 solution.
Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative
chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown
concentration of a known reactant. Because volume
measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known
as volumetric analysis. A reagent, called the titrant or
titrator, of a known concentration (a standard solution)
and volume is used to react with a solution of the analyte
or titrand, whose concentration is not known. Using a
calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe to add
the titrant, it is possible to determine the exact amount
that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached.
The endpoint is the point at which the titration is
complete, as determined by an indicator (see below). This
is ideally the same volume as the equivalence point—the
volume of added titrant at which the number of moles of
titrant is equal to the number of moles of analyte, or
some multiple thereof (as in polyprotic acids). In the
classic strong acid-strong base titration, the endpoint of a
titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is
just about equal to 7.
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

Molecular Equations -

2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 ---------------------- K2SO4 +


2MnSO4 + 2H2O + 4[O]
HOOC-COOH.2H2O +[O] --------------------- 2CO2 +
2H2O x 5 Co7060

3KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 +5 HOOC-COOH.2H2O


--------------------- K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 18H2O +
10CO

#Ionic Equations
MnO4- +16H+ + 5e ---------------------- Mn2+ + 4H2O
x2
C2O4 --------------------- 2CO2 + 2e- x 5
2MnO4- + 16H+ + 5C2O42 - --------------------- 2Mn2+
+8H2O + 10CO2
PROCEDURE

1. Weigh 50.0g of fresh guava and crush it to a fine pulp


using pestle-mortar.

2. Transfer the crushed pulp to beaker and add about 50


ml dil. H2SO4 to it
3. Boil the contents for about 10 minutes.
4. Cool and filter the contents in a 100 ml measuring
flask. Make the volume upto 100 ml by adding distilled
water.
5. Take 20 ml of the solution from the measuring flask
into a titration flask and add 30 ml of dilute sulphuric
acid to it.

6. Heat the mixture to about 60oC and titrate it against


KMnO4 solution taken in a burette. The end point is
appearance of permanent light-pink colour.

7. Repeat the above experiment with 50.0 g of 1, 2 and 3


days old guava fruit.
PRECAUTIONS

1. KMnO4 solution is always taken in the burette.

2. Avoid the use of burette having a rubber tap as KMnO4


attacks rubber.

3. In order to get some idea about the temperature of the


solution touch the flask to the back side of your hand.
When it becomes unbearable to touch, the required
temperature is reached.

4. Add about an equal volume of dil. H2SO4 to the guava


extract to be titrated (say a full test tube) before adding
KMnO4 .

5. Read the upper meniscus while taking burette reading


with KMnO4 solution.

6. In case, on addition of KMnO4 a brown ppt. appears,


this shows that either H2SO4 has not been added or has
been added in insufficient amount. In such a case, throw
away the solution and titrate again.
OBSERVATIONS
--Weight of guava fruit taken each time = 50.0 g

Volume of guava extract taken in each titration = 20.0 ml

--N ormality of KMnO4 solution = N

Guava Initial Final Volume Strength


extract reading reading of the of
From of the of the N/20 Oxalate
burette burette KMnO4
solution
(ml)

Fresh
Guava

One Day
Old
Guava
CALCULATIONS
For fresh guava

N1.V1(guava extract) = N2.V2 (KMnO4 solution)

Normality of oxalate, N1 = X/200

Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract


= Normality x Eq. mass of oxalate ion

= X/200 x 44 g/litre of the diluted extract

Normality of oxalate, N1 =X/200


Strength of oxalate in one day guava extract
= Normality x Eq. mass of oxalate ion
=X/200 x 44 g/litre of the diluted extract

“Similarly, calculate the strength of oxalate in 1,


2 and 3 days old guava extract and interpret the
result.”
CONCLUSION

The concentration of the oxalate ion increases with


increase with ripening.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF APPLIED


SCIENCE:
http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/aug102001/
248.pdf

2. www.wikipedia.org

3. Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for


Class XII
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this dissertation titled
“STUDY OF QUANTITY OF CAESIN
PRESENT IN DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF
MILK” submitted by SHUBHANGI JAISWAL

to Chemistry department of SMALL


WONDER SENIOR SEC. SCHOOL
JABALPUR, was carried under guidance and
supervision during the academic year 2013-
2014.

Principal Mrs..
SANGEETA GROVER
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks
to the Principal, Ms. SANGEETA GROVER, SMALL
WONDER SENIOR SEC. SCHOOL, JABALPUR for her
encouragement and for all the facilities that she
provided for this project work. I sincerely appreciate this
magnanimity by taking me into her fold for which I
shall remain indebted to her. I extend my hearty thanks
to Mrs. SHRADDHA SONI, chemistry teacher, who
guided me to the successful completion of this project.
I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of
gratitude for his invaluable guidance, constant
encouragement, constructive comments, sympathetic
attitude and immense motivation, which has sustained
my efforts at all stages of this project work.

SHUBHANGI JAISWAL
DECLARATION

I do hereby declare that this project work has


been originally carried under the guidance and
supervision of Mrs. SHRADDHA SONI, head
of chemistry department, SMALL WONDER
SENIOR SEC. SCHOOL, JABALPUR